Skip to main content

Full text of "A System of the anatomy of the human body : illustrated by upwards of two hundred tables, taken partly from the most celebrated authors, and partly from nature"

See other formats


SYSTEM 



ANATOMY 



HUMAN BODY. 



A 

SYSTEM 



OF THE 

19 1 

ANATOMY 



HUMAN BODY; 

ILLUSTRATED BY 

UPWARDS OF TWO HUNDRED TABLES, TAKEN PARTLY FROM THE 
MOST CELEBRATED AUTHORS, 



PARTLY FROM NATURE. 



By ANDREW FYFE. 



IN THREE VOLUMES. 

THIRD EDITION, CONSIDERABLY ENLARGED AND IMPROVED. 



EDINBURGH; 
Printed by J. Pillam $ Sciti 



CONTENTS 
THIRD VOLUME. 



OF THE BLOOD-VESSELS. 



Pag- 

Ok the Blood.Vessels in general, .... 3 

Distribution of the Blood-Vessels, .... 6 

Of the Pulmonary Artery and Feins, . . ib. 

General Course of the Aorta and Vena Cava, ib. 

Blood-Vessels of the Head, and part of those of 

the Neck, 7 

The remaining Blood~Vessels of the Neck, with 

those of the Superior Extremity in general, 28 
Blood-Vessels within the Thorax, .... 42 



Blood- Vessels of the Diaphragm, ■ . . . ' 

■ of the Chylopoietic and Assistant 

C'hylopoietic Viscera, ...'-. 
of the Organs of Urine and Ge- 



- of the Containing Parts of the 
Abdomen, and of the Pelvis and 
Inferior Extremity, . . . It 



PART VI. 

OF THE ABSORBENT SYSTEM. 

. . . . 83 1| Of the Particular Absorbents, 



part vn. 

OF THE NERVES. 



Of the Nerves 

Distribution of the Nerves, 120 

Nerves which pass through the Base of the 

Cranium, ib. 

Spinal Marrow, and Origin of the Spina! Nerves, III 
Nerves of the Neck and Superior Extremity, 115 

within the Thorax, 1 54 

of the Chi/lupnii lie an:! A^i^lunt Chy- 
lopoietic Viscera, 165 



_Y< 



: of the Organs of I r 



of the Loins, Pclv 

Names of the Authors/™™ whom the Tab 
this \Vork have been taken, . . . . 



and Genera- 
Inferior Ex. 



Index, 19," 



OF THE BLOOD-VESSELS IN GENERAL. 



TILE Blood-vessels are divided into Arteries and In the large Arteries, this Coat is frequently furnished 

Veins. with Fat, and is of a very elastic nature. Owing tu 
this elasticity, the Arteries, in receiving the Blood from 
the Heart, become dilated and elongated, and start front 

Arteries. their p]acej wilich , oni)S (ue p u j st . y caUe <i atso t i lc Dias- 

tale or the Arteries. 

The Arteries are Elastic Canals, which convey the The Second, or Middle, or Muscular Coat, is coin- 
Blood from the Heart to the different parts of the Body, posed of Fibres running in a transverse direction, — of a 
and are distinguished from (lie Veins by their Pulsation, pale red colour ; — each Fibre appearing to form only the 

The original Trunks of the Arteries, or those which Segment of a Circle, although die whole constitutes a 

arise from the Heart, are two in number, — the Pulmo- Cylinder round the Artery. 

nary Artery and Aorta. From these all the other Arte- The Fibres of the Second Coat are closely compacted 

ries are derived. together, and formed into Layers, which can be separated 

The Arteries are dispersed over the whole Body, and from each other, especially in the Great Arteries, and 

are every where surrounded with Cellular Substance. still more particular!) in those of large Animals. 

The Principal Trunks run in such parts of the Body By the contractility of this, and the elastic nature of 

as are least exposed to danger, deriving support or de- the former Coat, the Arteries are enabled to drive the 

fence from the Hones along which they pass. Blood to the Veins, in proportion as they receive it from 

The largest Arteries arc in general deep-seated, while the Heart ; — and this Contraction i> called the Systole of 

the smaller Brain lies run more superficially ; on the con- the Arteries. 

trary, many of the large "Veins, particularly those of The Third, or Inner Coat, is formed of a transparent 

the Muscles, run directly under the Skin, while Veins Membrane, remarkably thin, smooth, and dense, by which 

of inferior size are found in the deeper pan-, of the the Blood is pre vented from transuding. 
Body. 

The largest Arteries go to the T'/tccra, within the Great each other by fine Cellular Substance, which some Au- 
Cavities, the smaller ones to the Skin 
those still smaller to the Bones, and. 
they become mi extremely minute as allogetl 
i he red Hlooil, carrying a colourless Flui 

The Arteries, when empty, are distill: 
Veins, by the whiteness of their colour - , 





'The dilfeieut Coats of the Arteries 


are conneete 


within the Great 


each other by line Cellular Substance 


, which some 


id Mmc/es, and 


tbors have considered as formiiiq so ma 


nv Lamellic. 




The Arteries are supplied with tliei 


[ oivn BIuckI- 


^thcr to exclude 


sels, termed Vma Vaaorum, which cm 


ne from the n 


d only. 


est small Branches, and are even .via 


:re dispersed i 



tail Met 



OF THE BLOOD-VESSELS IN GENERAL. 



to be newly one half larger than the Area of the Trunk other Ar 
fiom vhkh they issue, though tins has been differently vend rim 
stated by different Authors. mm -«j 0™ 

When the Trunk and Branches of an Artery are —- 
yarded collectively, they appear evidently of a Cm 
figure ; the point of the Cone being formed by the Tr 
and the Basis by the Branches of the Artery. 

The Section of the Arteries is circular ;— when en 
they become flat, but recover their round form upon 
ing distended by injection. 

The Angles at uhicli the Branches go off from 
Trunks vary in different parts of the Body ; they a 
general more obtuse or acute, iu proportion to thei 
ciuity to the Heart, and are such as are most favourable The Hi 
to the parts they have to supply. 

In the Trunk of the Body, or whe 
tender and delicate Viscera, the Angle: 



ilill' rail 
,b, place 


IIIIIII11U-, 1)1 

if Taw 01 


"r"" 


',; "' " ,L " 


Diiimtlu 


'.'of the di 

,„ MUKll 1 



they belong to but those of the Capill 



the former ' 
circumstance tending to dimini-li, and the latter to in- tht 
crease, the force of the Blood. 

The Arteries form many divisions and subdivisions, Mi 
.something like the Branching of a Tree, before they 
reach their Terminations, and at last become invisible to 
the naked Eye. 



icular names from their 
xl. and the term CapiU 

iess, is applied to their 

t Trunks and Branches 
rent parts of the Body , 

are nearly equal lo each 

i which the Arteries of 



Body terminate, viz. 
n Bed Veins, as is observed by the 
.roscope and by Injections: 

In Glands or Follicles, by Set retory Ducts, which s 
parate a. Fluid from the general Mass of Blood: 



The divisions formed by any single Artery have been 

variously enumerated by different Authors, — one, in par- of the Body, to lubricate these. 
ticular, reckoning them at forty, and another, of equal In colourless or Lymphatic Branches, which a 

respectability, only at twenty ; their number, however, wards continued to the Circulating Veins, as in 

is such as to allow them to supply the most minute parts tilages and Cornea, 
of the Body. In the Peuis and Clitoris, the Arterie 

The strength of the Arteries depends npon the thick- Cells, 
ness of their Coats, which is found to vary in different The Use of the Arteries is,— 

Arteries. — In the Aorta, the Coats are thick and strong ; To convey Blood from the Heart to the different parts 

— in the Arteries of the Brain and Spleen, they are thin of the Body : 
mder; — but the thickness and consequent strength 



; of the 



e proportionally greater in the small Branches than i 
the large Trunks. 

The Arteries run more or less in a waving directio; 
which breaks the force of the Blood in them, and pn 
vents them from being strained by the mot 
parts to which they belong. 

The Flexions are most frequent in Arterit 
to parts, the size aud situation of which are changeable 
as in the Lips, Uterus, &c. 

The Windings of many of the Arteries are in propor- 
tion to the degree in winch tiny are distended ; those 
which lire nearly straight in their natural state, frequent- 
ly becoming sei-pintine wln-n their distension is increased, 



Fluidity of the Blood, and 
the Heat and £ife of the Body : 

To form the different Secretions ; and. 

To renew the Growth of Parts destroyed by Accident 



Several of the large Arteries form communications verse when . <hish1<i 

with each other, termed by Anatomists Anastomoses ,■ those of the .Arteries 

but the Anastomoses are mine frequent among the small allv, in the small lir; 
Branches, where they form a Plexus which lessens the In the large Veins 

danger of obstruction. be separated from ea 

i Trunk ; in their sepal 



- Coats, like 
:ker, however, proportion- 
n iu the Trunks. 
Vena Cava, the Coats can 
but in the small Branches 



others, they form an Arch, from the 



t side of which 



OF THE BLOOD-VES.SELS IN GENERAL. 



hilar Substance, much thinner, and mo: 
that of the Arteries, has occasioned its 
denied by many Authors. 

The Vein^ are also furnished with t tic i 



closed or applied to each othi 
whaL like that of the shut. cut 



similar to, and from the same source with those of the 
Arteries. 

The Colour of the Veins is bluish, and when full of 
Blood, in consequence of their thinness, they appear of a. 
purple tinge. 

'1 heir size is generally more than double that of the 
Arteries to which they belong ; excepting the Pulmonary 
Veins, the size of which scarcely surpasses that of the 
corresponding Arteries, 

In the Fleshy parts of the Body, particularly in the 
Extremities, tlicy consist of two Sets ; one Deip-.seatcd, 
accompanying the Arteries 'lie other running immediate- 
ly under the Skin, and termed Subcutaneous. 

The Veins of the Thoracic and Abdominal Viscera, 
generally accompany their Arteries ; and the same is ob- 
servable in the small Branches belonging to Membranous 

The Figure of the Veins is similar to that of the Ar- 
teries ; and, upon comparing the Area of their Trunks 
with the collective Area of their Branches, like them, 
too, they are perceived to be Conical ; the Base of the 
Cone being formed by the Branches, and the Apex by 
the Trunks. 

The size and number of the Veins is in general so much 
greater than that of their corresponding Arteries, that 
when the Vessels of a Membranous Part are distended by 
Injections of different colours, the Veins are observed in 
a great measure to conceal the Arteries : In the It 
however, the number of the Arteries and Veins 

There is much greater variety among the Trunks of 
Veins, with respect to situation and division into Branch- 
es, than is observable among the Arteries. 

The variety in Nature, in this respect, is such, that 
the Veins of every Subject differ a little from those of 
another. 

The Veins are capable of suffering greater distension 
than the Arteries, yet are more frequently ruptured. 

The Anastomoses are greater and more frequent in 
Veins than in Arteries, the Blood being more in danger 
of an interruption in the former. 

The Communications of the Veins are often by large 
Trunks, whereas those of the Arteries, excepting in a 
few places, are by small Brandies only. 

Where the Veins are exposed to Muscular action, they 
are furnished with Valves, which are Semilunar Folds 
continued from the inner side of the Vessels, and placed 
in pairs at irregular distances. 



Between the Val 
Heart, the Blood 
formed, termed Sim 
ternally in the form 



They are wanting in the Veins 
Viscera, viz. in those of the Brain 
in those of the Lungs, in the Systen 
and in those of the Kidneys, Bladdei 

Internal Mammary Veins, and in I 
Vena Azygos. 

The Valves direct the Blood ton 
prevent Regurgitation. Ihci arc i 
so nicely adapted to each nib i, ■ 
after death from passing by the Tnu 
their extremities. 



imities of 
. the Ab- 



5 nearly 



sorbeuts to the Heart. 

The Blood has a Saponaceous feel, a Saliue taste, a 
perceptible odour, and emits a Wat en lialiius. When 
in the state as circulating through the Ho.lv, if it be ex- 
posed to the Microscope, it has the appearance of Glo- 
luile-. dillused through a liquid. 

When taken from the Body, and allowed to stand for 
some tune, it separates into a Watery Fluid called Serum, 
and a Coagulum termed Clot, Crut/r, or CrasMittwiifiiin, of 
which there is commonly about three parts of the latter 
to one of the former. The Coagulum again i- separable 
into a red Colouring Matter, or the lied Globules of the 
Blood, and Gluten or Fibrin. 

The Serum is of a yellowish-green colour, slightly Al- 
kaline, containing Muiiate of Soda, and Phosphates of 
Soda and Lime, and about 12 per cent, of Albumen. 

The Crassamentum is of a dark red colour, acquiring, 
however, a more florid hue on exposure to the Air. 
When washed in Water, it is separated into the red Glo- 
bules, and the Fibrin, which is of a white colour, and of 
an elastic and Fibrous nature. 

The Colouring Matter is supposed to be composed of 
Albumen, Sub-phosphate of Iron, and perhaps Gelatin 
united with Soda. The Fibrin is insoluble in Water, 
but is dissolved by Acids and Alkalis. JCxposed to heat, 
it gives the usual Animal products. 



lHsTEIBVTiON 



C 6 ) 



DISTRIBUTION OF THE BLOOD-VESSELS, 

Of the Pulmonary Artery and Veins. of the Trachea, till it reaches the third Vertebra of the 
Back, forming what is liiiin.il Curvature or Arch of the. 

The Pulmonary Artery, nearly of the same size with Aorta. Tab. LXXXV. s, /. 

the Aorta, arises from the Bight Ventricle of the Heart, It then commences Aorta Descendens, which ruuj 

and ascends behind the Sternum, and within the Pericar- down close upon the Spine, till it reaches the fourth Ver- 

iliii'ii, inclining a lit! It io the left side. Tab. LXXXV. e,f. tebra of the Loins, where it divides into the two Him, 

Having rut! lis Iml.Ii a* ihe concave side of lite Arch of Arteries. Tab. CLXXXV. 

the Aorta, it divides into two Lateral Branches, which The Thoracic portion of the Aorta Descendens is si- 

terminate in the Right and Left Limy-. Tab. LXXXIII. tuated on the fore and left part of the Spine, between 

1 'jg. ) . /; /. the Layers of the Posterior Mediastinum. 

The Right Rr.im.li, u hich is the largest, passes behind Where it passes from the Thorax to the Abdomen, it 

the Curvature of the Aorla and the Superior Vena Cava, goes between the long Crura of the Diaphragm, after 

and is of course also the longer of the two. Tab. uliieh it descends mow 'immediately upon the fore part of 

LXXXV. Tab. LXXXIII. Fig. 1. (he Vertebra. 

The two Branches are dispersed throughout the Sub- The Aorta sends off Arteries which cany Blood to the 
stance of the Lungs, by H ami tie j I ions which accompany different p.m.. of the li<»h , from whence it is returned 
1 hose of the Bronchi, and, becoming gradually smaller, by Veins to the inferior and Superior Vena; Cava;, ex- 
terminate upon the Pulmonary Cells. cepting what passes by the Coronary Vessels. 

From the extreme Hianclies of ihe Pulmonary Arterv, The Inferior Cava is formed by the union of the two 

the Blood is returned by corresponding Veins. Vena: Eiaeae, upon the last Vertebra of the Loins, a little 

The Pulmonary l-iti.- run contig is to the Arteries, below llie leniuu.ilion of ihe Descending Aorta. 

but, unliLc the oilier Veins in general, axe nearly of the It is situated upon the fore part of the Spine, and at 

same size with their Arteries. the right side of the Aorta, which it accompanies a con- 

In their course they unite into larger Branches, which, siderable nay through the Abdomen. Tab. CLIX. 

:ilii r li urn', the Lnii:^, form lour principal Trunks, — Near the upper end of the Abdomen, it recedes from 

' '- '"■ He';. I tuo from the Left Lung, which, the Aorta, and passes behind the huge Lobe of the 

luml' nt ilieJfi.it, at i t ^ ujipei and lateral parts. ; of It perforates the Diaphragm in its Tendinous part, ;ind 



The Superior Cava, Tab. LXXXV. ( MX. formed 

bv the union of the two tiui \ u .l >u l ielaviie, with the 

(.,11,-ral t;ur,f of the Aorta ami Vena Cava. addition of the \eua A/vj...*,-i* ..^ad in the upper 

part of the Thorax, upon tl,i ri^ht ; idt of, and a lutle 



U |ievlcrates the Peri- 
iee tins spa.ee, it (Jttei- 
terminatlon of the lu- 

i Plnod from the Read, 



DISTRIBUTION OF THE BLOOD-VESSELs. 



Arteries. 

From Hie upper side of the Arch of the Aorta* three 
Large Arteries arise, which supply the Head, Neck, and 
Superior Extremities. 

Of these three Arteries, one on the right side, termed 
Innominala, or Communis, soou divides into the Right 
Carotid, and Right Subclavian Artery. Tab. LXXXV. *. 

The other two are the Left Carotid, and Left Subcla- 
vian, which come off in separate Trunks. Tab. CLVIII. 
Fig. 1. O, P. 

The above is the ordinary way in which the Carotids 
and Subclavians come off from the Aorta, but there is 
i ousidcrable variety in this respect ill different Bodies. 
Sometimes there are two common Trunks from which 
these Arteries take their rise ; at other times there are 
four original Arteries from the Aoita, and iu some rare 
cases, the Right Subclavian comes off from the left end 
of the Arch of the Aorta, and passes behind the Trachea. 

In some instances, the two Carotids come off from the 
Arteria Iuuominata. 

Carotid Arteries. — The Carotid Arteries, Tab. 
CLIX. after emerging from the Thorax, ascend upon the 
fore part of the Vertebrae, on each side of the Neck, be- 
tween the Trachea and Internal Jugular Veins, and be- 
hind the Stern o-mastoidei, gradually receding from each 
other, and getting upon (lie fore part of the Longus Colli, 
and Rectus' Capitis Interims Major, on each side. 

In the Neck, they do not send off any Branches (ill 
they reach the top of the Larynx, where each, opposite 
to the Os Hyoides, though in some rare instances much 
lower, divides Into l'.\ t.ri/a/ and Internal Carotid Arte- 
ries, Tab. CXXXI. the former supplying the upper 
part of the Neck, and the outer parts of the Head, the 
latter the Brain. 

In some very rare eases, the Common Carotid has been 
observed to divide mhM. nl\ into numerous small liraiicbcs. 

The External Carotid, sometimes termed Facial 
Carotid, is placed timiv anteriorly, and nearer the La- 
rynx, than the Interna/, which lies deeper, and is, at its 
root, the larger of the two. Tab. CXXXI. 

The External, though smaller than the other, appears 
as a continuation of the common Trunk. 

It runs up behind the Angle of the Lower -Taw, under 
the Digastric us- and Si\ lo-hvoideus, innards the Temple, 
and in its passage before the Ear, is sunk deep " 
stance of the Parotid Gland, which ' 
and is divided into the following pr 

The Akteria Lakyngea Superior, Guttural 
Superior, vel Tiiyroidea Supekioh, which comes t 
from the Root of the External Carotid, ami smnetim 
from the top of the Common Carotid. Tab. CXXXI. /. 



tioil, under the Omn-hyoideits and Stcnio-thyroideus, anil 
sends 

Branches to the Muscles under the Os Hyoides, and 
to the Bone itself, and Ligament connecting it to the 

Branches lo the Su-rim-mn-ioidens, I'latvsma Myoide-, 
Jugular Glands, and Skin near the Larynx : 

The Laryngeal Branch to (lie Cartilages, Muscles, 
and Membranes peculiar to the Larynx : 

The Thyroid Branch, which is the 



i of the 



the Thyroid (Jrauehos, however, are small 
compared with the rest. 

The Arteria Lingualis, Tab. CXXXI. v. Tab. 
CXXXIII. winch is sent oil' immcdialeh ahove the for- 
mer: — It runs near the Pharynx, first forwards and up- 
wards over the corresponding Cornu of the Os Hyoides, 
and under the Hyo-glossus, then in a direction towards 
llie miller anil lore pir! of I lie Tongue ■ — Jt gives 

A Small Branch to the Pharynx : 

A Branch, termed Ramus Ui/oitlcits, to the Muscles 
placed between the Tongue anil Larynx : 

The Dorsalis Lingua to the Fauces, Amygdala, Epi- 
glottis, and Pharynx : 

The Ramus Sublingualis, which comes off under the 
middle of the Tongue, and is di-perscd upon the Sublin- 
gual Gland and adjacent Muscles: — and 

The Ramus Ramnus, which is the principal Branch 
of the Lingual Artery, running at the under and lateral 
part of the Tongue, and terminating near its point : 

The Arteria Facialis, Maxillaris Externa, 
Labialis, vel Angularis, Tab. CXXXI. y. Tab. 
CXXXIV. which also runs forwards, and goes under 
the Stylo-hyoideus, and Tendon of the Uigastricus. It 
perforates the Submaxillary Gl.uul, mounts suddenly over 
the Angle of the Lower Jaw, at the under and fore part 
of the Masseter, from whence it proceeds in a tortuous 
manner by the bide of the Nose, towards the inner Cor- 
ner of the Eye. 

In this course, it sends the. following I'.rauches to the 



Jjacent parts: 
The Palatina Info 



■uppli. 






and 1 



nil i 



// Branches to the Root of the Tongue, to the 
tlnscles, &»■. near the .Angle of the Jaw: 
Arteria Submental)*, which advances between the 
r Belly of the Diga.stricus, the Mvlo-hyoideus, 
se of the Lower Jaw, furnishing Branches to the 
tillarv Gland, the Skin, Mvlo-hvoideus, Chin, aud 



8 DISTRIBUTION OF THE BLOOD-VESSELS. [Part V. 

A Branch, upon the outside of the Jaw, to the Mas- Another Branch, which passes, with the Jugular Vein, 
seter : to tI,e '"'tier and back part of the Dura Mater : 

The Inferior Labial Artery, which arises a little A small Auricular Branch, which is sometimes from 
higher than the former, and goes to the lower part of the the posterior Auricular, and is distributed on the Lobe 
Coder lip, inosculating with the corresponding Branch and outer edge of the Ear : 

on the opposite side : The Auricularh Posterior, which comes frequently off 

Small Branches dispersed upon the Buccinator, and from the Trunk of the Carotid. — It sends Branches to 
communicating with others dispersed upon the Substance the Parotid Gland, Digautricus, and Stemo-mastoideus, 
of the Cheek : — a Branch to the Meatus Extemus and Membrana Tym- 

The C'oroiwrta Inferior, which comes off near the pani, — the Stt/fo-mtutoid Branch, which passes through 
Corner of the Mouth, sometimes Irani the Labialis Infe- the Foramen Stylo-mastoideum, giving Twigs to the Mea- 

,-jor: and tu3 Externus, Membrana TympanJ, and Internal Ear. 

The Coronaria Superior, larger than the former, to The Auricular Artery passes afterwards behind the 
the Upper Lip, from whence Branches run to the under Ear, gives Branches to the Integuments, Muscles, and 
part of the Partition and Point of the Nose. Tab. Bones there, and, creeping upon the back part of the 
CXXXIV. Concha, sends Twigs to it, and terminates upon the side 

The Coronary Arteries run near the edges of the Lips, of the Head, 
where, meeting with their fellows of the opposite side, The Occipital Artery gives next a Branch, of consi- 
they form an Arteria Coronaria Labiorum. derablc size, which descends between the Trachelo-mas- 

Frequently one or both Coronary Arteries are larger toideus and Complexus, and afterwards gives Branches to 
than ordinary, in which case those on the opposite side most of the Muscles on this part of the Neck, 
are proportionally smaller. The Trunk of the Artery afterwards ascends in a ser- 

After sending off the Coronary Branches, the Facial pentine manner upon the Occiput, dividing into several 
Artery runs near the Wing and side of the Nose. Branches, which are dispersed upon the Integuments and 

From this part of the Artery, Branches are sent in- Occipito-frontalis, communicating with the Occipital Ar- 
wards to the Nose, and outwards to the Cheek. tery of the opposite side, one Twig passing occasionally 

The Facial Artery is at last lost upon the parts about through the Foramen Mastoideum to the Dura Mater, 
the inner Corner of the Eye, and middle of the Fore- Tab. CXXXIII. T. 

head. TheAKTERiAMAXlLLARlslNTEHNA,Tab.CXXXni. 

The Pharyngea Inferior, vel Ascendens, which Y, which goes off from that part of the Trunk winch is co- 
is a small Artery arising near the Lingual Artery, and vered by the Parotid Gland, and at its Origin lies behind 
frequently from the root of the Occipitalis. Tab. the middle of the upright Plate which divides into the 
CXXX1. y. Condyloid and Corouoid Processes of the Lower Jaw. 

After ascending some way between the Rectus Capitis It passes first between the Jaw and Pterygoideus Ex- 
Intemua Major and Pharynx, it divides into Branches, ternus, and afterwards ascend*, in a tortuous manner, 
which are dispersed upon the Pharwix, Fauces, and Base towards the back part of the Antrum Maxillare, sending 
of the Skull, where some of them enter the large L'ora- numerous Branches to tlie part* belonging to both Jaws. 
mina, and supply part of the Dura Mater. — From this At its Origin, it furnishes Twigs to the fore-side and 

Artery, Twigs are also sent to the Stt-rno-mastoideus, adjacent pails of the Outer Ear. 

Nerves, and Conglobate Glands. It then sends off the Arteria Dura' Main's Media 

The Arteria Occipitalis, Tab. CXXXI. No. 8. Maxima, vel Mcningea Media, vel Sphcnosyiimlit; 

which arises from the back part of the External Carotid, which runs between the External and Internal Carotid?, 

and at its Origin is coincided In the orln.r original I'ranches passes through the Foramen > pinale of the Sphenoid 

sent off from that Artery. Bone, and spreads, like the Branching of a Tree, Tab. 

It runs over the beginning of the Internal Jugular Vein, LVIJI. G, over the Surface of the Dura Mater and in- 

and afterwards passes between the Atlas and Mastoid side of the Parietal Bone. 

Process, and is covered by the posterior Belly of the Di- Bi " 

gastricus. give; 

It goes likewise In In ml tin upper end-; ol the Trachelo- with 

mastoideus, Splenius, and Complexus; after which it be- bovc 

comes more superficial, where it runs near the middle of and 1 

the Occiput. T 

In its course it is verv tortuous, and gives off different Inf'ei 

Branches to the surrounding Muscles, via. slant 

Branches to the Dignstricns Sl\ lo-hvoiihus, Sterno- it pa 

ma.sloidcus, and Glands of tin; Neck, at 

with Branches of the Cervical Arteries : 



Part V.] DISTRIBUTION OF THE BLOOD-VESSELS. 9 

Branches to the Pterygoideus, iWasselcr,aud inner part The Deep Temporal Branch, sent off behind the Con. 

of the Temporalis, under the names of Arttritt Play- dylc of the Jaw, which a-centl- obliqnrh forwards undci 

a,oi<U<r, Alu--.sc teriac, and Tcni/iorah^ Profunda; : the Aponeurosis of t lie Temporal Muscle to the outer 

The Arteria Buccalis to the Buccinator and other part of the Orbit : 

soft parts of the Cheek : Anterior Aurivulur Blanche*, which come off near thr- 

The Arteria A/rcolaris, which runs behind the An- Origin of the former Branch, and are ramified upon the 

trum, and seuds Branches to the soft parts surrounding fore part of the Ear, inosculating there with the Poste- 

the Upper Jaw— It sends other Brandies which enter by rior Auricular Artery : 

small Holes to the Antrum, and to the Substance and Brant Ins to I he Ma>tcter, wliich communicate in the 

Back. Teeth of the Jaw ; one of which is target than the Check \\iih the racial and Internal Maxillary Arteries. 

rest, and is the Proper Alveolar is : The Temporal Artery, having detached the Branches 

The Lifra-urbitar, which passes in the Canal under mentioned above, forms one or two sharp turns before 
the Orbit, giving, at its entrance, Twigs iu the sol"! parts in the Ear; and a little above the root of the Zygoma, 
the bottom of that cavity, aud, in its progress, other Twigs where the Pulsation of the Artery can be felt, and lie- 
to the Antrum, Substance of the Jaw, and Fore Teeth , fluently even seen, it divides into two large Branches, an 
after which it goes out at the Foramen Infra-orbitarium, A. lienor and l'osterim, which are placed superficial 



the Cheek by several small Branches between I he Integuments of the Head and Aponei 

wmcu communicate with those of the Facial Artery : the Temporal Muscle. 

The Palatini/ IJcscen/fens, or Potato- maxillary Branch, The Anterior, Internal Anterior, or Temporo-frontal 
which passes through the Foramen Palatinum Posterius, Branch, advances in a serpentine direction, spreailir^ 
and runs between the Osseous aud Fleshy parts of the out its Bamilicatious upon the side and upper part of the 
Palate, supplying these with Branches ; communicating Fore-head, some of which reach as far as the Orbit, 
with the Falatina Inferior, and frequently proceeding It supplies the Integuments and Mu-eles near it, corn- 
through the Foramen Incisivum to the inner part of the municates, about the Orbit, with the Facial Artery, and. 
Nose : at the upper part of the Head, with the corresponding 
' Branch of the other sic" 
It occasionally gives 
ed Ramus Orbicular/'. 

The Large Lateral Nasal, which enters the Foramen Corner of the Eye, to 

Spheuo-palatinnm, and divides, at the upper and back laris. 
part of the Nose, into many Branches, which supply the The Posterior, or External Posterior, or Temp'.r.:- 

greater tract of the inside of the Nose, viz. a Branch to occipital Branch, appears as the continuation of the 

the Posterior Ethmoid Cells, — a larger Branch to the Trunk. It ascends obliquely backwards, and is distri- 

Septum Nariiim, — a conspicuous Branch passing through buted extensively on the Integuments and Muscles upon 

the Spongy Bones to the bottom of the Nose, furnishing the lateral parts and Crown of the Head, comimiiiit aiiii- 

Twigs to the Membrana Schneideriana and Antrum with the Anterior Branch, and with the Occipitalis on 

Maxillare, and communicating with the Palatomaxillary the same side of the Head, and also with the Posterior 

Branch, which passes through the Foramen Incisivum. Temporal Branch of the opposite side, — from this, 

Arteria Temporalis — The Trunk of the External and from the other Branches on the Head, numerous 

Carotid, having given off the Art eric* already mentioned, Twigs go to the Pericranium, and to the Substance of 

emerges from the Substance of the Parotid Gland, then the Bone, 
passes up between the Meatus Auditorius Externus and 
root of the Zygoma, to form the Temporal Artery, named 

also Temporalis Externa, vel Superftcialis. From the Internal Carotid Artery. 

root of this Artery are sent off several Branches, of un- 
equal size, to the Parotid Gland : It next sends off, The Internal Carotid, Tab. CXXXI. £, some- 

The Transversal is Facie/', which arises nearly oppo- times termed Arteria Cerelnalis, is arched back at its 

site to the Internal Maxillary, and proceeds transversely Origin, and then ascends m a waiing direction on the 

under the 'Zygoma, over the Masseter, and near the Pa- fore part of the Rectus Capitis .interior Major, as far as 

rotid Duct. After giving Branches to the Parotid the Foramen Caroticum, without gi\i"g oil any Eranche . 
Gland, the Transversalis supplies a large portion of the At the Base of the Cranium, it ma! . a a sudden turn 

Cheek, communicating with the Facial and Internal Max- forwards, ami enters the Carotic Canal of (lit Temporal 

illary Arteries. Tab. CXXXIV. i, i. Bone, Tab. CXXXII. While in the Canal, it passes 

The Articular Artery, which -ends Branches to the upwards and forwards like the- Canal il-elf, and is sur- 

Articulation of the Jaw, the F.xternal Meatus and Mem- rounded by a considerable qi. ailrty ol Cellular Substance, 

brana Tympani, and penetrates as far as the Inner Far, and the Dura Mater, wlih.N form a Cushion between it 

communicating with the Arteria Stylo-mastoidea : and the Bone. 

Vol. III. B After 



DISTRIBUTION OF THE BLOOD-VESSELS. [Part V. 

Membrane with delicate Filaments, and afterwards spread, 
ing out upon the back part of the Capsule of the Lens, 

ituated within tne cavernous sinus; anu perioral- Tab. LXXIV. Fig. 11. 

ing the Dura Mater, at the root of the Anierioi Clinoid Its Branches are dispersed upon the Lens in a radiated 

Process, it is sudden l\ ieth cud nblnjueh h:.u kw ;<ids and manner, and, after surrounding it, some of them are sent 

upwards; after which it divides into Branches. Tab. forwards to the Membrana Pupillary, as may be distinct- 

CJjXXXVI. ly seen by a fine Injection thrown into the Ocular Artery 

Through the whole of its course, it runs in a serpen- previous to the seventh Month of Gestation : 

tine manner, which prevents the Blood in it from rushing The Artcruc Ciliares, Tab. LXXIII. Fig. 4. e, e % 

mo quickly and forcibly upon the tender Substance of th«7 three or sometimes more in number, which divide into 
Brain. Contrary to the nature of other Arteries, the HyC* Branches running in a serpentine direction along the op- 

tenial Carotid is of a conical form, though it does not send posite sides of the Optic Nerve, and dividing into the 

off any Branches till it enters the Cranium. Ciliares Breves, and Ciliares Longa : 

While at the side of the Sella Turcica, it furnishes The Ciliares Breves, vel Posteriores, Tab. LXX1U. 

small Twigs to the Dura Mater and parts adjacent, as — Fig. 4. A, h, which are formed not only of Branches from 

a Branch which passes through the Pars Petrosa to the the original t diary Trunks, but also of Twigs from the 

Tympanum, — a Branch termed P<t.->tei i'n; — and another Muscular Brandies, and are numerous. They perforate 

termed Anterior Artery of the Cavernous Sinus, to the the Sclerotica, near the insertion of the Optic Nerve, 

Dura Mater, Glaudula Pituitaria, and Nerves at the side give Twigs to that Coat, and, dividing into still smaller 

of it. Branches, creep forwards upon the Tunica Choroides ; 

As soon as the Carotid perforates the Dura Mater, at forming many communications with each other as they 

the root of the Cliuoid Process, it transmits advance, and retiring gradually from the convex to the 

The Artekia Ophthalmica, Tab. LXXIII. Fig. concave surface of this Coat, to supply the Iris and Ci- 

16. m. Tab. LXXVI. Fig. 1.2. which is the principal liary Processes. 

Artery belonging to the Eye and its Appendages. The Ciliares Lorigev, Tab. LXXIII. Fig. 5. a, a, 

The Ophthalmic, or Ocular Artery, immediately after which seldom consist of more than two Trunks. They 

it comes off from the Carotid, enters the Foramen Opti- perforate the Sclerotica a little farther forwards than the 

cuin, and creeps under the Optic Nerve, included in the former, pass along the Choroid Coat to its anterior part, 

Dura Mater, towards the outer part of the Orbit. Tab. and then each separates into two Branches, and these 

CLXXXVI. a, a. into others which inosculate round the outer edge of the 

After proceeding some way through the Orbit, it tra- Iris. 

verses its Cavity, between the Optic Nerve and Depres- Besides the Ciliares Breves et Louga?, there is another 

sor Oculi Muscle, taking a spiral direction towards the Set, termed Ciliares Anieriorcs, which are a few Arte- 

Nose. rious Filaments from the Muscular Branches,- entering 

In this course, it first transmits Filaments to the Dura the Eye where the Straight Muscles are inserted. 

Mater and Substance of the Optic Nerve, and to the be- At the root of the Iris, the different Sets of Ciliary Ar- 

ginning of the Muscles in the bottom of the Orbit ; after teries unite into Arches, which tbrra an irregular Circle, 

which it gives off the following Branches, viz. called Circttlus Iridis. 

TheArteria l^r^malis. Tab. CLXXXVI. A, which From this Circle, many Arteries run upon the Iris in 

runs at the outside of the Orbit, and is chiefly dispersed a radiated serpentine manner towards the Pupil, near 

upon the Lacrymal Gland ; some Tin-ends advam ing lo which several of them also unite into Arches ; and from 

the Eye-lids ; one Twiir gees to the lYrejsleum of the Or- these. Twigs arc sent, along with the rest of the radiated 

bit, aud another thrmudi the Cheek-hone to the Face: Branches, to the inner edge of the Iris.— In the Fob to?, 

The Arteria Centralis Retina, Tab. LXXIII. Fig. they are continued i«. the Momluan-, PimilLi. 

7. h, which penetrates the Optic Nerve a little behind The MusCttfaris Superior et Mu-i i,!.-n . /..',-.•. 

the Ball of the Eye, runs in the axis of the Nerve, which are dispersed upon the Muscles, .Membranes, and 

and spreads nut into many small Branches Upon the in- Fat of the Eye ; *^ i v ± ■ Y\. \x- .J- • to tin S< b tolic Coat, 

side of the Retina. The Ethmoidals Ante, ,<>, , et Path ran, i no extremely 

When the Nerve is cut across near the Ball of the Eve, small Twigs, especially the latter, which pass through 

the Orifice of the divided Central Artery is observable, the Foramina Oibilaria Interna, Anterius et Postering, 

which, before its nature was understood, was known by —to the Horn- .mil M, ,,,bi ot-, of the Nose particularly 

the name of Port,, Opticus. tU the h" al, Eilmmid, and Sphenoid >,mV-c-s, wli,,c 

In the Adult the Central Art.ery appears m lem.u.ue H. ,..„, .a, „,,!, ,!,«■ Nasal Branches of the In- 

entirely upon the Keluia ; but in the I'"u_lu-, ..im i„,_ Ulnl | \J..\dUiv Wteiv 

Dishing, at the bottom of the Orbit, the IIrai.< h. ,,,-, ., I, Suara-Orbitat >.■.'. v<l Frm talis which after civ- 



DISTRIBUTION OF T&E BLOOD-VESSELS 



; Arteria .Media iJEREBiU,— termed also Arte- 
iyi.viana, Tab. CXXVII. CXXVIII. which is 
tliiiu the former, — runs outwards in a lateral direc- 
trongb the £bssa of Sylvius, to the upper part of 



Arteries of the Brain. 

The Arteries of the Brain consist of the two Internal 
Carotids, Tab. CXXVII. «, «, and tlie two lirhhak, 
Tab. CXXVII. d. Tab. CXXVIII. 

Each Internal Carotid, alter sending forwards the O- 
Jiber of separate Twigs to the Op- 
' loroid Pie 
to the V 
nd then divides 
irtbr, and Arteria Media 
'Cerebri. ' 

The Arteria Anterior Cerebri, Tab. CXXVII. 
g, g, turns towards its fellow of the opposite side, and 
commonly send.-, Filaments to the. First and Second Pail' 
of Nctvm. 

A little before the union of the Optic Nerves, the right 
and left Anterior Cerebral Arteries become almost con- 
tiguous, and^ anastomose by means of a short, but large 



* "From this Artery, one or two Twigs run up into the 
Anterior Cocoa of the Lateral Ventricle, and assist in 
forming the Churoid Plexus of that Cavity. 

Upon the outer Surface of the Brain, the Branches of 
this Arteiy inosculate uitli each other, and with those of 
the Anterior Cerebral Artery, and then plunge into the 






with the dee; 



l Artery. 



Branch, and sometimes by two, which form 
part of that Communication of Vessels termed Circus Ar- 
teriosus Willisi!. 

From this transverse Branch, but more frequently 
from the Anterior Cerebral Artery near it, a Branch is 
sent off, which passes into the Third Ventricle, and fur- 
nishes Twigs to the Septum Lucidum, and fore part of 
the Fornix. 

The Anterior Cerehini Artery ascends upon the inner 
side of the Anterior Lobe of the Brain, nearly parallel to 
its fellow of the other side, and sends off a principal 



The continuation of the Anterior Cerebral Artery is 
termed Arteria Cm-pur in Calk w, and is reflected back 
Upon the union of the Corpus Callosum and Htmi-jibi re 
as far as the Posterior Lobe of the Brain. 

The Branches of -the Anterior Cerebral Artery are 
divided inl<< minute Ramifications, which arc first spread 
out upon tic flat Surface of the Hemisphere, and after- 
wards upo.'i its upper part. 

The Ratifications form numberless Anastomoses with 
each other upon the Surface of (he Brain, and afterwards 
pase by minute Filaments into its Cortical and Medullary 
Substance. 

Besides the Anastomoses of the different Branches of 
this Artery on the Surface of the Hemisphere, small 
Branches run across the Corpus Callosum, and inosculate 
with those of the opposite side. 



The two Ta-ttbrul Artcrit:*,— which are only a little 
smaller than the Internal Carotids, — arise from the Sub- 
clavian Arteries at the bottom of the Neck. 

Each of them, at a small distance from its origin, enters 
the Canal formed lb r Us reception by the six uppermost 
Cervical Vertebra, though in some rare instances it is 
seen entering the Seventh Vertebra, or sometimes only 
perforating two or three of the uppermost of these. Tab. 
LID. Fig. 6. A, b. Tab. CXXXII. CXXVIII. 

It ascends through the Neck, nearly in a straight di- 
rection, sending Twigs outwards betwetn the Vertebra; 
to the deep MuM.k^, >A' the Neck, and others which pass 
inwards by the Utiles v. Iiich transmit the Spinal Nerve?, 
to the Spina] Marrow and its Membranes; communicat- 
ing with the Spinal Arteries. Tab. CXCI. Fig. 3. F. 

Immediately below the Head, it gives out more con- 
siderable 1! ranches to the Deep Muscles at the- buck part 
of the Neck, particularly to the Recti and Oblicpii Pos- 
tici, the Trachelo-mastoideus, and Con-.plexus ; inoscu- 
lating with Branches of the Occipital Artery. 

One turn is formed upward- and nulwaid.-, in passing 
from the third to the second \ ertebra; and another out- 
wards and forwards, in going between the Vertebra Den- 
tata and Atlas. 

After perforating the Atlas, it bends suddenly back, 
and runs in a horizontal direction in a Notch upon that 

Having reached the Foramen Magnum Ociipim, it 
turns upwards, perforates the Dura Mater, and enters the 
Cavity of the Cranium. 

After entering the Cranium, it passes with the Medul- 
la Oblongata, upon the Cuneiform Process of the Occipi- 
tal Bone, inclining towards its fellew on the other side ; 
and at the beginning of the Medulla, the two Vertebruls 
unite into the Trunk called Basilar Artery. 



DIe-TRIBI'TION OF THE BLOOB-YESSELSi 



ungea Posterior. U 

Which < nmrMtllilc.ltr 

k-ith tlie other Arteries of tbi 



the back part of the Dura Mati 
by small lUmiiicati 
Membrane, 

It then disperses Twigs to the Medulla Oblongata, and 
fu-mieiii.lv gives oil' tilt- .-..nail Brain. li win eli tonus one o' 
the Posterior Arteries of the Spinal Marrow. 

Near the part where it unites with its fellow, 11 J-eiul 
down the Anterior Arterv of the Spinal Marrow, « Inch 
with the posterior Arteries of tliis Substaucc, will b< 



afterwards described. 

From the Vertebral, o 
from eafh, a prim ipal II 



the Basilar, or somct 

s sent ofl", named Art 

Inferior, which passes beti 

Medulla Oblonj 



Branches to the under part of the Cerebellum, to the back 
part or the Medulla Oblongata and Tuber Annulare, and 
forms the Choroid Plexus of the fourth Ventricle. 

The Basilar Artest, Tab. CXXVII. e, e, runs a- 
long the middle of the Tuber Annulare, which it slightly 
impresses and lies upon the Cuneiform Process of the Os 
Occipuis ; having there the Dura Mater and Tunica Veinso: 
Aracniioidea between it "and the Bone. 

From the sides of this Artery numerous Filaments rt 
transversely, to be dispersed upon the Tuber and adj; 



manner these do with each other in the other parts of the 

The Artcria Communicant Tab. CXXVII. c, c. Tab. 

CXXV1II. which unite:, the posterior Cerebral Branch ot 
the Vertebral Artery to the Trunk of the Internal Caro- 
tid, and is nearly of the same diameter, but longer than 
of the Transverse Artery which connects the anterior 

Branches of the Internal Carotid, 
ds It runs by the -ides ..I' the Sella Turcica, -ends minnte 

h, Threads to the Crura Cerebri, to the Corpora Aibicantia, 
Optic Nerves, and Int'undibiilum, and contributes to the 
formation of the Circle of Willis,— or that kind of cora- 
munication by which the Blood or Injected Matter can 
pass readilv across from one Internal Carotid to the other, 
—or from 'these backwards to the Basilar Artery. 

The Circle of Willis incloses the Optic Nerves, the 



indibulum, and the Corpora Albic 

irregular limine, the size varying in 
different Subjects, but in the dirlerei 
Body. 



of a 



One Branch larger tha 
tenia, passes between the two portions of the Seventh 
Pair of Nerves to the Internal Organ of Hearing. 

At the extremity of the Cuneiform Process of the Oc- 
cipital Bone, and at the upper and fore part of the Tuber 
Annulare, the Basilar Artery divider into four principal 
Branches, two to each side; and these go oft" almost at 
right angles from the Trunk, viz. 

The Arteria Superior vel Superior Cerebelli, Tab. It 
CXXVIII. which turns round the Crura Cerebri, ex- tana 
panels its Branches upon the tipper part of the Cerebellum, clost 
and sinks into its Substance, supplying also the walls of Jugular 1 
the Fourth Ventricle, the Nates, Testes, ami parts near The 7 



The smaller Veins which return the Blood from the 

Arteries of the outer part of the Head, and of part of the 

called Aitditoria hi- Neck, have a similar course with their corresponding Av- 



The Arteria Poster 
CXXVIII. which sends Twigs to the .Tuber 

■ Crura Cerebri, and unites with the Internal C 



with their c 
they unite into the following Trunks, viz 

The Frontal I • in, "Inch is formed by several Branches 
belonging to the Muscles and Integuments on the upper 
and fore part of the Cranium, and which is often single, 
returning the Blood from both sides of the Fore-head. 

The racial J tin, which is formed by the Frontal Vein, 
and by an intricate Plexus of Branches upon the Face. 

It winds obliquely downwards and outwards, at a dis- 
tance from the Artery ; but, in crossing the Jaw, it goes 
close by the outside of it, :uid tcrinniaUs m the Fuenial 
CXXXV. d. 
Fab. CXXXV. <>,/, £, //, formed 



I mill Deep [-'ranches ['nun (he sides and iip- 
he Head, and running down upon theTi mole, 
some uisiiuicc from the Artery. 

The Brain !n s of the Tern penal Vein form large Anasto- 
the Arteria Loninmnicans. moses ; before, with those of the Frontal Vein; above. 

It supplies also parts lying near the Third Ventricle, with their Fellows on the other side ; and behind, with 
and afterwards turning round the Crura Cerebri, passes (he Branches of the Occipital Vein. 

back between the Cerebrum and Cerebellum. The Trunk descends at the fore part of the Far, and, 

It distributes its inimcrems branches chitfh ,„,;„, i.„,_ .y^,, ^ ]>u [L| , _v,i m , sinks , n , | H ,v. UD stan« of the Faro- 

tenor Lobe of the Brain, one Branch m paituulai- pent- t,,i Gl-.m.l. Tab. CXV\I\. CWW. 

trating mtojhe Poster, or Cora u of the Lateral Ventricle, in its descent before the Meatus Anditorius Fxtenius, 

ingthe it ree.hes Branches from the Far, Parotid Gland, and 

h thofae sent to these parts from 

Artery. 



and, with Branches of the Internal Cat 
Aiterious part of the Choroid Plexus. 

■ The Branches of this Artery anastomose with those of the Ca 
r part of the Internal Carotid, at the ii 



tie anter.oi part ot the Internal Larotid, at the inside of At the under part of the A,o',le of the Lower Jaw, tha 
that Artery, at the outside of the HeiMsphere, in the External Jundar. 



Paut V.] 



m.vnmurnoN of the blood-yessko 



IS 



The External Jugular Vein, Tab. CXXXV. No. f. 
receives the following Branches at the upper pint of the 

Branches of the lutcnul Ma\illar> Vein, the princi- 
pal Br anc lies of that Vein terminating in the lnlA.Ti.al 

The Lingual J'ein, which more frecpiently terminates 
in the Internal Jugular : 

SmneBra/icArviVoni the (Veipilal Vein, Tab. CXXXV. 
No. 4. the rest passing to the Internal Jugular and Ver- 
tebral Veins, aud sometimes also communicating by a 
Foramen Mastoideum with the Lateral Sinus. 

The Trunk of the External Jugular Vein descends in 
the Neck, between the I'lalvsma Myoides aud Stemo- 
Mastoideus, receiver in its course Branches from the ad- 
jacent parts, ami terminates in the .Subclavian Vein. 

In the formation and termination of this Vein, there is 
great Variety in different Subjects. 

It frequently happens that most of the Bamifications, 
which commonly run from the Face and Throat into this 
Vein, go to the Internal Jugular. 

Often the Facial Vein goes into the Internal Jugu- 
lar, and the Temporal continued forms the External Jugu- 

Sometimes one of the External Jugulars terminates in 
the usual way, and the other in the Internal Jugular. 

In some rare cases, the External Jugulars have both 
been found terminating in one side of the Neck. 

Besides the Vein commonly called External Jugular, 
a small Subcutaneous Vein, termed Anterior External 
Jugular, Tab. CXXXV. p, descends in the fore part of 
the Neck, receiving Branches from the adjacent parts, 
'] the Subclavian Vein. 



[■Eye 



s Appendages. 



The Blood sent to the Contents of the Orbit is return- 
ed partly to the Facial Vein at the inner Comer of the 
F.ve, but chk-llv to the proper Ocular Vein, Tab. LXXYJ. 
Fig. 3- 4. which terminates in the Cavernous Sinus by 
the following Veins, viz. 

The Vena Centralis Betintr, Tab. LXXIV. Fig. 13. 
which is formed bv uianv small Branches expanded upon 
the inner Surface of the Betina along with those of the 
2S ponding Artery. 



Nerve 
It ■ 
which belongs to the Eyt 
the Ocular Vein, but, in general, directly in the Caver- 

From the Iris and Choroid Coat, the Blood is return- 
ed by -the Short or Anterior Ciliary, and by the Jjong 



or Posterior Ciliary Vein.-; and ."lso by a principal Set of 
Ciliary Wins, termed I'a\n t orticasa. 

Small Veins return from the Irk, which go under the 
Arterious Circle to the Veins of the Choroid Coat, and 
communicate with each other; — but without forming any 
Circle such as i .-. found in the Eyes of Oxen, and which 
corresponds, in them, with the Arterious Circle. 

The Short Ciliary J'ei;i* pa-s from the Iris through the 
Sclerotic Coat, near the same part where the Anterior 
Ciliary Arteries enter. 

The Long Ciliary Veins, like the Arteries, are com- 
monly two in number, and of a smaller si/.e than the Vor- 

They run from the Iris backwards along the Choroid 
Coat, communicate in their passage by minute Branches 
with the Vorticose Veins, and al'tcr.vurd . perforate the 
Tunica Sclerotica behind. 

The Vena? Vorticose, Tab. LXXIII. Fig. !\ B, B, 
Fig. 14. Tab. LXXV. are numerous, and obtain their 
name from the Whirls composed by their Branches ; the 
course of which lias been compared to a Jet d' Eau, or to- 
thc Spiral Bidges upon the points of tl-r fingers, &c. 

Of these Veins, four, or sometimes live, are by much 
the most conspicuous ; the rest being smaller, and having 
less of the Vorticose appearance. 

The Branches of each of the four principal Vena: Vor- 
ticosae run in a close Congeries, unite at acute angles into 
larger Branches which have a curved direction, and these 
proceeding from all sides, meet in a point, and form the 
Trunk of the Vein. 

The Trunks of these Vena Vortices*, thus placed in 
the centre of their respective Whirls, are situated at the 
opposite sides of the Eye, and perforate the Sclerotic 
Coat obliquely near its middle. 

The rest of the Vena; Vorticosa, or smaller Ciliary 
Veins, communicate with the adjacent larger Vorticose 
Veins upon the Surface of the i horokl Coat, aud also per- 
forate the Sclerotica near its middle. 

After piercing the Sclerotica, \ urtkose Veins receive 
a number of minute Twigs whii h paint the Cellular Sub- 
stance covering the Surface of lh" Sclerotica. 

The Ciliary Veins run in a Serpentine direction at the 
opposite sides of the Eye, and pass, either separately, or 
united with other -mall \ ems in the Orbit, into the Trunk 
of the Ocular Vein. 

The other Venous Branches within the Orbit corre- 
spond in a great measure with their respective Arteries. 
Tlu y consist of— 

Branches from the Palpebrse and inner Corner of the 
Eye: 

The Lacrimal Branch : 

The Ethmoidal Brunches : 

Muscular Brunches, — and Branches from the Fat in 
the Orbit, and from the Membranes lining it. 

The different Branches from the Eye audits Appen- 
dages form, by their union, the (hilar Vein, which great- 
ly exceeds the size of the corresponding Artery. 

The 



DISTRIBUTION OF THE BLOOD- VESSELS. 



tL'.v 



The Ocular Vein forms large Anastomoses with the 
Facial Vein, at the inner Corner of the Eye, and after- 
wards pa^es back at the inner side of the Orbit. 

From the inner, it goes across to the outer aide of the 

Orbit, under the Attollens : and,after running ba< k i hi ough 
the Superior Orbital- Fissure, covered by the Third and 



The Vem* of the Dura Mater, Tab. CXXVI. at 
company their Arteries, and go partly through the perfo 



i >iiui:-is of the Brain. 



They run at the Posterior Edge of the Tentorium along 
the Lateral Ridges of the Os Occipitis, as far as the Base 
of the Petrosal Processes of the Temporal Hones, from 
whence they wind downwards, pass through the Foramina 
Lacera common to the Occipital and Temporal Bones, 
and form the Internal Jugular Veins. 

Frequently one of the Lateral Sinuses is formed by 
the Longitudinal, and the other by the Torcular Si- 
nus; in which case, the one is found larger than the 
other. 

The Lateral Sinuses receive Veins from the Cerebel- 
lum, and from Hie under and back part of the Cerebrum. 
They likewise receive the following Miiall Sinuses, situat- 
ed under the Brain, viz. 

The Circular Sinus of Ridley, which is placed about 
the GluuJula Pituitaiia, and frequently surrounds it com- 
pletely; receiving the Blond from it, and from the adja. 



.ml U.i 



the Ca- 



Tab. CXXVI. Fi( 



. b,b. 



The smaller Veins of the Brain accompany the Arte- 
ries. Their Trunks run chiefly between the Circumvolu- 
tions of the Brain, at a distance from the Trunks of the 
Arteries. 

They terminate in the different Sinuses of the Dura 
Mater, and generally in an oblique direction, forwards, 
which prevents the Blood from returning from the Sinuses 

The Sinuses most commonly found are the following i 
The Superior Longitudinal Sinus, Tab. LX. h, ?', i, k. 
Tab. LIX. E, E, which begins at the under part of the 
Spine of the Frontal Bone, — runs alongthe upper edge of 
the Falx, and becoming gradually wider, terminates upon 
the middle of the Occipital Bone, in the two Lateral Si- 
It receives the Blood from the upper part of the Brain 
by several large Venous Trunks, which enter it obliquely, 
forwards : 

The Torcular Herophiii, Tab. LX. «, w, i, or 
Fmni/i Sinus of the Ancitnis, chiefly formed by the Ve- 
na Galeni, which returns the Blood from the Choroid 
Plexus, Corpora Striata, Septum Lucidum, and other in- 
ternal parts of the Brain. 

The Torcular passes back in the joining of the Falx 
and Tentorium, and terminates, along with the Superior 
Longitudinal Sinus, in the beginning of the Lateral Si- 

The Inferior Longitudinal, Sinus, Tab. LXVIII. 
w, x, a remarkably small urn-, situated in the under edge 
of the Falx. — It receives Branches from that Membrane, 
and from the Cm pn-< Callosuin mid parts of the Brain near 
' i the beginning of the Torcular Hero- 



The tuv Lateral Sinuses, Tab. LX. y. Tab. LIX. 

H, U, or [Straw*/ and Third Sinuses of the Ancients, form- 
ed by the Longitudiual and Torcular Sinuses. 



la Turcica, and receive Blood from Veins lying 
lateral Branches of the Internal Carotid Arte- 
the Ocular Veins, and from the Circular Sinus 
y. Tab. CXXVI. Fig. 2. c. 



The 



ubliugtha. 



til Su 



j Penis 



Ridges of the Partes ] 
15. 15. 

They receive some small Veins from the Dura Mater 
and Rase of the Rrain, and communicate backwards 
with the Lateral, and forwards with the Cavernous Si- 

The Inferior Petrosal Sinuses, placed at the roots of 
the Partes Petrosa:. — They receive the Blood from the 
Cavernous, and discharge it into the ends of the Lateral 
Sinuses. Tab. CLXXXVI. No. 14. 14. 

Besides the Sinuses mentioned above, the followin 
also are frequently met with, viz. 

A Perpendicular Occipital Sinus, situated in the Falx 
Cerebclli, which is sometimes single, sometimes double, 
and terminates in the Lateral Sinuses.— It receives Veins 
from the Dura Mater, and communicates with the Verte- 
bral Vems. Tab. CLX\XVL No. 12. 

The Anterior Superior, and .-Interior Inferior Occi- 
pital Sinuses, placed over the Cuneiform Process of the 
Occipital Bone, and communicating with the Inferior Pe- 
trosal and Lateral Sinuses, and with the Vertebral Veins. 
Tab. CLXXXVI. No. 18. 17. 



Internal Jugular Veih. 

The Lateral Sinuses, having received the Blood sent 

o the Brain' from the Carotid and Vertebral Artcrits, 

iass out of the Cranium, and form the Internal Jugular 

VeiiUj 



DISTRIBUTION OF THF. BLOOD-VESSELS. 



Veins, Tab. CXXXV. 5, q ,- each of winch, 

£m, is bulged back in form of a Yarix, whicl: 
Diverticulum ; and this is lodged in a Fossa ; 
1 of the Temporal Bom 



Common Carotid ArLery, with which 

Sheath of Cellular Substance , and is frequently a good 

deal dilated towards its under extremity, especially in 



15 



wiih (heir Branches, 



Jn its course in the Neck, it receives, either by 
ate Branches, or some of these collected into Trunk 
Branches from the Pharynx and Muscles adj; 



ts On- The Interna! MaxiIIan, J'e, 

termed termed Meningeal : 

le root One or more H ram lies from the Occiput : 

The Lingual Vein, which sometimes terminates in the 
nd the External Jugular.— One Branch of this, termed Banian, 
of the from its complexion, is seen under the Tongue, and is 
ed in a that Win which is opened in Venesection here : 

The Superior Laryngeal, and now and then the Infe- 
rior Laryngeal, which more frequently goes iuto the 
ShIh [avian, or to the top of the Cava. 

The Internal Jugular also receives Branches from the 
Muscles of the Neck, and at length 
Subclavian Vein. 



( 16 ) 



TABLE CXXVI. 

Represents the Inside of the Cranium of a Child, with the DunA Mater adhering to it, the 
Veins of which are minutely injected. 



FIG. 2. 

and Sinuses of the Dura Mater, 
and Base of tin; Cranium. 

A, The tentorium, with the termination of cerebral veing 
in the left lateral smua 

B, The cut edge of the large falciform process. 

C, C, Trunks of the venae mchingea: media:. 
with the termiuation of the veins of the upper part of o, The right lateral sinus. 

the brain in the superior longitudinal sinus. 6, b. The Circular Si'tius of Ridley. 

C, C, C, The veins of the dura mater, the anterior truuks c, The left cavernous sinus. 

of which are the Venae Meningeal Mediae : The others d, d, The superior peliosal sinuses. 

are seen terminating, either in the superior longitudinal e, e, Tlie posterior occipital sinuses. 

Minis, or running towards the holes in the base of the /,/, The sinuses of the great occipital foramen. 

cranium. g y g. Cerebral veins, tenniuating in the right lateral sinus. 




^ 



§ 



$ 



Tab j z; 




C n ) 
TABLE CXXVII. 

A View of the Base of the Brain, with the Trunks of its Arteries 
and Nerves. 



A, A, The anterior lobes of the brain, 

B, The anterior lobes separated a little from each other. 

C, The lateral lobes. 

D, D, The posterior lobes. 

E, E, The cerebellum. 

F, F, The tuber annulare. 

G, The medulla oblongata. 

rt, «, The trunks of the internal carotid arteries. 

b, b, g, g, Their anterior branches tunning between the 
anterior lobes of the brain, and turning over the corpus 
callosum to reach the inner side of the hemispheres. 

Ji t h) Their middle brant hes running in the .Fo$«e of Syl- 
vius, to the lateral parts of the brain, 

A little behind -, 3, 1- -un i I u. cross branch by which the 
anterior cerebral arteries communicate. 

c, c, The branches by which the carotids communicate 
with the vertebral arteries. 

cf, rf, The vertebral arteries, with tiie anterior spinal ar- 
teries sent down from them. 

e, p, The basilar artery formed by the union of the ver- 

tebrals. 
fifi The division of the basilar artery into the posterior 
arteries of the cerebrum, and the superior arteries of 



the cerebellum ; — the right one is seen, in ihisfigmn 
passing from ihc vertebral, and the left from the basi- 

l,f, The posterior cerebral arteritis ; the superior arteries 
of the cerebellum being seen imniediattJv behijid them. 

n, 6, A, a, c,/,/, c, The Circus Arteriosus WiLLlsir, 
formed by the communications of the internal carotids 
with each other, and with the vertebral arteries. 

1.1. The first pair-, or olfactory u 
the anterior lobes of the brain. 

2. 2. The second pair, or optic ue 
seen their union, and the tractus optici. 

3. 3. The third pair, or motores oculorum. 

4. 4. The fourth pair-, or nervi pathetici. 

5. 5. The fifth pair, or nervi trigemini. 

6. 6. The sixth pair, or nervi abducentes. 

7. 7. The seventh pair, composed of the port it 
portio mollis, the former of which is placed a 

8. 8. The eighth pah', composed of the glosso-pharyngeus 
and par vagum. 

9. 9. The ninth pair, or lingualis, composed of small fae- 

or sub-occipital nerves. 



e, advancing under 
, behind which are 



»-ly. 



( 18 ) 



TABLE CXXVIII. 



The Arteries of the Base of the Brain shewn more fully than in the preceding Table, A slight 
"View is likewise given of the Origin of the Nerves. The Brain is flattened, the different 
Lobes are separated a little from each other, and the Cerebellum is drawn back, to shew as 
many Arteries as possible in one View. To save the multiplying of Letters, the Nerves 
3ne side of the Brain, and the Arteries on the other. 



A, A, The anterior lobes of the cerebrum. 

B, E, The middle lobes. 

C, C, The cerebellum. 

1), The corpus callosum, shewn by separating the under 
side of the anterior lobes of the cerebrum from each 

E, The infuudibulum. 

F, F, The eminentia: mamraillares. 
(., G, The tuber annulare. 

If, H, The medulla oblongata. 

a, The first or olfactory nerve, with its roots behind, and 

bulb before. 
A, The second or optic nerve. 
c, Tiie third or oculo- muscular nerve. 
tl, The fourth or pathetic nerve. 
r, The two parts of the fifth nerve. 
/, The sixth or abductor nerve. 
gf The portio dura, and, 
A, The portio mollis* of the seventh nerve, with their in- 

m mediate branches. 
■/, The glosso-phargigeal part, and, 
k. The ti laments which form the oars vaga of the eighth 



:ssory or spinal 



/, The 

«(, The ninth or lingual nerve. 

«, The trunk of the internal carotid a 

o, The root of the ocular artery. 

p, Two small branches from the carot 






>r cerebral bean 
which the ante: 



lu »v.,,n of the anterior cerebral artery, tevm- 
< il iitfiiu C'n-jifti-i'f Callosi. Near its root it sends 
branches to the optic and beginning of the olfactory 

i, Inferior cerebral branches of the arteria callosa, giving 
twigs tn the. olfactory nerve, and externally communi- 
cating with the extremities of the external cerebral 
artery. 

•, Anterior and internal cerebral branches of the arteria 
callosa, distributed to the internal surface of the ante- 

i', The arteria callosa turning to the upper part of the 
corpus callosum, which it follows almost its whole 
length, dispersing itself upon the internal surface of 
the hemisphere, upon the dura mater near it, and giv- 
ing twigs to the third and upper and fore-part of the 
corresponding lateral ventricle. 

, The arteria media cerebri, termed also Sylvian 
branch of the internal carotid, somewhat larger than 
the arteria anterior. It sends first delicate branches to 
the substance of the brain at the root of the olfactory 

', The division of this artery into three branches, of 

which one goes to the anterior lobe of the cuvhrum, 
the i-eeoml l-ws ill qi ij'i tin.: ii>-.sa of Sylvius to the an- 
terior and lateral lobes, the third passes to the lateral 
and posterior lobes ; the 



i hi 



;e, then in the substance of the biai 
cerebral artery. 



ritb 



'he vertebral artery at its entry in 
"he ant trior artery of the •■|ilii:iI 



ig between ihc'cercbcllum and medulla 
i dispersed upon these and upon the tu- 



TABLE CXXVIII. CONTINUED. 



19 






lion of the vcrtebrals to form the basilar artery, 
3 placed over the middle of the tuber annul. ire, 
I,, inmiy twigs to the tuber, and to the adjacent 



5. The arteria minor, inferior, vel profunda cerebelli, the 
origin of which, as commonly happens, is not opposite 
to the one of the other side. About a finger's-breadth 
from its origin, it is seen sending off the arteria audi- 
tiva, which is cut across ; it afterwards anastomoses 
with the arteria magna posterior cerebelli. 

6. The division of the basilar artery into the arteria su- 
perior cerebelli, and the arteria posterior, vel profunda 
cerebri, on each side. 

7. The arteria superior cerebelli, turning over the tuber, 
furnishing branches to the upper part of the cerebel- 



lum, and communicating with the branches of the ar- 
teria minor cerebelli. 

8. The arteria posterior cerebri, passing outwards to the 
posterior lobe of the cerebrum, and communicating 
with the external cerebral artery, and with the supe- 
rior artery of the cerebellum. 

Between the trunk of this artery, the tuber, and the 
fourth nerve, twigs are seen going oft", which penetrate 
to the choroid plexus in the inferior coinu of the late- 
ral ventricle. 

9. The arteria eoiiLiiumie'ui.-., joining the internal carotid 
and vertebral arteries, and iurnisluiig a large share of 
the circle of Willis. 

10. Twigs sent from the arteria communicans to the in- 
ferior extremity of the choroid plexus io the lateral 
ventricle. 



( 20 ) 



TABLE CXXIX. 

Kepresents the Arteries of the Brain, as seen after an Horizontal Section of the Cerebrum 
at the Depth of the Lateral Ventricles. 



A, A, The cortical, and, I, I, The corpora striata. 

B, B, &c. The medullary part of the cerebrum. K, K, The thatami optici. 

C, The anterior lobes of the cerebrum, separated a little L, L, The choroid plexuses, between which are seen the 
from each other. vascular web, termed Tela Cfioroidca, which covers pail 

"D, D, The arterial corporis callosi. " of the tbalami, and unites the plexuses to each other. 

E, E, The cavities of the lateral ventricles. M, The passage by which the lateral ventricles comrou- 

F, G, The medullary part of the brain, between the cor- nicate with each other, and with the third ventricle, 
pora striata. N, N, The branches of the arteria; cerebelli superiores, 

H, H, A section of the posterior crura of the fornix. dispersed over the upper surface of the cerebellum. 



.. 



T^m.j'2.9 




C 21 ) 



TABLE CXXX. 



In this Table, the Choroid Plexus and Tela Choroidea, represented in Table CXXIX. are 
removed, and the Thalami Optici, with the Pineal Gland, Nates, and Testes, exposed ; 
together with the Fourth Ventricle, Arterle Cerebri Profund.e, and Arteiu.e Cere- 
belli Superiores. 



A, The cortical -ul>.-U;inoe of the brain. 

B, B, &c. The medullary substance. — The two posterior 
B's placed upou an oblique section of the posterior 
lobes of the brain. 

C, Part of the corpus callosum. 

D, The pineal gland, placed over the Dates. 

E, E, The upper surface of the cerebellum. 

F, F, The medullary part of the cerebellum, termed .de- 
hor Vita. 

G, G, The ciucritious part of the cerebellum, 

H, H, The fourth ventricle, forming the cidauius serin. 



K, K, A section of the anterior crura of the torn 

L, L, The taenia semicircularis. 

M, M, Medullary lines continued from the i 
cerebri posterior, iiw.'ited m!i> the taenia. 

N, The arterise corporis callosi. 

O, O, Branches of the vertebral arteries, termed Ar- 
teriie Cerebri Profinul.r. uliiili -n|>|>h the back, part 
of the cerebrum, and .Irlcria (utl't/fi S/fjiei /<«■<■*-, 
which are distributed upon the upper part of the mi-. 



( a ) 



T ABLE CXXX1. 



Represents (lie Cot 
Tins; the Con 



nto Internal and External Caro- 
principal Branches of the latter. 



A 


The 


if,, 


w m 


rgin nf tin- thvr 


id cartilage. 




r. 
t. 


'Hi. „. h, 


.',','le" 


argin. 






i) 
E 
F, 


The 
The 
Thee 


il]):n ,.i,.l 
xtrvmity 


xillai-y gland, 
if the lower jaw 


the branch oJ 


„liA 


G 

H 


Tin- t 
The 


is 


ial p 

pan 


erygoid wing. 

of the zygoma, broken off. 




I, 
K 


J he ir 
Ther 


,"■!'. 




f the zvjjoiiui. 
itorius. 






M 


The ,n;„l 
'1 he Forii 


:;!:; 


r the t j.iul branch of the fifth 


pair of 





'I lie'- 
The 1 


;:, 


f tl, 
.-tin 


transverse process of the atlas. 




1", 


The | 


i,o. 


*oid 








Q, 


Q, '1 




■nii.- 


lyoidei. 






H 


The 
Part e 


lylo-hyoideus. 

t' the fayo-glossus, the mos 


of which is destroy- 



o-hyoidi'i muscles. 
A branch descending a great way under the skin to the 

To the crico-thyroideus and thyroid gland. 
A branch from the arteria pharyngea. 
A superficial branch to the parotid gland. 
s. The first branch to the pharynx, divided upwards and 



tercostal ganglioj 



T, The pharynx descending from the 



V, The obli.pius capitis s 



•r, The eighth ne 
d, d, The verteb; 
*, I 



.!"_!', - 






branch to the obliqtii capitis, 



f- The common carotid artery. 
& The end of the common carotid. 
J, A, The cerebral trunk, a little curved in this pla( 
, The artery entering the cranium. 
h. The external carotid. 
7, The superior thyroid artery. 



r, A branch to the eighth 

lenus, rectus internus, and longus colli. 
H, W, The lingua] artery, 
i', A branch to the hyo-glossus. 

«', The truncus lingualis profundus, vel arteria ranina. 
jt, The superficial, or sublingual branch to the mylo- 

hyoideus. 
y, The facial artery. 
», The palate-branch of this artery. 

1. A large branch of the facial artery to the inferior 
maxillary gland. 

2. 3. The branch termed Arteria Sub/nentalis t to the 
sublingual gland and mylo-hy oideus. 

4. The facial trunk in its way to the face. 

5. The occipital artery. 

(>. The -Mo-mastoid artery. 

7. The posterior auricular artery. 

8. 8. Branches of the occipital artery to the occiput, sin- 
ciput, and splenius. 

9. The winding of the carotid, where it begins to dege- 
nerate into the temporal artery. 

10. The temporal artery. 

1 1 . The meningeal artery, passing through its foramen. 
l'-i. The external deep temporal artery. 

13. The internal deep tt.nporal artery. 
11. The internal maxillary artery, passing by the root of 
the pterygoid process. 

15. The alveolar artery. 

16. The infra- .rbitar arte . 

17. The nasal is nnd pah; t\;rcndens, appearing ob- 
scurely in the spheno-maxLU-iy fissure. 



72b 131 




TA/i 732. 




( 23 ) 



TABLE CXXXII. 

A View of the Vertebral and Carotid Arteries, with some of the Branches of the 
External Carotid, in a Child. 



, The subclavian artery. 
', The course of the subclavian. 
', The superior dorsal artery of the 
', The interior laryngeal artery, in its wa 
gland, with an anterior cervical branch 
, The anterior cervical artery. 
', The common carotid artery. 
I", The external carotid, 
r, The superior laryngeal artery. 
', The lingual artery. 






m, The mastoid branch. 

n, The ramifications of the occipital artery. 

o, The vertebral artery, with numerous brandies from 
it to the spinal marrow and its membranes, — and other 
branches which communicate with the deep cervical 

Pi Its arch near the atlas. 

5, A branch of the cervicalis anterior to the vertebrae. 



( 2* ) 



TABLE CXXXIII. 

Kepresetits the Upper Part of the Aorta, the Carotid Arteries, and particularly the Internal 
""-inch, and Serpentine Course of the Internal Carotid. 



A, The sort 

B, The rigli 

C, C, The c 

D, The into 

E, The cm. 
E, P, The 



the dura 
K, The lii 



)f (he internal carotid without the era- 

lithln the os petrosum. 

c inteniiil carotid, where it perforate; 
and goes to the brain. 



_ -, slightly expressed ; 

M, N, O, Its. |i.:l;il illi' branch in tllC palate alld UVula, 

F, Branches of the lingual artery, which go to the chin 

and under lip. 
CJ, The part where the infra-orhitar and alveolar branches 

of the interna] maxillary anastomose. 
B, R, The temporal artery. 

5, The occipital artery. 

T, The posterior auricular artery. 

X 1 , The anterior branch of tin- temporal artery. 

V, The posterior branch of the same. 

W, Its auricular branch. 

X, A branch to the masseter and temporal muscles. 

Y, The trunk of the internal maxillary artery. 

7., The incning. ul branch of this artery. 

n. The inferior maxillary branch. 

6, The pterygoid branch of the meningeal artery, 
c, Two pterygoid branclus of tin maxillary artery. 
(', The deep posterior temporal branch. 

" 'wan eh. 



p, The.arteria pharyugea ascendens ; 

q. Its bianch to the tongue. 

;-, A branch to the muscles of the neck. 

s. Branches to the pharynx and muscles of the inula, 

/, The internal jugular vein. 

ii, The nervus duras of the seventh pair ; 

i 1 , Its anastomosis with the nerve of the eighth pair. 

id, The ninth pair of nerves. 

x t The ramus descendens of this nerve, to the muscles of 

y, The trunk of the eighth pair. 
«, The accessory nerve. 

1. 1 . A nerve from the eighth pair to the basis of the 
tongue and plexus pharyngeus. 

2. 3. The two 

4. The small c 

5. 5. Its large ganglion. 

6. The eonl in nation of the intercostal nerve, 

7. The inferior maxillary nerve from the third of the fifth. 

8. The lingual branch from the same, 
jpora! branch of the same. 

m the second of the fifth 

1L'. The superior laryngeal branch of the eighth nerve. 

13. The ramus palatinus of the second of the fifth nerve. 

14. A branch from the in Ira-orbit ar of the fifth nerve to 
the sinus Highmori. 

15. The fourth nerve. 

16. The sixth nerve. 

17. The third nerve. 

18. The optic 



buc calis, companion of the buccinator 



/, The rai 
muscle. 

g, The alveolar branch of the maxillary arlerv. 
A, The infia-orbitar branch of the maxillary arti 
i, k, A branch to the palate. 
.', The uppermost pharyngeal branch. 



23. The ball of the eye. 
2-1, The trochlea. 

25. The musculus trochlearis, 

26. The rectus superior. 

27. The levator palpcbrae superioris. 



) the Eustachian tube 



Tabu. 




( 25 ) 



TABLE CXXXIV. 



A View of the Aeteries, and 



le of the Principal Veins, on the Outside of 
the Head. 



i carotid artery, marked 
tid artery, likewise 



D, The situation of the 
by dotted lines. 

E, Tlie situation of the internal 
marked by dotted lines. 

F, The situation of the external carotid artery, also 
marked by dotted lines. 

<7, The superior thyroid artery. 

G, The sublingual artery, covered with veins and with 
the hyo-glossus muscle. 

H, The facial artery, also covered at its beginning. 

e, The pterygoid branches, 
a. The submental artery. 

f, Superficial branches. 

£, The muscular artery of the under lip, communicating 
with the submentals a. 

b t ft, ft, The coronary artery of the under lip, sending 
branches to llie masseur, buccinator, and depressor an- 
goli oris, and terminating in the lip. 

I, I, The occipital artery covered by the parotid gland 
and by muscles, and becoming superficial on the oc- 
ciput. 

h, live pharyngeal artery concealed. 

K, The trunk of the temporal artery covered by the pa- 
rotid gland. 

i, /, The transversa lis faciei arising from the external ca- 

t, A branch to the temple and under eye-lid. 
/, Branches to the muscles of the cheek. 
c, c, c. The continuation of the transversalis faciei, 
forming, in this figure, the coronary artery of the up- 

«:, The lateral nasal artery communicating with the oph- 
thalmic. 

n, The continuation of the superior coronary artery, 
sending branches to the nose, and communicating with 
its fellow on the opposite side. 

o, The seat of the infra-orbitar artery covered with 
muscles. 
Vol. HI. D 



Pi The anastomosis of the infra-orbitai- and transversalis 

5, The anastomosis of the infra-orbitar and superior la- 
bial artery, 
r, The anastomosis with the ophthalmic artery. 

Besides these anastomoses, the dotted lines point out 
several other branches which pass to the side of the 
nose and upper lip. 
s. The ophthalmic artery coming from the orbit. 
tj A branch of the ophthalmic artery to the side of the 



with i 



from the 



w, A branch which 
transversalis faciei. 
i>, Anastomoses will) the nasal coronary branches, 
% A branch to the fore-head, 
a', The posterior auricular artery. 

i/, A branch of the external carotid to the parotid jtar.d. 
is, The external carotid forming the temporal artery. 

1. A branch from the temporal artery to I* 
muscle and parotid gland. 

2. The deep branch nf the temporal artery. 

3. The trunk of the temporal artery. 



■1. 


The anterior 


auricular branch. 










5. 


The anterior 


temporal branch. 










6. 


The communications of the aul 




■ temporal t 


5th the 




ophlhalmic at 
Branches to 












7. 


the fore-head, r. 


IT'-' 


pait 


of the head, 




ant! temple. 












8. 


Tin pi.-tciio 


r temporal branch 










9. 


The artcris 


sineipitales. 










1C 


I. Anastomosi 


a with the occipit; 


ilan 








11 
15 


. The frontal 
. The ophllrj 


Imic vein. 










C, 


C, The facia 


1 vein. 










l; 


I. The tempoi 


■al vein. 











A, A, The external insular i 

B, B, The parotid gland. 
14. The duct of the parotid gland. 




26 TABLE CXXXIV. CONTINUED. 

15. The accessory parotid gland. 24. The levator labii superiom absque lias 

16. The duct of the accessory parotid gland. 25. ■ anguli oris. 

17. The submaxillary gland. 26. The orbicularis palpebrarum. 

18. The masseter muscle. 27. The frontalis. 

19. The depressor anguli oris. 28, The temporalis. 

20. labii inferioris. 29. The stemo-cleido-mastoideoa. 

21. The orbicularis oris. 30. A- section of the trachea. 

22. The buccinator. 31. The spinal marrow. 

23. The zygomaticus. 32. The integuments cut and turned back. 



( 27 ) 

TABLE CXXXV. 

A View of the Veins, &c. of the Head and Neck. 



A, The frontal muscle. 

E, The tendon of the occipito-frontalis. 

C, The attollens aurem. 

D, The retrahentes aurem. 

E, E, The aponeurosis of the temporal muscle, 
shew the vein it concealed. 

F, The zygomaticus minor. 

G, major. 

H, The levator anguli oris. 
J, The depressor anguli ori9. 

K, The upper end of the platysma myoides. 

I>, The masseter. 

M, M, The parotid gland divided, to obtain a v 






the 



, winch i 



N, The duct of the parotid gland. 

O, The small, or accessory parotid gland, with : 

opening into that of the parotid. 
P, The sterno-hyoideus. 

Q, thyroideus. 

H, The thyroid gland. 

S, The omo-hyoideas. 

T, A section of the slerno-cleido-mastoidens. 

U, The splenius. 

V, The trapezius. 

W, The common carotid artery- 

X, The superior thyroid artei 

o, Numerous communications 

temporal veins. 

b, The trunk of one of the frontal veins. 

c, The ocular-angular vein, funned by the frontal 
this side, and by numerous branches which 



cate with the temporal veins, aud with veins upon tl 
eye-lids and nose, 
rf, The facial vein receiving branches from the face i 



e,y, The anterior superficial temporal 
ing with the frontal, witli the poster 
and with its fellow upon the opposit 

£■, The posterior superficial temporal \ 
with the occipital veins. 

k t The deep temporal vein communicating with the fron- 
tal, facial, and superficial temporal veins. 

1. The superficial temporal vein. 

2. The trausversalis faciei. 

3. The continuation of the temporal vein. 

4. The occipital branch of the external jugular vein. 
A-, k, The superficial occipital vein. 

/, The posterior branch of the facial vein. 

ntf The communication between the temporal and facial 

5. The trunk formed by the facial and temporal veins, 
represented in this figure going into, 

6. The internal jugular vein. 

«, 9, The external jugular vein, strictly so called. 

o, The termination of the external jugular in the subcla- 



7. A large branch of this vein, 
the frontal and 8. 10. The posterior cervical vein. 
11. The superior laryngeal vein. 
Pi The anterior external jugular vein. 
q, q, The continuation of the iuterual jugulaj 
r, The subclavian vein. 
s, The great subclavian vein. 



( 28 ) 



THE BEMAINING BLOOD-VESSELS OF THE NECK, WITH THOSE OF THE SUPERIOR 
EXTREMITY IN GENERAL. 



ARTERIES. Trunk of the Body to the Neck, and Deep Branches to 

the Glands, Nerves, &c. lying on the fore and lateral 
Subclavian Artery. parts of the Cervical Vertebra. 

The Deep Branches anastomose with the Vertebral 
The Subclavian Artery has been already observed to and Occipital Arteries ; and some passing through the 
arise, on the right side, in common with the Carotid, by Intervertebral Holes where the Nerves come out, com- 
a Trunk called Arteria Innominata ,- and on the left, to municate with the Spinal Arteries : 
come off directly from the Aorta. Tab. LXXXV. The Cervicalis Posterior, Tab. CXLV. I, which a- 

Arteria Innominata. — The Arteria Innominata, rises in common with the Anterior Cervical, or with the 
seu Auonyma, named also Right Subclavian, which is Inferior Thyroid — This is larger than the former, lies 
scarcely two inches in length, ascends obliquely over the farther out, and runs in a winding direction outwards and 
Trachea, at the right side of which it divides into the upwards. 

Might Proper Subclavian, and the Might C'otnmon Caro- It supplies the Skin and Muscles at die lateral and 
tid. Tab. CXCVI. back part of the Neck, communicates wiili Branches of 

The Left Subclavian arises from the Arch of the Aor- the Occipital and Vertebral Arteries, and sends a princi- 
ta, at the outside of the Carotid, and ascends to the up- pal Branch downwards to the parts about the top of the 
per part of the Thorax ; forming there a sharper or more Shoulder, and the upper and lateral parts of the Thorax : 
extensive curvature than the Subclavian of the right side, The Dorsalis Scafulje Superior, sometimes called 
and advancing till upon a level with the first Rib, before Transversal is Humeri, Tab. CXXXYTI. p. Tab. CV. k, 
it gives off any Branches. which comes frequently from the root of the Thyroid, and 

After the two Subclavians have emerged from the runs transversely behind the origin of the Steruo-mas- 
Thorax, each passes transversely outwards at the under toideus, near the Clavicle. It afterwards perforates the 
part of the Neck, behind the origin of the Sterno-mas- Notch in the Superior Costa of the Scapula, and, expand- 
toideus, and continues its course outwards between the ing its Branches upon the Dorsum of that Bone, supplies 
Anterior and Middle Scaleni, and between the Subclavian the Spina ti and other Muscles situated there, and likewise 
Sluscle and first Rib. Tab. CXLI. b. furnishes Branches to the Joint of the Shoulder. 

After crossing the first Bib, it goes under the Pectoral Besides the Branches of the Subclavian Artery men- 
Muscles to the Axilla, where it obtains the name of Axil- tioned above, others are frequently found, which are more 
lary Artery. — In this course, it sends off the following variable in their origin, and in their distribution in the 
Branches, viz. Neck ; coming off occasionally faun the Trunk of the 

The Vertebra! ; — the Internal Mammary ; — and the Subclavian Artery, or, at other times, from some of its 
Superior Intercostal Artery, — The first of these has been Branches already described, 
already described : the two others belong to the inner 
part of the Thorax. Il also gives off — 

The ThTKO.DSA, Vd GuTT „ALIS J»FE B; 0», Tab. AX.LLAI.Y AbTERT. 

CXLV. p, which arises at the outer side of the Verte- 
bral Artery, previous to llie passage of the Subclavian 

under the Scalenus. It ascends obliquely inwards in a The Axillary Artery, Tab. CXCIV. n. Tab. 
winding manner behind the Carotid Artery, gives Branch- CXCVI II. lying in the Axilla, between the Sr.bscapula- 
es to the Trachea, which descend in the Thorax, and ris and Serralus Major, is surrounded by the Lymphatic 
inosculate with the Bronchial Arteries; also Twigs to Glands and Fat, by the Veins, and also by the large 
the Larynx, Phamrs, and Esophagus ; while the most Nerves which form i he IWhial Plexus. It gives some 
considerable part of the Army is dispersed upmi the Thy- small Branches to the adjacent Muscles and Nerves; but 
roid Gland, inosculating with tin; Superior Liuvngcal it-, principal Branches are, 

Artery: 'I'he Thoracic*, vel Mammahue Extern*, Tab. 

The Cervicalis Anterior, Tab. CV. o, which fie- CXLI. Bight Side, f\g, h, i, three or four in number,— 

quently comes off from the root of the Inferior Thyroid, which by some Authors me described under particular 






Part V.] 



THE REMAINING BLOOD-VESSELS OF THE NECK, &c. 



first or second Rib, gives Blanches to the Serratus and 
Intercostalcs, and 10 the Pccloraks and Skin : 

The Thoracica Longa, vel Ma miliaria Li tenia, 
which sends Twigs to the Axillary Glands; but goes 
chiefly to the Sciyauis, Pectoralis, Mamma, and Integu- 
ments, and inosculates with Branches of the Thoracica 

The Thoracii <> Ili'/iierali-, vel Acromial/'*, which goes 
off opposite the Thoracica Superior, and divides suddenly 
into Branches, which run to the upper pait of the Tho- 
rax near it, and to the Integuments, Muscles, and Liga- 
ments, surrounding the Articulation of the Humerus ; in- 
osculating with Blanches of L lie Seapulary Arteries : 

The Thoracica Axillaris, vel Alan's, which, when 
present, goes off from or near to the Thoracica Humera- 
lis, and is bestowed upon the Axillary Glands, Fat, &c. 
frequently dispersing Branches upon the under edge of 
the Sub-capularis, and upon the Pectoral is ami Serratus. 

The External Thoracic Arteries are frequently found 
to correspond with the description given above; but it 
may be at the same time noticed, that they vary much in 
their number, origin, course, and term in at ion, in different 
individuals. In general, however, they come off from 
the Axillary Artery, by Branches separate or united, and 
supply the parts about the top of the Shoulder, and upper, 
outer, and lateral parts of the Thorax ; anastomosing a- 
bove with the Arteries of the Neck, and below with those 
belonging to the containing parts of the Chest, and to the 
Upper Arm. 

'Ihe Scapularis Interna, vel Subscapulars, vel 
Scapularis Communis, Tab. CXXXVI. Fig. 1. O, 
which arises at the under edge of the Subscapular is 
Muscle, and soon divides into the proper Scapularis In- 
terna, and the Dorsulis Scapula; Inferior : 

The Scapularis Interna runs near the inferior edge 
of the Scapula, and sends off manv large Branches, the 
principal part of whii ti are dispersed upon the Latissimus 
Dorsi, Teres Major, and Subscapulars. It sends Branch- 
es also to the Muscles arising from the Coracoid Process, 
to the Capsular Ligament, and to the Axillary Glands, 
which have large Anastomoses with each other, and with 
the Superior Dorsal Artery of the Scapula. 

The Dorsalis ScapulJe Inferior, Tab. CXXXVI. 
Fig. 2. (7, g, &c, immediately after leaving the Internal 
Scapulary Artery, turns round near the Cervix of the 
Scapula, between the Inferior Costa of the Bone and the 
Tcretes Muscle-, tit the Fossa Infia-spinata. 

Upon the Posterior Surface of the Scapula, it spreads 
out into Branches of considerable size, which are dis- 
persed upon the Muscles covering the under and back 
part of the Bone, and extend also to the Capsular Liga- 
ment ; while the Trunk, ascending, inoculates with that 
• f the Superior Dorsal Artery of the Scapula, wh 



Muscles winch cover it, and upon the Pe 
Capsular Ligament of the Joint : 

The CiacuMfLESA, vel Articularis Posterior, 
Tab. CXXXVII. it, which arises directly opposite to 
the former, or by a common root with it, and is by much 
the larger of the two. 

It passes first between the Subscapulars and Teres 



■nds Branches to the Peril 
Joint, to the Short Head of the Biceps and Coraco-bra- 
chialis, to the two Tereti, to the Triceps and Subscapu- 
laris, and runs in a circular manner to the Deltoides. Its 
extreme Branches anastomose with those of the Anterior 
Circumflex Artery, so as completely to encompass the 
Body of the Bone. 

Afier giving off these different Branches-, the Axillurv 
AiU-ry emerges from behind the edge of the Pectoral! 
Major, and runs along the Os Humeri, where it 
Humeral or Brachial Artery. 






Hum 



.Art 



The Humeral ARTERY,Tab. CXXXVII. CXXXIX. 

descends at tlte inner part of the Arm, behind the interna) 
edge of the Biceps, covered b\ the general Aponeurosis, 
and having the Triceps Extensor Cubiti and Brachials 
Interims at the back part of it. In this course, it be- 
stows Erauches to the .Muscles and Integuments, and to 
the Periosteum and Bone, viz. 

A Branch under the Coraco-brachialis to the Capsule 
of the Joint and parts adjacent to it : 

Branches to the Triceps and Covaco-brachialis : 

Various Branches to the Biceps, Bracliialis luternus, 
and Bone : 

The Profunda Humeri, vel Spiralis, Tab. CXL. 
which arises near the upper part of the An 



meri, by a Large comuu 
radial Branch : 

The Arteria Profunda sends Branches upwards, which 
nosculatc with others from the Humeral and Scapularv 



i Arch common to the two Art 
of the Acromion : 

The Ciucumflexa, vel Articui 
Tab. CXXXVII. '/, which is sent off 



tlhe 



aminiiiticatiit.; i Inar, or l'mfuu-li-i'linir, descending at. 
the inner side of the Ann, is sometimes so considerable 
as to form- ■ 



THE REMAINING BLOOD-VESSELS OE THE NECK, 



of tlie Profunda Super 
Branch sent off from the Tn 

middle of the Arm. 



It gh 



-ide < 



,ches 



to tie Mosclea a 



I olhe 






about tlie i 



part of thcOsHi 

The Radius ANASTOMOTirus Magnus, Tab. 
(XXXVII. which comes off a little above the Elbow, 
ami bestows Branches to tlie Brachialis Internus, to the 
under end of the Triceps, and to the Muscles, Liga- 
ments, and part:- in general ahou! ilk- F.l bow-joint. The 
Ramu- Ar.aMomoiii ns is\ariable both in it a origin and 
distribution , iveoucutly instead of one there are two, or 
even three Anastomosing Arteries at this part of the 

The smaller Branches sent from the Humeral Artery, 
•pass in succession from the Trunk to the Muscles and 
oilier parts adjacent. They are shorter than the rest, 
and run more in a transverse direction, especially tlio.se 
to the Biceps. One small Branch, termed Nu/ri/ia, or 
Medullar!.-., -rots into the Substance of the Bone by the 
parage near it- middle, ami supplies the Marrow, and 
pails which contain it , tlnm-li diis Branch is sometimes 
sent off tioai some of the Branches in the neighbour- 
hood. 

The Tru»k of the Humeral Artery, having sent off 
Mil- different Branches which belong to the Arm, passes 
to tlie middle of the bending of the Elbow, between the 
Aponeurosis and Round Tendon of the Biceps. 

About an inch below the F.lbow, it commonly divides 
into two principal Arteries, the Radial and Ulnar, Tab. 
CXXXVIL CXL. It happens, however, now and then, 
the Joii " 



■ the 



ruddle 

tilla. In 



'111, Am 



■s, the Humeral Artery divides upon the An 
turns, which again unite into a Trunk. 
talis passes over the Pronator Teres, an 
fore part of the Radius through the whol 
it Bone. It descends between the Supinatc 
Flexor Carpi Radial, resting on the Flexo 



a considerable Branch, which joins the top of the Radial 
Artery; and, in another Preparation, an Artery goes off 
from the Axillary one, mul runs partly into the end of the 
Hadial Trunk, the remaining portion descending superfi- 
cially to join the Ulnar Arch of the Palm. 

Numerous Lateral Brandies, in the descent of the 
Artery, to the Muscles and Integuments, and parts in 
general .situated about the Radius: 

The Siipajki.'li-- I ,,/a, which goes off at the Wrist, and 
passes over or through the Abdm lor Pollicis to the Pahn. 
It is sometimes so small as scarcely to reach this part of 
the Hand. More frequently it is a considerable Artery, 
sending Branches to I lie Ball of the Thumb and superfi- 
cial parts of the Palm near it,— a Branch along tlie outer 
side of the Thumb, — and an An.i -.ii:mn»i]tL', IJiam h which 
unites with the Arch of the Ulnar Artery. — Sometimes 
the Superficial Volar Branch is equal iu size to the con- 
tinuation of the Trunk of the Radial Artery ; in such 
cases it forms u considerable part of the Superficial Pal- 
mar Arch of tlie Ulnar Artery : 

Small Brandies to the Ligaments, Bones, and other 
parts about the Wrist : 

One, or sometimes two Branches, termed Dorsal, to 
the back part of the Metacarpus and Fingers. 

At the under part of the Fore-arm, the Radial Artery 
turns back between the Tendons of the Extensors of the 
Thumb, aud the Bones of the Wrist ; — then, getting be- 
tween the roots of the Metacarpal Bones of the Thumb 
and Fore-linger, Tab. CXXX\ II. CLV1L aud perfo- 
rating the Abductor Indicia, it divides iuto three principal 
Branches, viz. 

The Arleria Magna Polikis, which runs along the 
side of the Thumb next the Fingers, and sometimes di- 
vides at the root of the former into two Branches, which 
supply both sides of it : 

The Radial/.*,- India's, which inns along the side of the 
Fore-linger next the Thumb ; 

The Palmar^ Profunda, which crosses the Hand be- 
tween the roots of the Metacarpal Bones and Flexors of 
the Fingers, and forms an Areas Profundus, from which 
Branches go off to the lnterossei and other deep parts of 
the Palm. 

The Flnahis, somewhat larger than the Radialis, is 
found at the anterior and inner part of the Fore-arm. It 
appears at first as the continuation of the Trunk of the 

At its upptr'part it sinks deep behind the Flexor Mus- 



Tlu I!, 






91s Radialis, which is reflected, between 
Longus and Tendon of the Biceps, 



■ Bad 



to the Muscles and parts of the Joi 
tomosts freely with the Profunda and Prof undo-mi nor of 
the Humeral Artery, at the outer part of the F.lbow. 
'In one Preparation in the collection of 1)r Monro .I, m . 
the Humeral Artery, about the middle of the Arm, sends 



„■ Itadia 
■ Homer; 



appc 



- tin 



of the 



Near the Wrist, it beconus more superficial, and runs 
let ween the Tendons of the Flexor Carpi I'lnaris and 
'lexer Digilorum Profundus, to the Hand. 

In this course, it watlx oil' many Branches to the 
Fore-arm, 



Part V.] 



WITH THOSE OF THE SUPERIOR EXTREM1TV. 



Fore-arm, among which the following arc the most con- 
siderable : 

The Beainens Utnaris, Tub. CXXXVII. No. 13. 
which runs deep among the Flexor Muscles, and soon di- 
vides into Branches, which ascend and supply the parts 
about the posterior and inn-r side of the Flbow and Cap- 
sule of the Joint. — In the Groove behind the Inner 
Condyle of the Os Humeri, it communicates by distinct 
Anastomoses with the Profunda Inferior, or with the Ra- 
mus Anastomoticus, scut down from the Humeral Artery ; 

The Intt-ros.se a Posterior, Tab. CXXXVUI. No. S. 
which comes oil" at the upper end of the Interosseous Li- 
gament, perforating th.it Substance immediately after 
coming oft' from the Trunk., and going to the back pail of 
the Fore-ami. 

From this place it sends upwards a Recurrent Branch, 
which communicates, upon the back, part of the Elbow, 
with the other Recurrent Arteries, and with the Branches 
sent down from the Humeral Aricry, and forms along with 
these a Plexus ol" Vessels upon the back part of the Joint. 

The Interossea is afterwards continued downwards, 
and is chiefly dispersed upou the Bellies of the Extensor 
Muscles of the Hand and Fingers, being commonly ex- 
hausted before it reaches the Wrist : 

The Interossea Anterior, Tab. CXXXVII. No. 22. 
which commonly conies off immediately below the former, 
but at other times in common with it. Now and then, 
both are from the Radial Artery ; and this is commonly 
the case where that Artery takes iis origin in the Upper 
Arm. Sometimes the Interossea; arise by a common 
Trunk from the Humeral Artery. 

The Anterior Interosseous Artery is considerably larger 
than the Posterior, but is only about half the size of the 
Ulnar Artery, from which it springs. 

It runs close upon the fore part of the Interosseous Li- 
gament, and furnishes IS ranches iu the Muscles and deep 
parts Upon the anterior side of the Fore-arm, and the Nu- 
trition^ Arteries of the Radius and Ulna. 

Near the Wrist, the principal part of the Artery perfo- 
rates the Ligament, and goes to the posterior side of the 
Carpus and back of the Hand, dividing into Branches 
which inosculate with others of the Posterior Interos- 
seous and Radial Arteries. The other part of the Artery 
is spent about the Ligaments on the tore-side of the 



with a number of Branches, which arc small when c 
pared with those in the Palm. 

The ArciHt Volarix Sub! mim, v. I S v w-.-ft ■>../•:,■, is placed 



ed bv 



■'/"< 



from the- 
Ulnar, the other from the Radial Artery. 

From the Arcu.s Volaiis, Branches arc sent off in tlw 
following order, viz. 

Several Smalt Blanches to the Integuments and other 
Snperlii -ial parts of the Palm : 

A considerable Branch, termed L'hwris Profunda ■•!' 
the Palm, which siuks near the root of the Metacarpal 
Bone of (he Little Finger, and, inosculating with the 
Palmar Branch of the. Radial Artery, a.;S),U in forming 
the Arcus Profundus: 

A Branch to the inner side of the Little Fiuger : 

'I Branches, which run opposite 



> the In 



> the ] 



of, or clefts between, the Fingers. 

At these clefts, each of the three Digital Arteries is 
divided into two Branches, one of which Branches o£ 
each Division runs along the Anterior iladjid .Margin of 
one Finger, aud the other along the Anterior Linar Mar- 
gin of the Finger next it ; — the tinee D.gital Arteries 
thus supplying the Margins ol" all the Fingers, excepting 
the inner' Margin of the Little Finger, and the outer 
Margin of the Lidex. 

At the roots of the Fingers, each of the Digital Arte- 
ries receives a small Branch from the Arc us Profundus. 

At the Joints, but more part icularly near the Points of 
the Fingers, the Arteries tomiuunkaU by cross Arches,. 
and send Branches to the parts adjacent, an intricate 
Plexus being at length formed a: the extremities of the. 
Fingers. 

The Superficial Arch of the Palm commonly sends off 
one of the Arteries of the Thumb, aud ultimately coni- 
rge Anastomosis with the root of I he 



t -W.i' 



Wi 



the Palmar Arches. 

The Ulnar Artery, having given off <ts Recurrent 
Branch, and the Aiteiice Intcmssea;, with many Lateral 
Branches to the inner side of the Fore-arm, passes by 
the Radial side of the Os Pisiforme, and then over the 
Annular Ligament, very seldom under ii, into the Palm, 
where it forms the Arcus f'olari.s Superficial is. 

At the uuder end of the Fore-arm, it sends off a Dor- 
sal Branch, which passes behind the Tendon of the 
Flexor Carpi Ulnaris to the back of the Haud, where, 
joining with Branches of the Anterior Interosseous and 



The Veins of the Superior Extremities have numerous 
Valves, and are divided into a Super fie nit and a J),,p 
Set i the former lying in urn diattly under the Integument?, 
the latter accompanying (lie Arteries, aud taking their 
names from them. Tab. CXL. 

The Subcutaneous A 1 in-, have innity targe Anastomoses 
with each other, particularly on the Fore-arm, where 
they unite, separate, and re-uniie several times, thus 
forming a PIcmis by which it is surrounded. They lorm 



alsot 



isiilei.ible Ana 



THE REMAINING BLOOD-VESSELS OF THE NECK, &c. 



mteitu bv (lie Ancients), go chiefly tot lie Superjukil I?u- ries, one lying c 

tiki/ and I '/nay Veins, and to lliu \ cin termed* Mediana receiving the Blood 

Jjmgfl. CXXXIX. CUX. 

The Superficial Radial Venffl go print :ip:illy to a Vein In various plates they anastomose wit! each other by 

termed C\-]i/ia/ka, Tab. CLIX. B, and the Superficial short Brunch. -, which enw over the Arteries. 
L'liiar Veins to one named Z?<w///<:«, Tab. CLIX. D, at the Near the Joint of the Elbow, the Deep Radial Ulnar, 

Joint ofthe Elbow, and Interosseous Veins, form a Plexus over the Bifmca- 

Thc Superficial Veins on the anterior part of the Fore- tion of the Humeral Artery, 
arm form a Plexus which communicates laterally with From this Plexus, a short but large Branch passes out- 

l particularly with the wards, and forms a communication with one of the Sub- 



Tab. CLIX. C. cutaneous Veins ; and, in general, the c 

Median Trunk, or a with one of the Median Veins. 
Mediana Longa Minor, is commonly formed, which ter- The Vena Axillaris, Tab. CXXXIX. No. 17. formed 

jninates in the Basilica. by the Trunks of the Superficial and Deep Humeral 

The Mediana Longa, vel Mediana Longa Ma. Veins, receives the Veins corresponding with the Cir- 

jor, arises by numerous Branches from the back of the cumjlex Arteries, and the Interim/, and the Inferior 

Hand and root of the Thumb, and communicates with Dorsal Veins of the Scapula. 
the Vena Salvatella. A little higher, it is joined by the Vena Thoracica 

It crosses over the Radius in a slanting direction, Externa, and about this place changes its name for that 

and a little below the bending of the Elbow, is divid- of Subclavian Vein. 

ed Into two short Veins, the Mediana Cephalica, Tab. The Vena Subclavia, Tab. CXXXIX. No. 19. Tab. 

CLIX. E, and Mediana Basilica, Tab. CLIX. F, CLIX. A, passes between the Subclavian Muscle and first 

which, running obliquely upwards, terminate a little above Bib, at the inner side of the Trunk of the Artery, and 

the Elbow, the former in the Cephalic, and the latter, afterwards goes over the fore part of the Scalenus Ante- 

crossing over the Humeral Artery, in the Basilic Vein. rior, at the under end of the Neck. 

Though this description corresponds with the genera! After crossing the first Rib, it receives the Vein cor- 

distribution of the Veins of the Fore-avm, yet so great responding with the Superior Dorsal Artery of the Sca- 

is the variety among tbem, that they are scarcely found pula, the Veins which belong to the Cervical Arteries, 

to agree exactly in any two Subjects. and also small Veins from the Skin and Muscles on the 

Frequently lite Cephalic is almost entirely formed by back part of the Neck, 
the Mediana Cephalica, or the Basilic by the Mediana While situated in the Neck, it likewise receives the 

Basilica. Sometime* the Mediana Longa Minor goes External, and then the Internal Jugular Veins ; and 

H,to the Median Basilic. Their arc often more than two near this last, a Vein of considerable size, which corre- 

shoit Median Veins ;— and sometimes, instead of a Me- sponds with the Trunk of the Vertebral Artery. 
diana Major and Minor, there is an irregular Plexus, but The Vertebral Vein communicates within the Cranium, 

coD.-tantiy a communication is found, of the Veins on the by small Branches, with the Inferior Petrosal Sinuses, 

Radial and Dinar sides of the anterior part of the Fore- or with the Occipital Sinuses ; but is chiefly formed by 

arm, and also a communication between the superficial Branches aii-inu, from llie Spinal Marrow and its Mem- 

and deep Trunks at the bending of the Elbow. branes, and from the Bones and deep-seated Muscles of 

The Basilica, in its ascent, forms the principal Hn- the Neck, 
meral Vein, which passes along the side of the Os Hn- Behind the top of the Sternum, the Subclavian Vem 

men, a little to the inside of the Humeral Artery ; and frequently receives the Inferior Laryngeal Vein, the An- 

receiviug Branches from the corresponding side of the tenor External Jugular, and tiie Internal Mammary 

,Arm, and communicating with ihc deep Veins, it runs Vein, which al other times go into the Superior Cava. 

into the Arm-pit; and forms the Vena Axillaris. —Besides these, the Left Subclavian receives also the 

The Cephalica ascends at the outside of the Biceps, Lcf! Sitjiermr Inferaintul Vein ; after which it goes 

receives Branches from the adjacent pails of the Arm, across the root of the Great Arteries sent up from the 

and communicates in several places with the Basilica; Arch of tin- Aorta, and, opposite to the Cartilage of the 

and, pacing in the Groove between the Pectoral is Major Kijilit. First Rib, joins iis fellow of the other side, to 

and the Deltoides, terminates iu the Axillary Vein. form the Cava Superior. 



Tab 136. 




( 33 ) 

TABLE CXXXVI. 

Represents the Arteries of the Shoulder. 



FIG. 1. 

The Holloa Part of the Richt Scapula laid bare. 

Bones and Muscles, 



C, The 









D, The under edge of the scapula. 

E T E, E, Muscular prints upon the hollow surface of the 

F, A section of the sub scapular is muscle. 

G, The deltoides. 

H, The tendon of the latissimus dorsi. 

I, The teres major. 

K, The long head of trie triceps extensor cubiti. 

L, L, L, The termination or the serratus magnus. 

M, The lymphatic glands, termed G/andnI<e Mares. 



, The subclavian artery. 
, The vertebral artery. 
, c, The external thoracic a 
, A branch to the deltoides. 
i The origin of the internal s 



1 I Ills flgtll'C. 



i rc u m flex artery of the hui 



/, The internal scapular artery. 
', A branch to the latissimus. 

;, Large brunches to the latissimus and serralus magnus. 

, I, A branch forming a circle with the dorsal artery q, 

and proceeding to ascend along the base of tin- scapula. 

h. The anastomotic branch. 



«, A branch which passes through the fissure at C, : 

with the superior scapul ir branches. 
t>, The trunk of the superior artery of the scapula ; 
w, Its supra-spinal branch. 

x, The anterior circumflex artery of the humerus. 
y, A branch to the deltoides. 
SB, glandule alares, 

FIG. 2. 

The Back of the same Scapula. 
Bones and Muscles. 

A, The spine of the scapula. 

B, The acromion. 

C, Part of the clavicle. 

D, The basis of the scapula. 

E, The inferior margin of the scapula. 

F, The seat of articulation with the os humeri. 

G, The fossa supra-spiuata. 
II, The dorsum scapulae. 

I, A section of the os humeri. 

K, The infra-spin at us muscle turned forwards. 

L, The teres minor al-o turned forwards. 

M, The long head of the triceps extensor cubiti. 

N, The teres major. 

O, The remains of the serratus magnus and rhomboii 

P, The trapezius. 

a. The inferior dorsal artery of the scapula, Fig. 1. o 

b, A branch to the teres major. 

C, Another branch from die trunk /, Fig. 1. 

d, A branch descending to the back of the scapula, Fig. 1 

e, Anastomosis wilh A: 
/, Brand. 0, Fig. 1. 
g, Au ascending braticli covered by the acromion. 

,-eeu the trunks of tin 

ider' the 



, Branches forming a i omininiicatirni between the snpe- j 


'/, Anasioiuosi- Ik I ncuii tin- trunks (if the 


rior and inferior dorsal arteries of the scapula. 


inferior dorsal arteries of the scapula, 


A deep blanch of i lie scapular artery. 




A branch to the teres major. 


'', A twig following I In: spine of I lie seapal^. 


Tin- posterior branch following the inferior margin of i 


!-, Another dorsal branch of the scapula. 


the scapula. i 


', An ascending anastomotic branch. 


A brunch to the anterior hollow part of the scapula, ; 


'/:, Branches to tin- subscapulars. 


also following i's inferior margin. i 


7, The superior dorsal artery of the scapula 


,*, s, Branches of the cavity of the scapula. i 


i, A branch ro the supra-a»inatus, anastomo 


The nutritious artcrs of tin- scapula. j 


», The exterior touch. 



( S4, ) 

TABLE CXXXVII. 

The Arteries of the Right Arm, seen Anteriorly; the first Order of Muscles being 
removed. 



Muscles and Bones. 

A, Fart of the clavicle. 

B, Tin- head of the os humeri. 

C, The groove of the biceps. 

1>, The tubercle of the radius into which the bic 

inserted, 
p., The radius laid bare. 
1", A portion of the serratus magnus. 
G, The subscapulars. 
H, The end of the pec t oralis minor. 
3, Part of the delloides. 

K, The long head of the triceps extensor cubiti. 
L, The short head of the same. 
M, The third head, termed Brackiuh's Externus. 
N, The insertion of the teres major. 

latissimus dorsi. 



, The posterior cervical 

, The superior dorsal artery of the scapula. 

, The dorsal branch. 

, The acromial branch. 

, The large branch to the subscapulars. 



, The 



rual :■ 



apulary artery. 



P, 



- pectoralis major. 

- deltoides. 

- coraco-brachialis. 



H, The brachials 

T, The origin of the supinator longus. 

l T , The common head of the flexors which go to the hand. 

V, The aponeurotic expansion separating the brachial is 

exteraus from the intcrnus. 
W, The head of the i-Mcnsores carpi radiates. 
X, The flexor longus pollicis. 
Y, The pronator teres. 

'/., quadratus. 

u. Part of the flexor profundus. 

6, The flexor carpi ulnaii*. 

<-, The supinator brevis. 

</, The tendon of the biceps. 

»■, The abductor indicis. Sec Fie. 2, 

/,«, The law, 

h, The abductor minimi digiti. 

t\ The flexor brevis minimi digiti. 

A, The adductor minimi digiti. 

Vessels. 
*", The trunk of the right subclavian artery. Sve Fig. 
in, The right carotid. 
m, The inferior thyroid artery. 



j The posterior crrcumtlex branch of the humerus. 

, Branches to the humerus and extensor brevis. 

j, The inferior dorsal artery of the scapula. 

, Branches to the serratus magnus. 

, The place where the trunk of the artery of the supe- 
rior extremity has its name changed from axillary to 
that of humeral. 

, The anterior circumflex artery of the humerus, giving 
oft" branches to the suhscapuliu-is, head of the os hu- 
meri, and yruovc of the biceps. 

. A branch anastomotic with the posterior circumflex 

'. The profunda humeri. 

!. A branch to the long head of the triceps. 

:, The profunda inferior to the triceps. 

i. The ramus descendens forming anastomoses in the bra- 



wheuce the arteria 



10. The recurrens radialis, arising above the divisic 
the trunk of the humeral artery. 

11. The division of the humeral trunk. 



s anastomotic us of the hu- 



t anastomotic artery. 

artery of the joint, 
the supinator brevis a 



1G. The antei 
I?. A branch 

18. Thenutri 

19. The an 
CWXYIII. Fig. 2. No. 11 

20. The uutritia radii. 






artery. See Tab. 



TAXL237. 




r 



TABLE CXXXVII. CONTINUED. 



tt. The artery t 
fourth finger. 

22. The ulnar artery. 

23. A branch to the back of the hand. 

24. The <ieep palmar artery. 

25. The ulnar branch of the little finger. 

26. 26. The corresponding parts of the ulnar artery. 

27. The superficial arch of the palm 



interosseous muscles of the 29. 30. The radial artery. 

31. The radial artery passing between the metacarpal 
bones of the thumb and fore-finger. 

32. The artery of the thumb j 

33. Its radial branch. 

34. A branch cut from the superficial branch which goes 
off from the radial artery at SI . 

35. The radial mdicis. 

36. The deep arch of the palm. 



( 36 ) 

TABLE CXXXVIII. 

A Back View of the Right Arm ;— the greater part of the Muscles of the First Stratum 
removed, to shew the Arteries. 



Bones and Muscles. t 

A, The inferior point of the scapula. 

B, C, A portion of the os humeri, near its head B, and 
under its head C. 

D, The posterior part of the under end of the os hu- 

E, The olecranon. 

F, The upper part of the ulna. 

G, The styliforin process of the ulna. 
H, Part of the radius. 

J, The serratus maguus muscle. 
K, The subscapulars. 



N, The teres minor. 

O, The teres major. 

P, The pectoralis. 

Q, The serratus minor. 

R, The coraco-brachialis. 

S, Tlic biceps. 

T, The brachials hit em us 

U,- 



V, Tlie long head of the triceps. 

W, The bead of the extensor on the fore-arm. 

X, The supinator longua. 

V, Y, The flexor carpi ulnaris. 

'Z, The supinator brevis. 

AA, AA, The extensor carpi ulnaris. 

BB, The extensor secundi internodii pollicis. 

CC, The extensores carpi radiales. 

DD, The ligameutom armillaie dorsalc, or posterior 



e , £, A twig to the scapula, serratus, teres major, and 
latifiHunus dorsi. 

g, g, The trunk of the scapular artery following the mar- 
gin of the scapula. 

A, The posterior circumQex artery of the humerus. 

AA, A branch to the serratu-, jx-i-1 or:t!is, and iatissimus. 

j\ The anterior circumflex artery to the head of the hu- 
rt-, The profunda humeri. 

/, A branch to the extensor longus. 

»«, A branch to the deltoides. 

w, 0, p, Branches to the extensor longus. 

j, ;•, s, . ■■ ,- , brachial is internus. 

/, A branch anastomotic with the posterior interosseous 

«, A branch to the brachialis externus, skin, and flexors 

of the cubit. 
i 1 , The posterior articular arch. 
te, A branch anastomotic with the posterior interosseous 

artery. 
i, Another posterior branch of the humerus. 
y, A branch anastomotic with v. 

with the recurrent branch of the ulna, 
urrent branch of the ulna. 
!■ of the itltrranon with the u 



■1, Tiii:' dorsal brant U. 



<', The scapular branch. 



10. A branch lo the tendons of the e 
diales. 

11. The anterior hit* vosn-tms artery, after it has p erf o- 



TAJB23& 




: 



( 37 ) 

TABLE CXXXIX. 

The Anterior Part of the Right Arm, with the Subcutaneous Blood-Vessels. 



Muscles, 

A, The oroo-byoideus. 

B, The trapezius. 

C, The deltoides. 

D, The latissimus dorsi. 

E, The teres major. 

F, The coraco-brachialis. 

G, The biceps ; 

H, Its round tendon. 

I, The aponeurosis of the biceps. 

K, K, The triceps extensor cubiti. — The upper K i 

placed upon the brachialis externus, and the under 1 

upon the long head of the triceps. 
E, M, The supinator longus. 
N, The pronator teres. 
O, The flexor radialis. 
P, P, The flexor subbmis. 
Q, The flexor ulnaris. 
R, Part of the extensor ulnaris. 

5, Part of the flexor profundus. 
T, T, The palmaris longus. 

U, The arniillary, or annular ligament of the carpus. 

o, The trunk of the right subclavian artery. 

6, The right carotid. 

c, The right subclavian. 

(/, The inferior thyroid artery. 

e, The deep cervical artery. 

/, The artery of the top of the shoulder. 

gi The first thoracic, 

k, The second thoracic artery. 

t, The internal scapular artery. 

ft, The anterior circumflex artery, 

/, The progress of the subclavian artery. 

wi, The seat of the artery liable to injury 

«, «s, The origin and progress of the ulnar artery. 

c, o, The radial artery. 

p, A large branch covered by the pronator teres. 

q, A twir o*' tli" volar brunch of the radial artery. 

abductoi and short flexors of the thumb. 
r, Tfaeradial, 
», The ulniii' artery. 



/, A deep branch from the ulnar artery. 
«, A branch from the ulnar to the little finger. 
v, The superficial arch of the palm. 
w y x, y, The three large digital arteries. 

1. The radial branch of the index. 

2. The inosculation of the ulnar with a superficial branch 
of the radial artery. 

3. The communication between the ends of the trunks of 
the radial and ulnar arteries. 

4. The radial artery emerging into the palm. 

5. The superficial radial vein, which, in this figure, cor- 
responds above with the mediaiia longa. 

C. The division of the mediana longa into, 

7- The mediana basilica, and, l:"i. the mediana cephalica. 

8. The superficial ulnar veins. 

9. The beginning of the basilic vein. 

10. The basilic vein it tenuis the median basilic. 

11. One of the vena; profunda:, which accompanies the 
humeral artery. 

12. The termination of that vein in the vena axillaris. 

13. The other vena profunda. 

14. The termination of that vein in the axillaris. 

15. The median cephalic, the figure being a little below 
the part where it forms ihc cephalic. 

1G. The cephalic vein passing between the large pectoral 
and the deltoid muscle. 

17. The termination of the cephalic in the axillary vein. 

18. The external jugular vein. 
1!>. The subclavian vein. 

ii(). The internal jugular vein. 
21. The vena cava. 



TABLE CXL. 

Represents the Blood -Vessels seen on the Fore Part of the Superior, Extremity 



A, The dcltoides. 

B, The pectoralis m^jnr. 

C, The coraco-brach talis. 

D, The biceps. 

E, '1 lie Triceps. 

F, The supinator lon: : n-. 

G, Tlie extensores carpi 
H, The pronator teres. 

I, The flexor carpi ladialis and palmai 






longUB, pulled 



K, The Uexor tUgitoram sublimit and the profundus, 

drftvm towards the ulna. 
_L, The flexor carpi ulnaris. 
\J, The pronator radii quad rat us. 
N, The lig-.i men turn carpi annulare. 



5, The superficial palmar arch, formed by the ulnar ar- 

r, The deep palmar branch of the ulnar artery anastomo. 

sing with the arcus profundus of the radial artery, be- 

hind the tendons of the flexors of the fingers. 
s, A branch to the inner side of the little finger. 
t, t, t, The three large digital branches of the ulnar ar- 

tery, sending branches to the fingers. 
u, A branch from the conjoined radial and ulnar arteries 

to the radial side of the fore-finger, 
i', A similar branch from these arteries to the thumb. 
v, Another branch to the thumb from the ulnar artery, 

FIG. 2. 

The Arm of an Adult, the Arteries and Veins inject. 
ed, and the Muscles dried. In t/ie Larger Veins, 
the Valves are seen. 



•i, The axillary ai tery. 

b, The scapularis inter, 

< , The di)i>,ilis m :ijiuU 

edge of tlit s,(.-;ijiLi!a. 



f,f, The trunk of the humeral : 
to the biceps and other muscle 

,7, The profunda or spiralis. 



A, The clavicle. 

B, The pectoralis major raised. 

Arteries ^» ^"' ,e sca P u l a covered with the subscapularls. 

D, The teres major. 

E, Part of the latissimus dorsi. 

F, The body of the os humeri. 
ig round the under G, The biceps flexor cubiti raised from the body of the 

H, The triceps. 

I, The supinator radii longus. 
, sending branches K, The flexor carpi radialisand tir\ro digitoruni subliinis, 
ie arm. raised and drawn a little towards die radius. 

L, The flexor carpi ulnaris. 

M. 'I'lir (■ :i!.-i;- <■!' i ■ . '■■-' 



/-, The division of the bui 
aim 



o the radial and 
branches to the 



Un. 



the i 






i the 



/, The radial artery, sending 
muscles next the radius. 

w, The recurrent branch of the radial artery. 

■n, The under end of the radial artery, after giving off 
the superficial volar branch, turning between the me- 
tacarpal bom ■ of ilie thumb and fore-linger, to form, 

a. The deep arch of the palm. 

f, The ulnar artery, pulled a little toward- the inner side 
"l scuds to the corre- 



pcctoralis major. 

b, The scapularis interna dispersed upon tiie subsca pila- 
ris, teres major, and latissimus doisi. 

C, Part of the dorsalis scnpu!;c inferior. 

(/, The humeral artery midim; hvaiulicj to the muscles. 

/;, 'I'lii < .iii".e of lhi-> artery towards the space between 

i'i ir 1 1.,( iup il liiiii ■, of the thumb and fore-linger. 
j. The Mipei !;. i:il i.ilar hraneli of the radial :irlcri . 



TABLE UXL. CONTIM'EU 





, A suptrlkij 


1 ulnar nunk 


, i'ljnuii.T 




, Tta 


: humeral hasilie vein. 




S: 


A si 


i|i<Y:K l:ll 


raiiial liunk 


running 


1! 


1 *j 'V, . 

The 


iiwlhm. 
metliam 


I longa. 
.ee^lica,! 


brming, 




Tin 


■ , enlu.li, 




3. 


The 


■ miha.u 






4. 
5 


4. The vena: 


comita. of I 


.■=,i;-i 



, The deep palmar arch of the radial, sending branches 
to the deep parts of the palm. 

tt, The ulnar artery. 

r, The superficial palmar arch of this artery anastomo- 
sing witli the volar branch of the radial artery. 

, A branch to tin: hurt side uf the deep arch, one to the 
inside of the hand, and one to the little linger. 

■,p,p* The tlufv large digital branches of the ulnar ar- 
tery, .sending branches to the lingers. 

', A branch from the superficial palmar arch to the ra- 
dia! side of the fore-finger. 6. A large vein 

, A similar branch from the ulnar artery to the thumb. deep radial vems, 

, Another branch to the thumb from the radial artery. phalica. 

, A plexus of superficial ulnar veins cimimiinioaiing with 7, A plexus of veins i 
the radial and ulnar superficial and deep veins. 8. 8. The deep iiumi 

r, A superficial vein arising from the thumb, and joining humeral artery, 
the mediana longa. 9. 9. Comuutnic.iiiom 

■, The small superficial median vein, or mediana interna, and the vena basilic 
communicating with the mediana longa, and with the 10. The axillary vein, 
ulnar and basilic veins, inferior scapulary v 



liToumliiig the humeral artery. 

between the deep humeral vi 
receiving the basilic, humeral, 



( « ) 



TABLE CXLI. 



The Arteries of the Fore Part of the Thorax and Abdomen of a Child.— The Skin of the 
Left Side, and that Part of the Obliquus Externus which covers the Ribs, are removed. — 
On the Right Side, the Clavicle and all the Muscles are removed, to obtain a View of the 
Pleura and Transversa Abdominis. 






LEFT SIDE. 
Bones and Muscles. 

A, The sternum. 

B, The clavicle. 

C, C, The ribs, from the fifth to (he twelfth inclusive. 

D, The deltoides. 

E, The pectoralis major. 



£, A branch to the mamma, from the branch of (he se- 
cond interval. 

/, The humeral artery. , 

vi, The nervus radialis. 

«, That part of the internal mammary artery which be- 
longs to the upper end of the rectus abdominis muscle. 

o,o y Branches which have perforated the linea'semilu- 

p y The crural artery. 

ij, A branch to the inguinal glands. 

r, The origin of the epigastric artery. 



G, The externa! intercostal muscles. 

71, Part of the scrratus magnus. 

I, I, The seat of the rectus abdominis, covered 

aponeurotic sheath. 
K, The oblitmus descendens. 
L, The posterior column of the abdominal ring. 
M, The spermatic cord. 
N, Part of the pec t oralis minor. 
O, The scalenus amicus. 
Q, The aspera arteria. 

Vessels. 

a, The left carotid artery. 

b, The subclavian artery. 
r, The vertebral artery. 

(/, The inferior thyroid artery, with the trunk to the 
<>;land, and the cervical arteries to the muscles, &c. of 
the neck. 

e, The interna],* ami nary artery. 

/, The internal jugular vein. 

g. The subclavian aittrv, :ificr it is freed from the scnle- 



BIGHT SIDE. 

Bones and Muscles. 



A, The scalenus antii i 

d The trapezius. 

D, The deltoides. 

E, The pectoralis mint 

F, The subscapulars. 



inferior part of the t 

if of the epigastric ve 
obliquus descciuleiis. 



Tab 141. 




TABLE CXLI. CONTINUED. 



■11 



i' and po9- 



1, The right subclavian. 

;, The vertebral artery. 

f, The inferior thyroid artery, with i 
terior cervical arteries. 

f, The subclavian emerging beyoud the scalenus. 

", The arteria acromial^, or thoiacica hunieraria. 

I", h) The thoracica superior, or prima, inosculating in 
different places with other thoracic arteries, with the 
iutercostals, and with the mamiuaria interna. 

, /, The thoracica longa, with numerous anastomoses be- 
tween it and the adjacent arteries. 

A little below ft, is seen the thoracic axillary artery 
descending to the axilla. 
■, The internal scapular artery. 

, «t, The trunk of the mammary artery descending be- 
hind the cartilages of the ribs, with the branches cut 



which it sends to the pectoral muscles, 

and others passing outwards to communi 

intercostal and external mammary artery. 
«, The parts where the mammary artery sends off the 

branch, termed Musculophrenic^ to the diaphragm. 

— The course of the branch is obscurely marked by 

dotted lines. 
o, The abdominal part of the mammary artery behind the 

upper part of the rectus abdominis muscle. 
p, The circumflex artery of the os ilium, arising from 

the end of the iliaca externa. 
(/, The origin of the epigastric artery from the external 

r, Branches to the transversus, rectus, and umbilicus, 
s, An anastomosis with the branches of the mammary 
artery. 



( 42 ) 



BLOOD-VESSELS WITHIN THE THORAX. 



Of the Blood-vessels within the Thorax, the Pulmo- 
nary Arteries and Verm, the Aorta, the Coronary Ves- 
sels, arid the other Vessels connected with the Heart, 
Iifive been already taken notice of. 

The following are those which remain to be described. 



id Cartilages of the 

; lutercostales Interni and 

the Sternum ; sending off, 

h to the Integuments and 

Muscles adjacent to the Clavicle : 

One or two small Brandies, termed Tiu,mka; to the 
Thymus Gland, and which, like the Gland itselF, are 
most considerable in the y 



True Kibs, and 

Sferno-coslaUs, at 

A Small lirfx 



■cd O, 



Phrt 



which accompanies the Phrenic Nerve, and, after giving 
Twigs to the neighbouring Membranes, is distributed 
upon the Diaphragm : 

Some small Branches, called Medt'astwtt, and Pericar- 
ih'nccF, to the Mediastinum and Pericardium : 

Several Branches, outwards, to the Intercostales, and 
others between the Cartilages of the True Bibs, at the 

edge of the Sternum, to the Pectoialcs, IUai a, and 

Integuments, which communicate willi those of the Tho- 
racic eb Esterns : 

A Large Branch, at the under end of the Thorax, 
termed Mitstulo-phtxiuia, which is dispersed upon the 
Diaphragm. 

The Mammary Artery afterwards emerges from the 
Thorax, commonly under the Cartilage of the Seventh 
True Rib, and forms an Epigastric Hnuivli, which runs 
upon the back part of the Rectus Vbdnmiuis, upon the 
upper end of whii.li it is di-.jici .-'. <l, after sending a Branch 
to the,Obliqui Abdominis 



the left Lung, the other to the right Lung, and also to> 
the Esophagus : 

The Bkonchiales Sinistra, Superior et Inferior, 
which are of unequal size, IVoni the fore part of the Aor- 
ta, at a little distance from each oilier ; the Inferior oc- 
casionally coming off from those of the Esophageals. 

The Bronchial Arteries stud small Branches to the E- 
sophagus, to the posterior Mediastinum and Pericardium, 
ami afterwards accompany the Branches of the Trachea 
through the Substance of the Lungs, being dispersed upon 
the Bronchi, upon the Coats of the Pulmonary Artery 
and Veins, aud upou the Cellular Substance and Mem- 
branes of the Lungs ; where they communicate also by 
minute Branches with the Pulmonary Artery: 

The Arteri£ Esophage^e, which are minute Branch. 
cs, arising from the different parts of the Aorta, or from 
the Bronchials, and dispersed upon the Esoplragus, also 
sending Twigs to the Posterior Mediastinuiu and Pcri- 

The Intercostalis Superior, Tab. CXLV./, which 
comes off from the Subclavian, a little farther out than 
the Mammary, and, after sending a Branch upwards to 
the deep Muscles and Nerves at the under and fore part 
of the Neck, descends near the Spine, and sends off two 
or three Branches, which supply an equal number of In- 
ii-irosta] Spaces; and oue or two Branches which go 
backwards to the Spine and Spinal Marrow, and to the 
Muscles of the Back and Neck : 

The Intercostales Iuferiores, Tab. CXLIII. 
CXLIV. CXLIX. which are nine or ten Pairs, the 
number varying with that of the Superior Inteicostals, 
arising from the back part of the Aorta, and running in 
the Grooves at the under edges of the Ribs, between the 



LllHLL 



which 

the descending Aor 

They cons" " 

The BronchiaLis Dextra, which arises sometimes 
from the Aorta, more frequently, however, from the up- 
permost Aortic Intercostal, and runs io llie cnm'sjiouding 

The Bronchialis Communis, which is only some- 
s present. It arises fiom ihe upper and fore part of 



Towards the fore part of the Thorax, each sends off 3 
Branch to the upper edge of the Rib below it. 

They furnish Branches to the Spine, to the Spinal 
Marrow, and its Membranes, to the Intercostales, Pleura, 
&c. ; also numerous Branches to the Muscles on the out- 
side of the Thorax, anil communicate with those of the 
Internal and External Mammary Arteries, 
buted to the Lungs. The first of the Aortic Intercostals inosculates with 
the Superior Intercostal of the Subclavian; — the last, 
eh arises sometimes passing behind the Cms of the Diaphragm, goes over the 
Quadratus Lumborttm, aud follows the Margin of the 
Twelfth Rib, to be distributed upou the Tendon of the 
Tranererssalia Abdominis : 

The Pehicardiaca, Superior ct Posterior, a small 



the descending Aorta, divides into two Branches ; ■ 



OE THE BLOOD- VESSELS "WITHIN THE THORAX. 



Subclavian or Internal Mammary, and sending Twigs to 
the Pericardium and adjoining parts of the Lungs aud E- 



Tiie Left Vena Aztgc 
BRONCHIAL, or Left Sopi 
besides the Superior Intercostal Brandies, receives the 
Left Bronchial Veins, and Branches iiom the I'sopliagus 
and other nails near it, and 






Hood sent to the Thorax by the Artc-rice M 
iternae, Bronchialcs, Esophageal, and luten 
rciumed in the. Heart by the following \ e 



.- the 



The Mammari.s Intern*, which accompan 
corresponding Arteries', and terminate, the Left in the 
Left Subclavian, and the ltight in the Bight Subclavian, 
or in the top of the Vena Cava. Tab. CXLII. y, m. 
Tab. LXXV. 

Some small Veins, as the Pericardiuco-tiittphnigmatic, 
the Thymic, and Pericardiac, which, in place of joining 
the Mammary Trunk, commouly terminate, the Bight in 
the Subclavian, or top of the Cava, and the Left in the 
corresponding Subclavian Vein: 

The Ven* Intercostales, which are the same in 
number with their Arteries, and accompany them along 
the edges of the Bibs. 

Several of the Lower Left Intercostals unite into a 
Trunk, termed Vena Azygos, which crosses over the 
Spine, about the middle of the Thorax,— behind, but 
sometimes before the Trunk of the Aorta, — to the right 
side. Tab. CXLIII.p, q, t. 

The Vena Azygos, vel Vena sine Pari, thus origi- 
nally formed by the Lower Left Intercostals, ascends on 
the fore part of the Spine over the Intercostal Arteries, 
at the right side of the Aorta. Tab. CLXXTX. 

At its lower extremity, it generally communicates with 
one of the Lumbar or Renal Veins, and not unfrcquently 
with the Trunk of the Inferior Cava. 

Upon the Spine, it receives the Right Intercostals and 
the Right Bronchial Vein; and turning forwards over 
the root of the Great Pulmonary Vessels of that side, it 
terminates in the Superior Cava, directly before that Vein 
perforates the Pericardium. 



addition of the Una A/ven-, pa *■■.-* d.-nn at the right 
side of the sending Anna, perforates the lV-ritvulium, 
and terminates in the upper part of the Bight Auricle ; 
receiving, therefore, the Blood htim (he Bead and Neck, 
from the Superior Extremities, from the Parietea of the 
Thorax, and from the Bronchial Arteries. 



Blood-Vessels of the Diaphragm. 

The Diaphragm is supplied with Arteries from various 
sources, viz. those entering its upper pan lioin the Inter- 
nal Mammary, alriady described ; also small Branches 
from the Intercostal and Lumbar Arteries. It-, principal 
Brandies, however, are the Phrenic, or Diaphragmatic, 
or Inferior Diaphragmatic. 

The Arteri* Diaphragmatic*, Tab. CXLIX. 
CLXXIX. are two in number, one on each side, which 
arise from the fore part of the Aorta as soon as it enters 
the Abdomen. 

In general, their origins are distinct from each other, 
but sometimes they arise from a common Trunk ; and 
now and then, one or both originate from the root of 
the Cceliaca, or even from the Benal or Lumbar Ar- 

They afterwards go obliquely upwards and outwards 
over the Crura of the Diaphragm, spread out into many 
Branches, which are chiefly dispersed upon its fleshy- 
sides, and inosculate with those which enter at its upper 
Surface. 

They likewise give small Branches to the Glanduke 
Renales, to the Cardia, and parts in general which lie 

The Vena; Diaphragmatic^, like their corresponding 
Arteries, run upon the under part of the Diaphragm, and 
terminate in the Inferior Cava behind the Liver, — th« 
right being commody a little lower than the left. 



( ** ) 



iw'X 



TABLE CXLII. 

The Blood-Vessels of the Anterior Part of the Thora 



A, The liver. 

B, The right part of the diaphragm. 

C, A portion of the abdominal muscles. 

D, I), The heart appearing through the pericardium. 

E, F, G, The three lobes of the right lung. 
H, H, The right lobe of the thymus. 

I, The left lobe of the thymus 

E, The left lamina of the mediastinum joined to the pe- 
ricardium. 
.L, The aspera. arteria. 
M, M, The thyroid gland. 
«, Part of the aorta. 
b, The common trunk of the right subclavian and right 



J, The exterior, or musculo-phreuic artery. 
I, The abdominal, or epigastric branch. 
vi y The right mammary vein. 

n, internal jugular vein. 

ji, Tlic superior thyroid vein. 

9, The termination of the right subclavian vein, 

r, The common trunk of the right subclavian and jugular 



lid. 



,/, . 



; r , A branch, companion of the diaphragmatic i: 
//, Small branches to the pericardium. 
/, The internal branch of the mammary artery, 
ph rcnico-peric ardiacu s . 



, The left inferior thyroid vc 

subclavian. 
, The left carotid artery. 

J, vertebral artery. 

', w, x, y, The left internal mammary artery and 
;, The left subclavian vein. 

!, bronchial vein. 

!. The trunk of the great subclavian vein. 



. The pulmonary veins of the right sic 
. The right nerve of the eighth pair-. 



,ting in the great 



Tab. us. 




Tab 143. 




( is ) 



TABLE CXLIII. 

The Posterior Surface of the Lungs.— The Aorta is turned towards the Left, to obtain a more 
distinct View of the Vena Azygos, and the Bronchial Vessels of the Right Side. 



A, The trachea. 

B, The right branch of the trachea. 

C, Da, E, The right lung ; C, the upper, Da, the middle, 
E, the under lobe. 

F, G, The left lung ; F, the upper, G, the under lobe. 

II, H, The esophagus. 

I, I, The pericardium covered posteriorly by the pleura. 

K, K, The mediastinum postenus. 

L, The arch of the aorta. 

M, M, The aorta descendens. 

N, The commou trunk of the right subclavian and ca- 
rotid. 

O, The right subclavian. 

P, — carotid. 

Q, The left carotid. 

K, ■ , — subclavian, 

if, The posterior and superior pericardiac artery, from the 
left subclavian to the esophagus and trachea. 

/', The pericardiac arterv from the riirht subclavian to 



f the a 



i and trachea. 



, The superior intercostal arising from the light bro; 

cliial, going to the second interval. 
, The bronchial arteries in their way to the lungs. 
, Oue of the left bronchial arteries. 
!', it, The intercostal arteries. 
, /:, The cceliac and mesenteric branches of the aorta 

the abdomen. 
, m, n, o, The esophageal arteries. 
, The left portion of the vena azygos. 
, The right portion. 

), The union of the two portions of the azygos. 
, The superior intercostal branch tram the second ai 

third interval. 
, The vena azygos, near its termination iu the vei 

', The vena cava. 

, A branch of the left bronchial vein from the coats 



The right bronchial artery. 



it, j, Branches from 

;/, Branches 1'rom the aspcra a 

a, Other branches from the esophagus. 

1 . A vein which receives branches fror 

tcrcostal spaces. 
c i. The left superior intercostal vein. 



( 46 ) 
TABLE CXLIV. 

The Aorta turned to the right, to obtain a more distinct View of the Vesstls of the Left Side. 



A, The arteria aspera. P, he right carotid. 

B, The left bronchus, above which is the branch of the Q, The left carotid, 
pulmonary artery. It, The Left subclavian. 

C, D, E, The three lobes of the right lung ; C, the up- At the upper part of the Root of the Right Lung, th« 
per, D, the middle, E, the under lobe. Right Bronchial Artery appears, immediately under 

F, G, The two lobes of the left lung. which is the Great Branch of the Vena Azygos. Tab. 

H, H, The esophagus. CIII. s. 

I, The pericardium covered posteriorly by the pleura. In the upper half of the opposite side of the Figure, 

K, The posterior mediastinum. three Left Bronchial Arteries appear, with a Bronchial 

L, The arch of the aorta. Vein going into the Azygos, and others passing into the 

M, M, The descending aorta. Trunk of the Left Superior Intercostal Vein. 
N, The common trunk of the right subclavian and ca- The Arterious Branches observed in the under half of 

rotid. the Figure, are the Arteria: Esophagese ; their correspond. 

O, The right subclavian. ing Veins are seen running to the Trunk of the Azygos. 



Tab. idd 




Tab. fm 




( « ) 
TABLE CXLV. 

A View of the Thyroid, Cervical, and Intercostal Vessels, 



A, The larynx, slightly shewn. 

B, B, The aspera arteria. 

C, C, The right part of the thyroid gland. 

D, Part of the esophagus. 

I"., The rectus anterior major capitis. 

F, The scalenus anticus. 

G, H, The scaleui laterales. 
I, I, The levator scapulas. 
K, The complexus. 

1», The splenitis capitis. 

M, The heart turned aside. 

N, The coronary artery. 

O, The vena cava. 

n, The trunk of the right carotid and subclavian. 

b, The right carotid. 

c, subclavian. 

t/, The vertebral artery. 

c, The internal mammary artery. 
J\ The superior intercostal artery. 

g, An inconstant branch from the subclavian artery, 

termed Superficial Cervical Artery. 
#, One of the external thoracics. 
£, The trunk, of the inferior thyroid. 
A", The posterior cervical artery. 
/, The posterior transverse cervical artery. 



, The anterior cervical artery. 
>, The thyrojd branch of the thyroid artery. 
', The thoracic branch. 
■, Anastomosis with the superior intercostal. 
, The left bronchial artery. 
, /, The aortic intercostal arteries. 

r, The uppermost of the interior intercostals, from which 
t bronchial goes oft". 



, The 






i The right carotid. 

i The cerebral frank,. 

, The external carotid. 

, The superior thyroid artery, 



,ith branches to the 



gland, and one to the skin of the chin, and muscles of 
the larynx. 
. I . The eighth pair of nerves. 



3. The cardiac nerve from the 
£. The rete esophageum from t 
5. The intercostal nerve. 
G. The middle cervical gangbot 
?. The cardiac branches. 



eighth paii-. 






( 48 ) 



BLOOD-VESSELS OF THE CIIYLOPOIETIC AND ASSISTANT CHYLOPOIETIC VISCERA. 

Arteries. Branches to the Pylorus and other parts about the small 
cud of the Stomach, and afterwards runs some way along 

The Arteries of these Viscera consist of the Cce/iac, its small Curvature, inosculating with the Superior Gas- 

and the Superior and Inferior Mesenteries ; all of which trie Artery. 

are Azygotu, or single -Arteries arising from the fore part Besides this principal Branch, there are a few smaller 

of the Aorta. °»es sent from the Gastrica Inferior to the Pylorus : 

The Duodenal is, which is dispersed upon the begin. 

uing and right portion of the Duodenum, along with other 

Arteria Cceliaca. Branches coming from the same source, but of inferior 

The Arteria C<eliaca> Tab. CLXXIX. arises from the Rami Panereatici, distributed to the right end of the 

Aorta, immediately after it emerges from between the Paucreas. 

Crura of the Diaphragm into the Abdomen, or nearly op- After furnishing the Branches already mentioned, the 

posite the Eleventh Dorsal Vertebra, and is situated at Inferior Gastric Artery passes under the Pylorus to the 

the upper edge of the Pain reas. great Curvature of the Stomach, along which it runs; 

The Trunk of the Cceliac Artery is remarkably being included, to near its large extremity, in the Layers 

short, being little more than half an inch in length, be- of the Anterior Portion of the Omentum, 

fore it divides into its Three Principal Branches, called, In this course it sends off — 

from their destination, Superior Gastric, Hepatic, and The Rami tlpipluk v, which are long and slender Bran. 

Splenic. Tab. CLXXIX. ches dispersed upon the Epiploon or Omentum : 

The Gastrica Superior, vcl Coronaria Ventri- The Rami Gastric i> whicli plunging suddenly into both 

ruu Superior, Tab. XCI. a, a, Tab. CXLVI. Tab. sides of the Stomach, communicate with the Pyloric and 

CCI. is the smallest of the Three. It goes upwards, and Superior Gastric Arteries. 

a little towards the left, to reach the right side of the The Hepatic Artery, having given out the Inferior 

upper orifice of the Stomach. -Gastric, and frequently the Pyloric Artery, soon divides 

Here it sends Branches to live Caidia, which encircle into two principal Branches, a right and left, of unequal 

it, and, ascending some way upon ihe Esophagus, commu- size, which run into the Porta; — the one, — under the 

nicate with the Arteria: Esophageal. Hepatic Duct, — to supply the great, — and the other the 

The Trunk of the Artery afterwards divides, npon small lobe of the Liver. 

the small Curvature of the Stomach, into principal From the Right Branch, before it plunges into the 

Branches, some of whicli run across the upper and under Liver, is sent oft" the Ji/tr :u Cystica, afterwards dividing 

Surfaces, and others obliquely towards the right side, sup- into two smaller Branches, termed Gemelta, which are 

plying a large portion of the Stomach, rmd sending Twigs dispersed upon the Gall-bladder. 

to the Omentum Minus, — while the Trunk is frequently frequently, besides the Hepatic Artery sent off from 

extended as far as the Pylorus, the Cadiac, there is another, coming sometimes from the 

The Arteria Hepatic a, Tab. XCIII. Fig. 2. T. Superior Gastric, at other times from the Superior Me- 

Tab. XCI. K, the largest of the three great Branches, is senteric Artery, or from the Aorta, to be sent into the 

concealed at its root by the Pane reus, tun] passes dbliqnely Liver. In such cases, the Trunk which gives origin to 

forwards, upwards, and In the right side, behind the Py- ihi-; additional Artery is greater than usual, and the He- 

lorus, — Before and a link; to the right side oi the I.hlw- patie I 'ranch which ibis Artery accompanies is propor- 

lus Spigexii,— till it arrive at the Cavity of the Liver, tionally smaller. Tab. CXLVI. Tab. CCI. 

called Porta. The Arteria Splenica, Tab. CXLVII. Q. Tab. 

Where it approaches the Porta, ir divides into the CXCIX. r, r, nearly equal in size to the Trunk of the 

Gastrica Inferior Dextra, aud the Proper Hepatic Ar- Hepatica, lakes a long and serpentine course across the 

tery. left side of the Body ; running first behind, then at the 

The Gastrica Dextra, Tab. XCII. Fig. 3. Tab. upper part of the Paucreas, in its way to the Spleen.— 

CXLVI. Tab. CCI. vel Gastrica Inferior Dextra, Its Bran, hes are— 

vel Gastro-Epiploica Dextra, sends out — The Rami Pancreatu i, which are few in number, and 

The Arteria Pi/lorica, which, however, is frequently small. They run from the Splenic Artery nearly at right 

produced immediately from the Hepatic Artery. It gives angles, and supply the greater part of the Pancreas : 



OF THE BLOOD-VESSELS, &c. 



The Gastrica Sinistra, vel Gastrica Inferior Smis, 
veV Castro- JLp-'i'/'irtt Sim\fra, which is considerably 
ferior in length and size to the Gastrica Dextra, comi 
i by Us Branches with the Gastrica Supt 



in number, but diminish in size, a* they approac 
Intestines. 

From the last of these Areolce, many Branches a 



: de- 



tached, which take a 

Inferior, while its Trunk runs a little- way towards the of the Intestines, and are afterwards rami lied through the 

right side, along the great Curvature ol die Stomach. Substance of the Gut, forming numberless Anastomoses 

It sends some Rmni Ptoiereti/iei, and Gastro.I-Jjt/ji/nici, with each oilier, and terminating at length upon the inner 

and Meso-colici Sinistri, to the Pancreas, to the left side of the Canal, bv Branches so minute as to require the 

portions of the Omentum and Mcso-colon ; while its assistance of Glasses to view them distinctly, 
nk frequently forms a common Arch with the Gastrica The Branch* s produced from the right c 



; or four considerable Branches, termed I 'am. 
Brevia, vel Arterice Breve/,; which run to the left part 
of the great Curvature of the Stomach, to be distributed 
upon the upper and under parts of its large extremity ; 






f the Left Inferior G; 
The Rami Splenid, which arc also 
veral in number, and of considerable 
the concave side of the 
out the whole of its sul 
the Branches of one part of the Spleen da 
cate freely with those of another. 



Mesentehica Super 



Dextra. " of the Trunk are situated between the Layers of the 

Mcso-colon, — their length being almost equal to the 
breadth of that Membrane. 

Near the Intestines, they communicate by large, and 
then by smaller Arches, — but the Arteries here are of 
mosing with those of the Su- greater magnitude ili.in llio-e which belong to the small 
Intestines ; their Arches are also larger, but they are less 
frequent, and nearer the Bowels ; of course, the last Ra- 
mifications sent oft" from these Arches are shorter than 
be distributed through- those belonging to the Small Intestines. 
t in such a manner that The principal Branches are the following: 

The Itio-Co/ica, which arises near the under part of 
the Trunk, supplies the end of the Ilium and beginning of 
the Colon, and communicates with the Branches sent 
from the extremity of the 'J'nml. of the Artery : 
A Short Trunk, which divides into — 
The Colica Dextra, for supplying the right side of the 
The Mesentehica Superior, vel Major, Tab. Colon, — its Branches coinnnmicatiug with those of the 
CXLVIII. b, arises from the Aorta, immediately below Ilio-Colica ; and — 

the Cccliac Artery, which it equals in size ; and running The Colica Media, vel Media Anastomotica, which 
under or behind the Pancreas, and then over the Duodc- proceeds to the great Arch of the Colon, 
nnui, it passes between the Layers of the Mesentery, to- Near the Colon, the Colica Media divides into two 
cards i In: under side of the Abdomen. large Branches, one forming au Arch with the Colica 

In its descent, it is bent forwards and a little to the Dextra, the other with a Branch of the Mesenterica 
left side, its lower extremity turning iou.li.I tin- begin, ling Inferior, 

of the Colon. From the opposite side of the Colon, Branches of this 

From the convex side of the Artery, many large Bran- Artery run to the Omentum, and communicate with the 
dies are sent oft" to the Small Intestines, while others Gastro- Epiploic Arteries. 

proceed from the right side to the right portion of the Besides the Colic Branches already described, there is 
Colon. frequently an additional one, which arises from the begin- 

the Trunk are very ning of the Superior .Mesenteric Artery, and in its ascent 
;as and to the left splits into two others ; one of which, uniting with the Co- 
uiicating there with lira Media, forms the large Me-n-colic Arch, and the other 
a similar Arch with the ascending Branch of the Inferior 
de Mesenteric Artery. 



off fro 



The Fuvt A 

inconsiderable, running to the Pane 
portion of the Duodenum, and coinn 
Branches of the Cceliac Artery. 
The principal Branches from the 



of the Trunk are di-per.ed upon Mm Jejunum and Ilium, 
supplying, in their course, the Layers of the Mesentery 
and the parts it contains. 

The first of these Branches are short and small ; those 
n'hich succeed gradually inerease in length and size to 
the middle of the Arch, after which they dimini-di again 
proportion towards the lower part 



!Me?ent 



of the Ilium, 

In their course through the M 

Blanche- communicate, first by 1 
by Areolc nr Meshes, of diJleren! 



The Mlsf.nterica Inferior, vel Minor, Tab. CC. 

, arises from the Anterior and left side of the Aorta, 
newhat lower than half-way betwer u the Superior Me- 
senteric and the Bifurcation of the Aorta, 
mtery, the principal It descends obliqucN behind the Peritonenm,_lipon the 

iprocal Arches, then left Psoas Muscle, and soon divides into principal Branches, 
■iirc.s, uhich incrca.se These near the Intestines join with eacli 0:her, and 
G fom 



OF TIIE BLOOD VESSELS OF THE 



form Arches, from which others go off, composing Areola- 
in some measure similar to those which belong lo the right 
■ i.k- of ilie Colon— The principal Branches arc, — 

The Ramus Asccndens^ which divides near the Intes- 
tine into two Branches; one of which joins (he Colica 
Media, to form the great Mcso-colic Arch, the other is 
reflected upou the left portion of the Colon : 

The Colica Sinistra, which is frequently double from 
i-.s origin, or at other times splitting into two Branches, 
,-,in- joining the Ramus A.,mi<lciis, the other .passing down 
bv the Sigmoid Flexure of the Colon : 

The Hemorrhoidal is Interna, which is of great size, 
being the Trunk continued. It anastomoses with the 
Colica Sinistra, and afterwards dc-cends upon the back 
part of the ltectutn to the under extremity of that In- 



The Veins which return the Blood from the Chvlopoie- 
tic and Assistant Chvlopoietic Viscera accompany their 
rc-pective Arteries ; the Hepatic Branch excepted. They 



i the other Veins of the Viscera situated in the 
great Cavities, are destitute of Valves. 
The following are the principal Trunks : 
The Mesenterica, vel Mesaraica Minor, vel HE- 
MORRHOIDALS INTERNA. 

The Mesenterica Minor, running up at the left side 
of the Spine, receives — ■ 

The Proper Vena HjEmorrhoidalis Interna, which 
returns the Blood from the Inlestimim Rectum : 

The Vents Coliccc Sinistra; which return the Blood 
from the left portion or side of the Colon : 

The Vena Duodenal is, which returns the Blood from 
the left portion of the Duodenum. 

The Mesenterica Minor commonly terminates in the 
Vena Splenica, though frequently in the Mesenterica 
Superior. 

The Vena Splenica, situated at the under side of its 
Artery, and immediate! v 1» hind the Pancreas, receives— 

The Bami Spknici, which return the Blood from the 
Spleen:- 

The Ilami Pancreatic/, which pass from the under 
side of the Pancreas:— 

The Vena? Breves, or Vasa Brevia, which come from 
the left or great end of the Stomach : — . 

The Vena Gastrica Sinistra, vel Epiploic/! Sinistra, 
which comes from part of the great Arch of the Si munch, 
and corresponding portion of the Omentum : — 

The Gastrica Superior, which comes from the small 
curvature of the Stomach, and Omentum Minus, and goes 
into the Splenic near its termination, or into the begin- 
ning of the Vena Porta. 



The Splenic and Inferior Mesenteric Veins, after re- 
ceiving their respective Branches, form a short Trunk 
which joins the Superior Mesenteric. 

The Vena Mesenterica Superior, vel Major. 
The Great Mesenteric Vein, situated at the underside 
of the Artery, receives— 

The Rami J\ft*< ntirii-i, which arc very large and nu- 
merous, returning the Blood from the Jejunum and Bium, 
— the Branches going lo the left side of the general Trunk : 

The Ilw-Calica, which comes from the end of the Ilium 
and beginning of t lie Colon : 

The Colica Dextra, which belongs to the right side of 
the Colon, and terminates in the right or concave side of 
the Mesenteric Trunk: 

The Colica Media Anastomica, which comes from 
the right portion of the great Arch of the Colon, form- 
ing, with the descending Branch of the Mesenteric,! 
Minor, a large Arch similar to that of the correspond- 
ing Artery, aod terminating also in the right side of the 
Trunk: 

The Gaatro-Epiplotca Dextra, which belongs to the 
right portions of tilt- Stomach and Omentum, and frequent- 
ly unites with the Veins from the side of the Colon, form- 
ing a short common Trunk, which has the term of Gas- 
tro-Colica applied to it : 

The Pylorica and Duadenalis, which sometimes termi- 
nate in the Superior Mesenteric, at other times in the 
Gastrica Dextra. 

The Great Mesenteric Vein, formed by the Branches 
mentioned above, passes over the beginning of the corre- 
sponding Artery, and joins the Vena Splenica. 

The Trunk formed by these Veins runs under the head 
of the Pancreas, and here obtains the name of Vena Par- 
tee, or Vena Porlarvm. 



The Vena Portjs, Tab. XCIII. Fig. 2. Z, formed 
by the two Mesenteries, and by the Splenic Vein, returns 
the Blood from the Stomach and Intestines, and from 
the Spleen, Pancreas, and Omenta. 

The under part of the Vena Porta; is termed by some 
Authors Vena PurLr Ahdnnniiali.-, vel lentralis ; while 
the upper part, — being of great size, but without having 
any particular dilatation in it, is called Sinus of the Vena 



the Vena Gastrica Dextra, the Gastrica Superior, the 
JMoiica, and the Duodcualis, which at other limes termi- 
nate in one of the great Trunks which form it. 

It passes upwards, inclining a little to the right in its 
course to the Liver, having the Trunks of the Biliary 
Ducts be fore, and tiie Hepatic Artery on the left side of 
it, — and is about three 01 lour im Ins in length. 

When it reaches the Porta of the Liver, it receives 
the 



CHYLOPOIETIC AND ASSISTANT CHYLOPOIETIC VISCERA, 



51 



the Vena; Cystica 
sion, either by twi 

In the Porta, it divides i 



its right divi- arise, termed Vena Hcpatha:, aud sometimes Vens Ca- 
thesc united va Hepatica, which accompany the Branches of the He- 
patic Artery and Vena Portarum. 

The Branches of the Vena; Hepatica afterwards unite 
large Trunks, which recede from the Hepatic Artery 



i great Branches, 
med Vena Porta Hepatic, 

which go off nearly at right angles, to be dispersed through aud Vena Porta, and 
the Substance of the Liver, after the manner of an Artery ; Their termination 

the subordinate Branches accompanying those of the Ar- ly by three Trunks, 

'aHepatica. Diaphragm ; but co 



From the extremities of the Vena Porta, and likew; 
from the extremities of the Hepatic Artery, a set of Veins behind the Liver 



t the Inferior Cava 

, the Cava is by two, and frequent- 
the place where it perforate; 



( 52 ) 

TABLE CXLVI. 

Gives a View of several of the Arteries of the Chylofoietic and Assistant Chylofoietic 
Viscera. 



A, B, C, D, E, The hollow surface of the liver, turned E, Part of the peritoneum covering the 



iibilical vein c, The right phrenic artery arising from the c celiac. 
<7, The left phrenic, from the superior gastric artery. 

E, A fossa at the root of the left lobe, which gives pas- e, The superior coronary artery. 
sage to the large hepatic vessels. f, The capsular artery. 

F, The vesicula fellis. g, The peculiar' splenic artery. 

G, The fossa umbilicalis. A, The splenic artery. 

II, The pons, almost constant, which covers part of this i\ Superior pyloric arteries. 

fossa. £, The proper pyloric artery. 

I, The umbilical vein. /, The arteria duodenalis. 

K, The fossa ductus venosi. tit, n, The right gastric artery. 

L, The left ligament or the liver. o, The right hepatic artery- 

M, N, The stomach taken out of its natural situation, f, 9, The cystic arteries. 

and removed from the liver, to obtain a view of part r. The left hepatic artery. 

of the pancreas. s, The hepatic duct. 

M, The part nest the esophagus. tf, The cystic duct. 

N, The pylorus, «, The ductus choledochus. 

O, The curvature of the duodenum, turned in such a v, Tlic middle colic artery. 

manner, that the posterior part of the descending and u; The mesenteric arteries. 

srse port inns Wnmir- the anterior. j, The right epiploic arteries. 
y, The vena port; 
, between the descending 



Tab M6. 




( « ) 

TABLE CXLVII. 

; of the Cceliac Artery, and of the Superior Mesenteric Artery and Vein 



A, B, The great lobe of the liver, turned to the right side. 
CC, The left lobe. 

D, The lobulus Spigelii. 

E, The vesicula fellia. 

F, The right kidney. 

GGG, The stomach, in such a direction that each ori- 
fice looks backwards, nearly as when quite full. 
H, The esophagus. 

I, Aportion of the omentum gastro-coliciim. 
K, The pylorus. 

Jj, The descending portion of the duodenum. 
M, The transverse portion of the duodenum. 
N, The left portion of the same, and beginning of the 

mesentery. 
O, The left kidney. 
P, The spleen in situ. 
Q, The anterior surface of the pancreas. 

II, The posterior surface of the pancreas turned forwards. 
c, The mesenteric artery passing under the pancreas and 

over the duodenum, 
ft, The middle colic artery. 
<-, c, The mesenteric branches of the vena port arum. 



f, The vena portarum, pulled a little to the right side. 

■, The trunk of the coeliac artery. 

\ The superior coronary. 

f, The hepatic branch of the cceliac artery, 

:, The gastrica dextra. 

, The proper hepatic artery. 

•, The right gastroepiploic artery, following the large 

curvature of the stomach. 
, Two inferior pyloric arteries. 
t, The duodenal artery, following the hollow part of the 






of the duodenum, 

Branches to the duodenum ;— a little 
anastomoses between these and the pyl 
also branches to the pancreas. 
The pancreatic artery extending a long way trans. 
versely to the left. 
A branch from the mesenteric inosculatingwith the same, 

The splenic artery. 



- branches. 



, The left gastro-epiploic artery. 
, Its anastomosis with the right. 
, v t The vasa brevia. 



C S4, ) 

TABLE CXLVIII. 

Mesenteric Blood- Vessels. 



A, B, C, The middle t 
that ■ 



Ion entire, and turned up, 
the liver, and, 



A, The seat correspondii 

B, To the stomach, and. 

C, To the spleen. 

D, The right part of the meso-colon. 

X, Part of the left meso-colon between the 
kidney. 

F, F, The very large left iliac winding of the 

G, That part of it which descends to the 



the right meso-colon. 
K, The intestiuum caecu 
Ii, The appendix vu-niii 



, The left coronary v 
, The middle colic vt 
, The right colic vet 
, The ileo-colic vein. 



O, The sinistral. 

P, The left iliac winding, or sigmoid flexure of the colon. 

Q, The left kidney. 

B, The last intervertebral car 

£?, The first part of the jejui 

the transverse meso-colon. 
T, The inferior transverse part of the duodenum. 
V, Part of the right kidney. 

r. The head of the pancreas. 
/', The superior mesenteric artery. 
*", c» <"♦ <"t The biaiahes of the superior mesenteric artery C. 6. Their associate i 
to the small intestines. 



The ileo-colic artery. 

The ramus czecalis, anastomotic with the 

artery. 

/, The secondary, or double arches of the colica deitra. 

g. The middle colic artery. 

A, The right colic artery forming an arch with k. 

i, A branch to the middle of the transverse meso-colon. 

/, The union of the ascending branch of the left colic ar- 
tery, with the middle cobc, or large mesenteric arch. 

TO, The left colic, or inferior mesenteric artery. 

7i, The ascending branch. 

o, Branches of the same to the left portion of the colon. 

p, The middle trunk of the left colic artery. 

5, The inferior trunk, or arteria haemorrhoidalis interna. 

»■, The ascending branch of the internal hsmorrhoidal, 
or left colic vein. 

s, The descending branch of this vein. 

t, The trunk of the internal haimon'hoidal, or left colio 



1. 1. The spermatic artery and \ 



Tab. us 




( 55 ) 



BLOOD-VESSELS OF THE ORGANS OF URINE AND GENERATION. 

Arteria Renalis, Tab. CXLIX. CLXXTX.— The Veins which return from the extremities of these 

The Arteria Renalis, called also Arteria Emulgem, Arteries pass into l Ik: Trunks adjacent. 

arises opposite to its fellow, from the side of the Aorta, Arteria Spermatica, Tab. LXXXVI. CLXXTX. 

a little below the root of the Superior Mesenteric Ar- — The Spermatic Artery, the diameter of which is small 

tery. when compared with its great length, arises opposite to 

It runs across the Spine and Psoas Muscle, nearly in iis fellow, from the fore part of the Aorta, a little below 

a transverse direction, descending, however, a little in the lienal Arteries. 

its course towards the Kidney. The Artery of the right Sometimes it arises from the Arteria Renalis, at other 

side goes behind the Vena Cava, and is longer than the times a little higher from the Aoita, and iu rarer iustan- 

left, in consequence of ihc Cava being situated between ces, from the Diaphragmatic Artery, 

the Aorta aud the Right Kidney. It descends, in a waving direction, on the Surface of 

At the concave edge of the Kidney, the Artery divides the Psoas, behind the Peritoneum ; the right passing ob- 

into three or four Branches, varying in length in dif- liquefy over the Cava, the left behind the Colic Arteries 

ferent Subjects, which sometimes send Twigs to the of the same side, and both bi_ Toil- ilit Ureters, to the un- 

Glandola Renalis and Tunica Adiposa of the Kidney. der part of the Abdomen. 

The Renal Branches then plunge into the Substance After this it perforates the Ring- of the Obliquus Ex- 
of the Kidney, surround its Pelvis, and afterwards ramify ternus, and runs in the Spermatic Cord, where it divide. 
chiefly in its Cortical Substance; forming Arches with into Branches, which are dispersed, some upon the Epi- 
each other, but few in number", at the roots of the Pa- didymis, while others, larger ami nun!i convoluted, run 
pilhe. across the Surface of the Testicle, plunge into its Sub- 
Frequently, instead of one Renal Artery, there are stance, and are distributed upon the Seminal Ducts, 
two from the Aorta to each Kidney, or sometimes the In the descent of the Arlcn, it imparts Twigs — 
other, is single in one side of the Body, and double in To the Tunica Adiposa of the Kidney ; 
the Artery and in rarer instances three or morehave been To the Peritoneum and Cellular Substance near it ; 

The Vena Renalis, or Emulgens, Tab. CLXXIX. To the Ureters, — which are also supplied with other 



inferior Cava, and is more superficial Arteries from the adjacent Vessels, viz. from the Renal 

than its corresponding Artery. It is the largest Vein and Capsular Arteries, from the Aorta, Jliacie, and Ve- 

received by the Cava from its origin to the part where sicales. 
it reaches the Liver. The Vena Spermatica, Tab. CLXXTX. is much 

The Left Renal Vein is longer than the Right, in con- larger than its corresponding Artery, and is furnished 

sequence of the Aorta lying between the left Kidney and with Valves within, but more particularly without the 

the Cava, and is situated first behind, but is afterwards Abdomen, 
anterior to the corresponding Artery. It forms a Plexus which accompanies the Artery ; and 

The Right Vein is short, it covers the Artery, and about the place where it recedes from it, which is nearly 

passes directly into the Cava. opposite to the under end nf the Kidney, it forms a siugie 

Ar.TER.IjE Capsulares. — The Arteriae Capsulares, or Trunk, which in the right side guvs imu the Cava a little 

Arteries of the He mil Capmihti or Clauds, are small but below theEnmlgent Vein, aud in the left into the corre- 

numerous. sponding Vena Renalis. 

They are derived from the Renal and Diaphragmatic Besides the Artery commonly called Spermatic, the 

Arteries ; and, in general, the Renal Gland, especially Testicle generally receives a smaller Branch from the 

the Left, receives additional Branches from the Trunk Hypogastric, ami frequently also a minute Branch from 

of the Aorta. the Epigastric, which accompany the Vas Deferens to 

The Venje Capsulares commonly unite into a large the body of the Testicle, upon which they are dispersed, 

Trunk, which, in the left side, terminates in the Vein communicating there with the Branches of the Spermatic 

of the Kidney, while in the neht it frequently goes into Artery, 
the Cava. The Veins proper to th.se Arteries terminate iu the 

Arteria Adipose. — The Arteries which supply the Hypogastric and Epigastric A eins. 
Tunica Adiposa of the Kidney are numerous Twigs pro- The Spermatic Artery, in the Female 

«eeding from the Diaphragmatic, Capsular, and Renal kind of Origin, and the same course tin 

Arteries, or from others near it. men* as in the Male, but is frequently 



56 BLOOD-VESSELS OF THE ORGANS OF URINE AND GENERATION. [Part V. 

especially during Pregnancy, where it also increases in adjacent Branches, particularly the middle Hemorrhoidal, 

size in proportion to The size of the Uterus. In place of It is extensively distributed upon the \agina, communi. 

perforating the Abdominal Ring, as it does hi the Male, eating with the Uterine Branches at the Cervix of the 

ft descends into the Pelvis, between the Lamina of the Uterus. 

Li"amentum Latum, to be dispersed first upon the Ova- Besides this, there are other smaller \ aginal Branches 

lium and Uterine Tube, and then upon the Fundus of the from the neighbouring Arteries, as the Vesicates, Uteri- 

Uterus itself,— passiug in at its corner, and cominunicat- no, and Pudica, which communicate with each other, 

ing with the Artery of the opposite side. and with the proper Vaginalis, upon the Substance of the 

The Spermatic Vein has the same termination in the Vagina ■ 



Female as in the Male,— but is considerably larger. Arteiua Pudica, vel Pudenda Communis, Tab. 

Arterle Iliace, Tab. CL. «.— The Iliac Arteries CL. I. Tab. CLII. d — The Artena Pudica, named from 



„. of the two common Macs, which are formed by its belonging to the Parts of Generation in both Sexes, 

the division of the Aorta ; and of the External and In- comes off either immediately from the Trunk of the Hy. 

tenia/ ltiacs of each side, which are formed by the Bi- pogastric, or from the Arteria Ischiatica. 
furcation of the. Iliacx Communes. It passes out of the Pelvis, through the under part of 

The External Iliac passes out of the Abdomen behind the Notch of the Os Ilium, at the lower edge of the Py. 

the Ligament of Poupaht ; the Internal, termed also riformis. 

Arteria \ Hypogastrics, d< scenda obliquely into the Pelvis. It then turns between the Sacro-sciatic Ligaments, to 

At the side of the Pelvis, the Internal divides into get to the inner side of the Tuber Ischii, where it is 

many Branches, some of which belong to the Organs of lodged so deep hi the Cellular .Substance, as to be iu some 

Urine and Generation, the rest to other parts of the Pel- measure again iu the Cavity of the Pelvis, 
vis and adjacent parts of the Thigh. From the Tuber, it proceeds along the inner side of 

The following are the Branches sent from the Hypo- the Crus of the Os Ischium and of the Os Pubis, and 

gastric Artery to the Organs of Urine and Generation. belund the Transversus Perinei and Crus Penis, till it 

Arteria Umbilicalis, Tab. CL — The Arteria Urn- approaches the Symphysis Pubis. 
bilicalis appears in the Faitus, as the continued Trunk of In its course, it sends off many Branches, of which the 

the Internal Eiac ; but in the Adult, is shrivelled into a followiug are the principal, viz. 

Ligament, excepting at its beginning or under part. Branches to the Vesiculae Seminales, Prostate Gland, 

The beginning of the Umbilical Artery gives off — Neck of the Bladder, and Rectum: 
One or more Arteria- J'esica/es, which run to the un- Branches to the Muscles and parts adjacent to (he Sa- 

dcr part of the Bladder, and extend along its sides as far cro-sciatic Ligaments ; some of them extending as far as 

as the Fundus Vesica:. At their Origin, they furnish the Joint of the Thigh-bone : 

Twigs to the Vcsicul* Seminales, Prostate Gland, and Branches to the Muscles, Membranes, and Fat about 

lutestinum Rectum. the Tuber of the Os Ischium. 

In the Female, the Umbilical Artery sends minute The Art rn'a Hamorr/ioidatis Externa, which soon di- 

Branches to the Bladder, Uterus, Vagina, and Rectum. vides into Branches, to supply the Muscles and Integu- 

Arteria Utehina, Tab. CLI. x. — The Arteria U- inents about the verge of the Anus : 
teriua, termed nbo I'ternm //v.'.j.ci'rjiw, i- much larger The Arteria I'eriiui, which passes under the Trans- 

ihan the Spermatic Artery ; •flml, like that Artery, hi- versalis Perinei, in the space between the Crus Penis 

creases iu si/.e in the Btate of Pregnancy, and Bulb of the Urethra, and gives Branches to the 

It arises from the Hypogastric, near the origin of the Skin, Muscles, and Fat at the fore part of the Anus and 

Pudic, Hamiorrhuidal, or Umbilical Arteries, and runs root of the Penis, and to the Scrotum ; while the Artery 

iuto the Uterus at its under extremity. itself terminates on the under part of the Penis. 

It is afterwards rclk-ried upwards along the edge of One of these Branches, termed Transversa Perinei, 

the Uterus, towards its Fundus or upper part, where it is necessarily divided, along with the Muscle of that 

meets with the Spermatic Artery, with which it forms name, in the lateral opcratiou of Lithotomy, 
frequent Anastomoses. It runs under the outer Coat of After dispersing the Branches already r, 

the Uterus, and sends out many serpentine Branches Pudic Artery divides, at the r 

which plunge into its Substance ; forming numerous com- principal Branches, viz. 
miiiiic-LitioiiB with the Artery of the opposite side. The First Branch, which is the smallest of the three. 

The Uterine Artery sends Branches downwards to be It passes into the Bulb of the Urethra, and is continued 

distributed extensively upon the Substance of the Vagina, forward in the Corpus Spongiosum Urethra, into the 

a principal Branch of which is termed f'aginuli*, and Cells of which many of its Branches open : 
others forwards to be dispersed upon the Bladder : The Second Branch, termed Profunda Penh, vel Ai- 

_ ARTERtA Vaginalis, Tab. CLI. — The Arteria Va- tcria Cavernosa, which goes into the Crus Penis of the 

ginalis is commonly from the Uterine, at other limes it is corresponding side, and directs ils course in the axis of 

from the Trunk of the Hypogastric, or from some of the the Corpus Cavcruosinn, ihiongh which it passes, in near- 



Part V.] BLOOD-VESSELS OF THE ORGANS OF URINE AND GENERATION. 

ly a straight line, to the other extremity of that Body ; 
its Branches communicating with the Artery of the op- 
posite side, and by innumerable Brandies with the Cells 
of the Penis : 

The Third Branch, called DorsaHa Penis, which turns 
between the Wyinjdiysis Pubis and root of the Penis, and 
proceeds aloii" 1 (lie Dorsum as far as [lie Glaus, adhering 
closely to the Ligamentous Substance which incloses the 
Corpora Cavernosa, and sending Branches to it and to 
the Integuments. 

In some very rare cases, the Pudic Artery, instead of 
passing between the Sacro-ischiatic Ligaments, has been 
seen running first by the under part and side of the Bladder, 
and then over the lateral portion of the Prostate Gland, 
to its place of destination. 

In the Female, the Pudic Artery has the same general 
course as in the Male. 

After reaching the inner side of the Tuber of the Os 
Ischium, it is cm ended forwards, and sends Branches to 
the Anus, Perineum, end of the Vagina, and Labia Ex- 
terna, and terminates in the Clitoris somewhat in a simi- 
lar maimer as in the Penis. The Branch, which, in the 
Male, goes to the Bulb of the Urethra, in the Female, 
passes to the outer end of the Vagina. 

The Blood is returned from the Branches of the Hy- 



The Vena Vesicalis, which returns the Blood from 
the Bladder : 

The Vena Uterina Hyfogastrica, which comes 
from the Uterus : 

The Vena Magna Ipsius Penis, which runs along 
the middle of the Dorsum, and is often double to near 
the root of the Penis ; after which it passes between this 
and the Arch of the Pubis, forming a complicated Plexus 
which surrounds the Neck of the Bladder and Prostutt; 
Gland, and sending out Branches which terminate in 
others at the sides of the Bladder. Like other Veins 
subject to pressure, the Vena Penis is provided with 



Valv< 

The Vena Pudica, which communicates anteriorly 
with the Branches of the Vena Magna at the root of the 
Penis, and afterwards passes back with the correspond! m-. 

The Vena Tegmentobum Penis, which is formed 
by sniull Subcutaneous Branch" s, ami cud.- in the top of 
the Femoral Vein. 

The Veins above mentioned, the last excepted, termi- 
nate in the Hypogastric. i, :dong wish other Veins he- 
longing to the Pelvis, to be afterwards described. 



) 



TABLE CXLIX. 

The Diaphragmatic and Renal Blood- Vessels, 



A, A, The kidneys. 

B, E, The capsula; renales. 

C, C, The appendages of the diaphragm. 

I), D, D, The tendinous centre of the diaphragm. 
1-, V., The fleshy parts of the septum arising iiom i 



M, Tlic apex of the bladder. 

N, The urachus. 

O, O, The umbilical arteries. 

P, P, P, The remains of the fat of the kidney. 

a, The aorta. 

/', The phrenic art try, arising from a single root 

subject. 
c, c, Branches to the diaphragm. 
*/, rf, Capsular branches. 



/,/. 



Tlie appeudical branch of the right branch of the 

phrenic artery, anastomotic with the left. 

A branch to the esophagus. 

The c celiac artery. 

The superior mesenteric artery. 

r', Appeudical branches from the aorta. 

k, 7c, Capsular branches from the aorta. 
/, The right and left renal arteries. 
, The righl anterior capsular artery from the renal artery. 
, o, o, The spermatic arteries. 
, The inferior mesenteric artery. 
i </, The common iliac arteries. 

r, The external, 
The internal ilia 



, The li 



m.-di.i 



ii', The right adipose artery from the renal. 
y,y, Spermatic vessels terminating in the renal vi 
z, z, The renal veins of the right side. 

1. The right capsular terminating in the cava. 
/, The left capsular ending in the renal vein. 

2. The vena cava where it goes under the liver. 



TAB.1J.9. 




Tab. 150. 




( S9 ) 
TABLE CL. 

Arteries of the Pelvis of a Boy of Twelve Years of Ag 



, The fourth lumbar vertebra. 
, The intervertebral substance. 

, The jliacus internus. 
, D, The ossa pubis. 



[, The prostate gland. 

. The v;is deferens. 

'., The vesicuJa seininalis, very small. 

,, L, The intestinum rectum. 

[, M, The levator ani. 

, Tin- inusculus pyiamidalia. 

. The 



of the a 



\ The interna] iliac artery. 

, The ileo-lumbar artery. 

, The arteria gluten. 

, The pudica communis. 

, The ischiatica. 

, The obturator artery. 

'*, A branch from the pudica 

riit I r-ica/t'.s I hi 11. 
», The hsemorrhoiilali'i media 
, 0, The umbilical artery. 



( 60 ) 

TABLE CLI. 

Arteries of the Female Pelvis. 



A, A, The last lumbar vertebra, 

B, The cartilage between it and the os sacrum. 

C, The left os ilium. 

1), The muse ul us iliacus interims. 

E, The psoas muscle. 

F, F, The symphysis of the ossa pubis. 

G, H, A section of the right os pubis and os ilium. 
I, The ureter. 

K, The vesica urinaria. 

X, L, Part of the peritoneum which goes from the blad- 
der to the uterus. 
M, M, The vagina. 
N, The uterus. 
O, P, Its left tube, with part of the ligament um latum. 



cecliiii; ii 



what diUViTiit dii-ection. 
n of the aorta. 
b, b. The common iliac arteries, 
t, Tin* last lumbar artery. 
t/, The middle sacral artery. 



■', The femoral artery. 
(;, The hypogastric artery. 
', A trunk common to, 
>n, The ileo-lumbaris, and, 
'i. The obturatoria. 

), The continuation of the obturatoria through the fora- 
men thyroideum. 

0, The superficial branch of the obturatoria to the os pubis. 
j, The ascending branch of the ileo-lumbar artery, anas- 
tomotic with the last lumbal' artery. 

r, The arteria glutea. 

t, The ischiatic artery. 

?, The pudenda communis. 

?/, A branch to the rectum. 

i', The umbilical artery. 

w, The vesical artery, partly hid in the umbilical artery, 

unvv changed into ligament. 
r, The arteria uterina. 
/, A branch to the bladder of urine. 
e, The serpentine uterine branches. 

1. Another vesical artery from (he artery of the clitoris, 
i. The middle hemorrhoidal artery. 

. A branch going out of the pelvis. 



h, The trunk, of the 



C, 6. Arteries of the clitoris. 



r\7'Lfij.v 




T.1BJJZ 




( 61 ) 

TABLE CLII. 

View of the Pudic and Sacral Arteries, 



A, The os sacrum. 

B, Fart of the os coccygis. 

C, The tuber ischii ; 

D, The musculus triceps arising from it. 

E, The erector penis. 

F, The transversa perinei. 

G, The accelerator wins. 
H, The sphincter ani. 

I, K, The levator ani. 
L, The obturator internus. 

a, The posterior iliac artery. 

b, The sciatica. 

c, The coccygea. 

d, The pudenda communis. 

e, A large adipose branch. 

ft g. Others to the levator and fat. 
A, /(, Branches to the obturator internus. 
?', The division of the artery into the superficial and deep 
branches, the former termed A- Perinei, the latter A- 
Penis. 
*, The arteria perinei. 



, A branch to the 
Branches 






of the artery of the penis 



A, The fifth lumbar vertebra. 

B, C, The vertebra of the os sacrum. 

D, D, The ossa ilia. 

E, E, The acetabula. 

E, F, A section of the os pubis. 

G, G, Part of the os ischium. 

is, The aorta. 

A, The sacra media. 

r, c, The common iliac arteries. 

d, d, The external iliacs. 

<", f, The hypogastrics. 

f, The ileo-lumbalis. 

g 7 The right lateral sacral artery, — single. 

//, The ischiatic artery. 

i, The trunk of the iliaca going out of the pelvi 

A', The continuation of the ischiatica. 

/, The hemorrhoid ea externa, vel pudenda comn 



( 



) 



TABLE CLIII. 

Autekess of the Posterior Part of the Female Pelvis. 



A, The posterior part of the os sacrui 

B, The os coccygis. 

C, C, The sphincter aui. 

D, The levator aui. 

E, The 1 ill amen turn tuherosn-sacrum. 

F, ■ spinoso-sacrum. 

G, The labium pudendi. 
H, Tlie musculus clitoridis. 

I, The musculus transversalis perinei. 

L, The tuber ischii. 

M, The os iliiuii laid bare. 

N, The trochanter major. 

O, Part of the triceps magaus. 

P, The quadratus. 

Q, The obturator interims, with the g 

R, The pyramidalis. 

S, The gluteus medius. 

n, The gluteal artery. 

/>, Siijicrlicial branches. 

r, The deep trunk. 



[/, The deep branches. 

», The ischiatic artery. 

f,f,f,f> Branches to the gluteus maximuB. 

X, Branches to the piriformis. 

&, Deep communicating branches to the pyriformis and 



lis, to rae tuber ischii. 

, Another eommimicating with the internal circumflex 



, The arteria pudica. 

, Branches to the levator ant and coccygeus. 
, Ha-morrhoidea: vera: to the skin and fat of the 
, Tlic superficial artery of the penueiun. 
, The arteria labialis pudendi, 
coccygea. 



TABJ33. 




7 'AH. 154 




( 63 ) 

TABLE CUV. 

Represents the Arteries of the Fore and Inner Part of the Thigh. 



FIG. 1. 

A View of the Arteries of the Fore and Liner Part of 
the Left Thigh. 



iclirs 



I lit: l 






mcdm 



A, Part of the os pubis. 

E, The superior anterior spine c 

C, The patella. 





Muscles. 


D, The sartori 

E, The tensor 

F, The coram 


vaginse femoris. 

on end of the iliacus 


raagmis. 
G, The rectus 
H, The vastus 


femoris. 


K, The pectin 
t, The tricep 
M, Part of tl 
N, N, The tri 
0, Tile gracil: 
P, The semi-i 
Q, Q, Q, The 


i trncp mediu9, vel b] 
ceps magnus. 

nembranosus. 
inguinal glands. 



the gracilis ;ui<i suiii-nu'mbranosus. 
A branch of the profunda to the triceps magnus nnrl 

A', /, Large pciforatiitg brruu lie* of the profunda. 

»/, Tlie brand] nl'ilu- ii/iiiuralis to the triceps anterior. 

71, Tlie trunk of the femoral artery. 

o, The superior branch of the patella, emerging from the 

p. The inferior branch of the patella and epiphysis of (he 

os femoris. 
y, Tlie inferior articular branch of the tibia. 



A, The aiittriiir Mipc 
E, The head of the c 
C, The os pubis. 



The trunk of the femoral artery. 

A superficial branch to the sartoriu<-, 
□al glands. 

The |in>iundn femoris. 
The circumflexa externa. 
Branches to the vastus externus and i 
The circumflexa interna. 
Tlie superior external arteria pudend 
labia pudendi. 



skin, and ingui- H, The c 



, Tin' iliaco-paoas. 

!, A section of the peetineus. 

,, The remains of the triceps priniu-. 

[, The obturator interims. 

i, The inferior origin of the triceps i 

>, The end of the triceps primus. 

', The semi-nieiiibrajujsus. 



TABLE CUV. CONTINUED. 



Vessels. 

, The femoral artery. 
, The epigastric artery. 

, The cutaneous branch of the femoral artery. 
', A branch to the iliacus. 
, A branch to the sartorius and inguinal glands, 
i The division of the femoral artery. 
, £■, The crural trunk. 
p , The external circumflex artery. 
, f, £, Large branches to the rectus, sartorius, i 
tern us, and skin. 



/, The arteria profunda. 

m, The branch of the internal circumflex artery to the 

psoas and acetabulum, forming an arch with r, 
«, The internal circumflex artery. 
o, A branch into the joint. 

Pi The arch of the circumflex artery with the obturatoria 
q. The obturatoria. 

r, The superficial branch of the obturatoria. 
5, A branch to the capsule of the joint. 
f, A branch to the obturator tntemue. 
w, Another branch to the same, and into the pelvis. i 




7slB.]55 



( es ) 
TABLE CLV. 

The Posterior Part of the Right Thigh, with a Portion of the Os Ilium and Pubis. — The two 
Glutei Muscles, Major et Medius, have been removed from the Os Ilium : — The Skin 
and Fat only from the Thigh. 



A, Part of the os sacrum. 

B, The ligament um tuberoso-sacrum. 

C, A part of the dorsum ilii. 

D, The tuber isehii. 

F., The trochanter major. 

F, Part of the os femoris laid bare in the ham. 

G, The internal condyle of the os femoris. 



Muscles. 

H, The levator aui. 

1, The gluteus minimus. 

K, The pyramidalis. 

L, L, The geiuelli and obturator i 

U, The quadrates. 

N, N, The triceps brevis. 

O, P, The triceps magnus. 

Q, The vastus externum 

1>, The liinj; litiiil ni" tlit- biceps. 

S, its short head. 

S.v, The scmi-membranosus. 

T, The senii-imdiiio.-t's removed. 



;, The arteria pudica. 

', Branches gomg to the penis. 

, Branches to the gluteus maximus and sciatic aerve. 

', The branch of the internal circumflex.' 

, The deep branch. 

', The branch of the first perforating artery arising fro 

the profunda, anastomotic with r, and giving branch' 

to the triceps posticus, us fenmri-, vastus extemus, it 
, An anastomosis in the fascia lata. 
, Another branch of the profunda, or second perforatii 

artery, going to the vastus externus. 
, The branch of the second perforating artery. 
, The perforating branch of the femoral artery to tl 

biceps brevis. 
, The nutritia femoris. 
i, «, The trunk of the poplitea. 
, The sciatic nerve. 
, The popliteal nerve splitting into, 
, The posterior tibial, anil, 
, The libular nerve. 



( 66 ) 

TABLE CLVI. 

Arteries of the Leg. 



FIG. 1. 
Arteries of the Posterior Part of the Leg. 

A, A, The tibia laid bare. 

B, B, The fibula. 



v, A branch of the fibularis to ihe flexor pollicis and in. 
teguments. 

«■, The perforating branch of the fibularis. 

x, The posterior termination of the fibularis, having anas- 
tomoses with the tibialis postica, and terminating in 
the periosteum of the os calcis. 

y, The posterior tibial nerve. 

s, The anterior tibial nerve. 



s and part of the soleus. 



C, The plant aris. 
H, The popliteus. 
I, The peroneus longus. 



\'ES< 



A, Thepatella. 

B, B, The condyle of the os femoris. 

C, C, The head of the tibia. 

E, The ligament of the patella. 

F, The epiphysis of the tibia. 

G, G, The malleolus externus, and astragalus 



Muscles. 



a, The popliteal artery, with some branches above the 

knee, slightly expressed. 
6, The superior external articular artery. j m 

r, . internal articular artery. ■''■> 

d, A branch to the ^I'trm nrmius internos and soleus. M- 

e, externus and skin. N, 

f, The inferior internal articular branch. 
if, The division of the arleria poplitea. 
A, The tibialis postica. 
i", The nutritious artery of the tibia, which gives a branch 

to the tibialis posticus. 
/., r>ramlie> io i lie tibia, skin, and lm-i rotneniiin interims. 
/, The cutaneous anastomotic branch. 
in, A branch partly culancnus. partly anastomotic with 

the fibularis. 
j/, o. The posterior tibial artery passing to the sole. 
p, A trunk, in this figure, common to the tibialis aniiea 

and fibularis. 
9, A branch passing over i lie lilnilatu ilie peroneus longus. 
r. The tibialis autica perforating the interosseous liga- £, The 

mciit lower than usual. A, The 

.•>', The fibularis. i\ The 

t-, The nutritious artery of the fibula. of tl 

w, The fibularis covered by the fibres of the flexor pollicis, fc, Tht 



, H, The vastus extc, 
The pectinalis. 

The biceps. 

The gastrocnemii. 

The tibialis anticus 
poUici 



, The extensor digit< 
, The peroneus terti 



ligament. 



Vessels. 

■, The superior artery of the patella. 

If _ external articular artery. 

, The inferior external artieul.tr artery. 
'. The superior internal articular artery. 
, The branches of the anterior tibial artery to the joint 
ami le;aiu. nls of tire kucc. 



tibial . 



culated with ft branch 



7'ab m: 




\M7hBj:>; 




( 67 ) 

TABLE CLVII. 

Different Views of the Arteries of the Hand and Fo 



A, The arteria radialis. 

li, - lllimn-. 

C, C, The superficial palmar arch. 

D, D, D, D, The large digital arteries. 
a, a. The volar arch of the radial artery. 
ft t The dorsal branch of the radial artery. 
c, The first deep branch of the ulnar artery. 
rf t rf, The branches running along the sides of the fingers 
c. The radial artery emerging from the palm. 

1. The supinator longus. 

2. The flexor radialis. 

3. The palmaris longus. 

4. The sublimis. 

5. The flexor ulnaris. 

6. The annular ligament of the carpus. 

7. The flexor metacarpi pollicis. 

8. The abductor pollicis. 

9. Part of the flexor brevis pollicis. 

10. The flexor pollicis longus. 

1 1 . The adductor pollicis. 
13. The abductor indicia. 
1,'S. The lumbricalis primus. 

1 1. The flexors of the index inclosed iu their sheaths. 
I 5. The adductor minimi digiti. 

16. The abductor minimi digiti. 

17. Part of the palmaris brevis. 

18. The aponeurosis of the palm, turned back. 

FIG. 2. 

Vessels of the Under Part of the Fore-Arm and" Palm 
of the Left Hand,— the Superft, ial Muscles being 
removed. * 

A, The radial artery. A, Tht 

B, The ulnar artery. a, The 

C, (.', The superficial palmar arch, from which the digital b, The 
branches art- separated and diav.u downwards, to shew 



5. The radial branch of the index. 

6. A branch to the back of the hand, 

7. The deep palmar artery. 

8. The ulnaris minimi digiti. 

9. 9. Parts of the ulnar artery which correspond (o eauji 

10. The superficial palmar arch. 

11. Stc. The three diverging branches each divided intn 
two smaller arteries, 1-i.Scc. which run down along the 



Arteries of the Inferior Part of the Fore-Arm oj 
Back of the Hand, — the greater part of the Muscl. 
of the First Order being removed. 

A, The under end of the posterii 
anastomosing with the anterior. 

B, The continuation of the radial artery 

C, The ulnar artery, 
1. The posterior interosseous artery. 
%. A branch to the tendou of oue of the 



the deep-s 

. The branch of the radial artery, which a.- f >i ; t: 
ing the superficial palmar arch. 
'. The trunk from the radial artery to the palm 

'ipoiiic' 



:arp U; 
dial artery appeariu 
The dorsal bra 
li. The branch of the index. 

7. 7. 7. 7. The dorsal arteries of the- hand. 

8. 8. 8. Anastomoses between the dur.-al 
forkings of the digital arteries. " 

9. The dorsal branch of tin; ulnar artery. 



FIG. 4. 
ES of the Upper Part of the Foen 
i tibialis antica. 

.i polli* is longus. 






1. Branch which bel 



</, The tendon of the p 

tr, The extensor brevis digitorum pedis. 
/, The malleoli interna. 
g. An ascending branch. 

//, Various inobtulaiiiii; liuiiic'iic-i Hi the ahdui 
and sole of the foot. 



fi S tabu: clvii. continued. 

/ Tlie branch of lh-: tibialis antica arising in the ankle. C, Tlie deep branch of the plantaris interna. 

;', riie bran, li fm.i.toinoiic with the fibularis. 1>, The plantar areb. 

/, A brunch of the fibularis inosculated with a branch of E, The tnm->\ersalis pedis muscle. 

; he tibialis antica. <*? The astragalus, 

w. The tarsal branch of the tibialis antica. £, The tuber of the os calcis. 

;-, The trunk of the tibialis autica descending to the sole, c, A small plain surface before the tuber. 

.., The dorsalb pollicis. rf. The os navicular. 

j> to :, Tlie dorsal arteries of the other toes, and their e, The fust cuneiform bone. 

communications with the plantar branches at the rout /, The large ligament from the os calcis to the cuboides 
of the toes. and fourth metatarsal bone. 

p j q g g,g t The tendon of the peroneus longus. 

/;, The ligament from the anterior tuber of the os calcii 
Arteries of the Sole. to tlie tllD oides. 

A, The tibialis postica. J, The ligament from the astragalus to the middle cunei- 
15, The plaotaris externa. form bone. 

«, Branches of the tibialis postica to the heel. A, The cutaneous branch of the tibialis poslica, forming 
A, The plaotaris interna. an arch with a branch of the fibularis. 

(, The superficial branches of the plantaris, externa to the U The interior deep branch of the plantaris interna. 

skin and fat. vi, The anastomosis with the deep branch of the tibialis 
rf, The aponeurosis plantaris. antica. 

e, Tlie trunk of the tibialis postica. w, A deep branch to the sole. 

A The superficial branch of the tibialis to the skin and fat. o, The external branch from the plautaris interna. 

g, The plantaris externa. p, A branch of the external plantar artery to the fat, 

f>, interna. J, A branch anastomotic with the fibularis. 

?, The principal superficial branch of the plantaris interna, r, Tlie trunk of the external plantar artery, forming the 
/•, The deep, emerging, internal branch of the great toe, plantar arch. 

arising from the union of the tibialis antiea with the S, The fourth digital artery. 

plantar arteries. t, Anastomosis between the fourth digital artery and the 
/, A branch of the deep arch, which i- bifurcated at the external artery of (lie little toe. 

great toe, and that next it. «, The interior branch of the fifth, and exterior branch 
7/1, The second fork from the trunk of the external plantar of the fourth toe- 
artery to the Brat and second toe. «, The origin of the third digital branch. 
«, The third fork to the second and third toe. w, The internal artery of the fourth, and external artery 
o. The digital artery of the fourth and fifth toe. of the third toe. 
p, The external digital artery of the fifth toe. r, The second digital artery. 

y, plantar artery passing under the flexor j/, The internal branch of the middle toe, and external of 

muscles of the toes. the index. 

z, The trunk of the tibialis antica, a verv small part of 
PTG. G. which is here seen. 

inch of it to the great toe and index, 
uteris pollicis interna. 

terior branch to the great tor, and interior branch 



( 63 ) 

TABLE CLVIII. 

A General View of the Arterious System, 



FIG. I. 

The Anterior Portions of the Thorax and Abdom 
cut off, and the contained Organs removed as far 
M necessary. 

Trunk. 

A, The heart pulled downwards. 
fl, a, a, The coronary arteries. 

B, C, The right and left auricles. 

c, c, The trunks of the left pulmonary vessels. 
I), The trunk of the pulmonary artery. 

E, The aorta. 

F, The arch of the aorta. 

/, The ductus arteriosus, peculiar to the foetus. 

G, The arteria innominate. 
I, The right subclavian, and, 
K, The right carotid. 

L, — ^— __ vertebral artery. 
M, The scalenus anticus muscle. 
O, The left carotid artery. 
P, - subclavian artery. 

Q, Q, &c. The intercostal 

tenth inclusive. 
R, R, &c. The lumbar arteries. 
S, The trunk of the cceliac artery, from ^ 

hepatic. A, the superior gastric, and c, 

rf, The left phrenic artery. 

T, The superior mesenteric artery. 

T, U, The kidneys. 

V, V, The renal glands. 

W, W, The renal arteries, of which there ai 

figure, in the right side, 
c, Small branches from the aorta and renal a 

renal glands. 
X, The spermatic arteries. 
Y, The inferior mesenteric artery. 
o, a. The common iliac arteries. 
£, 6, The external iliac arteries. 
c, c, The circumflex arteries of the ossa ilii 
rf, The right epigastric artery. 
e, c, The bottom of the bladder of urine, wit 

behiod it. 
./; Theu 



ividing into their prin- 



froin the fifth to lit 



g, g, The internal iliac ;i 

cipal branches. 
//, The ileo-luinbar arteries. 
?', The hemorrhoidals interna. 
/■, The sacra media. 

Neck and Face. 

A, The trachea. 

B, The larynx. 

C, C, The thyroid gland. 

», D, Branches from the inferior laryngeal artery t 

E, E, The internal carotid*. 

F, F, The external carotids. 

G, G, Tlie superior thyroid arteries. 
H, The inferior maxillary gland. 

I, I, The facial arteries. 
K, The parotid gland. 
L, The temporal artery. 
e, The arteria submentals. 

£, The facial artery dividing into the coronary art 
of the lips. 

c, The inferior, and, 

d, The superior coronary arteries. 

e, The nasal arteries. 

f, The ocular angular artery. 

g, The superior branch of the ophthalmic arterv. 
h, The infra-orbital is. 

i. The transversal ts faciei. 

Jc, The temporal artery. 

/, The communication between the temporal and 
thalmic artery. 

m, The vertebral artery. 

n, A branch termed by Haller Thyroidca Inferior 
nor, above which is seen the trunk of the thyri 
inferior, and that sending up the cervicalis antcrio 

0, The cervicalis posterior. 

Superior Extremity. 

p, The superior dorsal artery of the scapula. 
a, A branch to the 111. subscapular^. 
;■, The acromialis, cut. 
A, The axillary artery. 



TABLE CLV1II, CONTINUED. 



B, The scapularis interna. 
5, The circumflexa anterior. 

C, «, The profunda humeri. — Lower than the profunda 
humeri, is seen the profunda minor. 

i', A circumflex branch to the dorsum of the humerus. 
«', A branch anastomosing with the ulnar recurrent. 
j', A branch to the biceps and brachials internus, cut. 
y, ■ anastomosing with the radial recurrent, 

z. The ramus anastomotic^ magnus. 

D, The division of the humeral artery into the radial and 

E, The ulnar artery. 

F, The radial artery. 

G, The 



1 . The radial recurrent artery. 

2. The ulnar recurrent anastomosing with the profunda 
minor and ramus anastomotic us major. 

.i. The interossea posterior. 



Arteries of the Lower Part of the Trunk, and Fore 
Part of the Inferior Extremity, the Anterior 
Layer of Muscles of whuh are cut of. 



A, Part of the bladder of urine. 

B, The spermatic artery, with an associate branch at it- 
inner Bide from the epigastric artery. — Upon the peni^ 
is seen the A. dorsalis penis. 

C, The inguinal glands. 

D, A section of the femoral artery, 
a, The profunda femoris. 

E, The circumflexa externa. 



, The nutritia femoris. 

■", The femoral artery, where it perforates the abductor 

, z, The superior and inferior circumflex arteries, form. 

ing large anastomoses upon the knee. 
, Anastomosis between the inferior articular and tibial 



/, The recurrent branches of the tibialis a 

G, G, The anterior tibial artery. 

vi, The arteria malleoli externa. 

h, The tarsal branches. 

o, The metatarsal branch. 

Pi The arcus metatarseus. 



TABLE CLIX. 



A View of the Arterial and Venous Systems. 



The frontal vein. 
The facial vein. 
The temporal veins. 

The trunk of the temporal vein, where it lies behind 
the parotid gland, and receives the transversalis faciei. 
The common trunk formed by the facial and temporal 
veins, opening into the internal jugular. 
The occipital veins. 
The external jugular, arising from the temporal n 



, The arch of the a 
f, The aorta descendens. 
The origin of the diaphragmatic. 



A, The 



external jugular 
, A, The external jugular veins, descending, and 
municating by, 

A cross branch at the bottom of the neck. 
A, The termination of the external jugulai 



clavian v 



the i 



Superior Extremity. 

ninon to the right carotid and subclavia 



1. The trunk corar 

arteries. 
~. The left carotid. 

3. 3. The left subclavian*. 

4. The radial, and, 

5. The ulnar artery. 

6. The superficial palmar arch ; — the radial part of 
this Figure, larger than usual. 

a, b, d, The median veins. 
<-, The superficial radial vein. 

B, The cephalic vein. 

D, The basilic vein. 

C, The mediana longa, dividing into, 

E, The mediana cephalica, and. 



e, e, The cephalic vein ascending, and getting betwe< 

the pectoral and deltoid muscles. 
G, The basilic vein passing along the inner side of t] 

arm, and terminating in the axillary vein. 
/, g, The vena concomites of the humeral artery. 
A, The axillary vein. 
(', The termination of the cephalic. 
A, The subclavian vein. 

Trunk. 



i media, passing behind the 



14. 14. The common iliac a: 
H, H, The external iliacs. 

15. 15. The internal iliacs. 
I, The vena cava superior. 

K, inferior. 

L, M, The great subclavia 

the right. 
N, T 
O, O, The 
P, P, The 
Q, Q, The common iliac v. 
Qa, Qa, The external iliac 



.th their corresponding arteries. 



Sj S, &c. The intercostal vessels. 

Inferior Extremity. 
A, A, The femoral arteries, the left one cut. 

16. The circumdexa externa. 

1 7. The profunda femoris. 

18. The circumflexa interna. 
a, The vena saphena major. 
A, The femoral vein. 

FIG. 2. 

20. The continuation of the femoral artery. 

21. The corresponding vein. 

22. The anterior tibial artery. 

A, A, A, The vena saphena major. 

Aa, The beginning of the saphena minor. 

l the Foot and Toes a Plexus of Vein? ^pc-ir* v 



,'.',Ki, I 



i both the S-aphe 



( 72 ) 



BLOOD-VESSELS OF THE CONTAINING PARTS OF THE ABDOMEN, AND OE THE 
PELVIS AND INFERIOR EXTREMITY. 



ARTERIES. They pass obliquely downwards and outwards; ami 

sometimes, though rarely, send a Twig or two to the 
Auterije Lumbares. — The Lumbar Arteries, Tab. Lumbar Glands, or otherparts near them. At the under 
CLVUI. R, R, Stc. which are tonmionlv lour in number and lateral parts of the last Vertebra of the Loins, i. e. 
on each side, though sometimes five, arise in pairs from opposite to the posterior or Sacro-iliac Symphysis of the 
the back part of the AIhIi.iuii.liI Aorta, io the same man- Pelvis, each divides into two others, a Posterior, termed 
ner as the Iutercostals do from the Aorta in the Thorax, lliuia Interna, and an Anterior, called lliaca Externa, 
The Left are a little shorter than the Right, which pass as formerly mentioned. 
under the Vena Cava to their place of destination. 

They run first over the fore pan of the Bodies of the 
four uppermost Lumbar Vertebra:, and afterwards go be- Iliaca Interna. 

tween tnem and the Psoas Muscles, in their way towards 

ihe sides of the Abdomen. The Iliaca Interna, vel Posterior, vel Hypogastric:!, 

They give Branches to the Spine, to the Spinal Mar- Tab. CL. rf. Tab. CLI. k, passes downwards and back- 
row and its Membranes ; are particularly dispersed upon wards for about a couple of inches, after which it gene- 
the Lumbar Muscles, and upon the Trausversus and Ob- rally divides upon the Sacro-iliac Symphysis, into a Pos- 
liqui Abdominis ; and, perforating these, they also furnish terror and an Ajiterior set of Branches, which come off 
Branches to the large Muscles and the Integuments in the either separately, or from each other ; the former supply- 
back part of the Loins. ing the parts nearest the Sacrum and Ilium, the latter be. 
They communicate with the lower Intercostal, Dia- longing more immediately to the parts about the Anterior 
phragmatic, Internal Mammary, and Epigastric Arteries, region of the Pelvis. 
and also with their fellows of the same side. 

The first Lumbar passes behind the corresponding Crus 
of the Diaphragm, to which il gives Blanches in its Posterior Branches. 

course outwards. The fourth winds round the Crest of 

the Ilium, to be dispersed upon the Iliacus Interims and Ilio-lumbaris, vel Iliaca Interna Minor, Tab. 
Abdominal Muscles. CL. g. — The Uio-lumbu is a small Artery, arising some- 

Sacka Media.— The Sana Media, Tab. CL. r, is a times' from the end of the Hypogastric," at other times 
small Azygous Artery, which arises from the under and from the beginning of the Glutea. 

back part of the Aorta, immcdbiely ;ii its Bifurcation, It passes outwards under the Psoas, and divides sud- 

It generally sends off a Branch over each side of the denly into Branches ; one of which frequently forms a 
last Vertebra of the Loins, uhich supplies the place of a kind of Lumhtih'.-, Imu, or Fifth Lumbar Artery. 
Fifth Lumbar Artery. This Branch gives off others be- The other Branches go to the Psoas and Iliacus Intex- 
iiind, in common with the Lumbars, while its outer II a- nus, communicating there with the Lumbar Arteries, and 
uiifications are exhausted upon the Iliacus Internus. with the Branches of the Circumllex Artery of the Ilium ; 

The Sacral Art er\ afterwards <ti- .tends along i lie mi. Idle — :i particular 'IV k;, const anting an Arteritt Nutritia 
of the last Lumbar Vertebra and Os Sacrum, as far as the vel Med&toris of the Os Iliirm. 

Cte Coccygis, sending Branches to the Membranes and Sacrje Laterales, Tab. CHI. Fig. 2— There are 
Substance of these Bones, and to the buck part of the generally two, but smut times thrre, arising from the com- 
RectnnL mon Trunk, or the Ilio-Lumbar, or frequently from the 

Gluteal Artery. Sometimes there is oidy a single Artery, 
ItlAC* Communes. which descends by the sides of the Sacral Holes, giving 

Branches, which supply the place of the Sacra: Late- 
After giving oif the Arteries of the Contents and of the rales, and sometimes aL.o, though seldom, of the Sacra, 
containing parts of the Abdomen, the Aorta, upon the Media. 

under part of the Fourth Lumbar Vertebra, divides into They furnish Branches to the Muscles, Membranes, 
the two common Iliac Arteries, which are of equal size, and Nerves, on the surface of the Os Sacrum, and inos- 
T i , --i r '' mllUL "" UM ' Ui '°" ,lie l ' iyl,t ; ' l " ,l Itft sid *** cu,ute bv CiWS II'""'thes with the Sacra Media. 
lab. CLI. bb. 'i-jjgy fm-ni^h Branches to the Muscles, Membranes, and 



Part V.] BLOOD-VESSELS OF THE CONTAINING PARTS OF THE ABDOMEN, &c. ?3 

Nerves, on the Surface of llie Os Sacrum, and inosculate the Epigastrica. Sometimes one Branch of the Obtura- 

by cross Branches with the Sacra Media. tor is from the Internal Iliac, another from the Epigas- 

Their principal Trunk, enter the .Interim' Social Hole*, trie, or Trunk of the External Iliac near the Epigastric, 
to be distributed upon the Cauda Equina, and the Mem- "When the Obturator arises from the Hypogastric, or 

branes and Bones inclosing it. from one of its Branches, it descends in the Pelvis by the 

Arteria Glutea, Tab. CLI. r. Tab. CLIII. a. — inner side of the Psoas Muscle, or over the upper edge of 

Tins is sometimes termed Jliaca Posterior, and is the the Obturator Iuternus, and afterwards passes through 

largest Branch of the Hypogastric Artery. the Hole at the upper part of the Obturator Ligament. 

Soon after it arises-, it passes between, the two Trunks While in the Pelvis, it frequently gives Twigs to the 
or Heads of the Sciatic .Nerve, goes afterwards thrush Bladder and other parts near it, and, in its passage 

the upper part of the great Notch of the Os Ilium, and is through the Foramen Tltyioidtum, sends a Branch to the 

reflected over the edge of that Bone, after the manner of Obturator Intemus. 

the Inferior Dorsal Artery of the Scapula. After perforating the Ligament, it dn ides into two Sets 

of Branches, one Set ui which are dispersed uc 
about the Hip-joint, while another belong t 
rator Exteraus, and to the Muscles which are situated at 

the other deep seated. the upper and inner part of the Thigh ; — the two Sets of 

The Superficial Branch bends round between the Ori- Branches inosculating with each other, 
gin of the Gluteus Maximus and Medius, giving many When the Obturator comes oil' from the External Iliac, 
Branches to each, but chiefly to the former, aud iuoscu- it commonly goes directly into the Pelvis, but sometimes 
lating, by means of the Posterior Sacral Holes, with the it makes a Curve by the inner side of Gimbernat's Li- 
Sacral Arteries. ganient, and is then found on the fore part of a protruding 
The Deep Branch, situated under the middle of the Glu- Bowel in Crural Hernia ; but this circumstance happens 
teus Medius, is subdivided into Two Principal Branches, more frequently where the Obturator arises from the root 
— a Superior and Inferior. of the Epigastric. The Trunk common to these two 
The Superior crosses the Origin of the Gluteus Minor, Vessels varies from a quarter to upwards of an inch in 
extends as far as the Spine of the Ilium, and gives Branches length. Where it is long, the Obturator is then apt I 
to the Gluteus Medius, and others passing downwards be- take such 3 
tween the Gluteus Minimus and Os Ilium to the Joint of Arch, and I 
the Thigh ; — one Branch forming a Nutritious Artery of ral Hei 
the Ilium. 

The Inferior or Transverse Branch ascends i 
Gluteus Minimus, and gives many large Branches to the rest of it, in the Adult, being .shrivelled i 
Gluteus Medius and Minimus ; some of which extend to as already observed. Tab. CL. CLI. 
the Joint of the Thigh and parts adjacent. Vesicalis Ima of Haller, Tab. CL. m. — This is a 
At the under edge of the Gluteus Medius, it is divided long and slender Branch which Ereqaently tomes ofl* from 
into two Sets of Branches, one of which runs in a radia- the root of the Pudic, at other times from the Hypogas- 
ted direction close upon the Bone, and is chiefly dispersed trie near the Umbilical, and runs to the under part of the 
upon the two smaller Glutei, while Branches of inferior Bladder, aud to the Prostate Gland. 
size run, some of them downwards to the Muscles and Arteria Pterina. — The Uterine, or Uterine Hypo- 
Ligaments about the Joint of the Thigh, and others back- gastric Artery, is dispersed upon the Uterus, as has been 
wards to the parts about the Sacrum, eonniiutiieating with already described. 

the Lateral Sacral Arteries through the Posterior Pora- Hemorrhoidals Media, Tab. CL. n — The Middle 

mina of the Os Sacrum. Hemorrhoidal, a small Artery, is sometimes sent off from 

The other set of Branches of the Gluteal Artery creep the original Trunk, and at oilier times from some of its 

in between the Gluteus Medius and Maximus, upon the Branches, as the Pudic in the Male, or Umbilical in the 

latter of which they are chiefly dispersed. Female. Sometimes it is wanting. 

It runs npon the Anterior Surface of the Rectum, and 
is chiefly distributed upon i 



^Interior Branches. 

der ; — to the Yesicula; Sein males and Prostate of the Male ; 
Arteria Obturatoria, vel Obturatrix, Tab. CL. and to the Vagina aud Bladder in the Female, by a Va- 
i. Tab. CLI. n. — The Obturator Artery has its Origin ginal Trunk which supplies the place of the Vaginal Ar- 
from the Trunk of the Hypogastric, or from the Bio- tery sent off from the Uterine. 

lumbar-, or from the Gluteal or Ischiatic, and frequently Pudica Communis. — The Pudica Communis, termed 

from the eud of the Biaca, Externa, or from the root of by some Authors HamorrhoidtUis ExUina, belongs to 

Vol. III. K the 



BLOOD-VESSELS OF THE CONTAINING PARTS OF THE ABDOMEN, [Part V. 
i, as was formerly taken malic Cord iii the Male, and Round Ligament in the Fc- 



the Parts of Generation an 
.notice of. 

Arteria Sciatica. — The Sciatic, o 
Tab. CL. A. Tab. CLIII. e, is the li 

Branches, the Glutea excepted. 

It goes through the under part of the Sciatic Notch, 
between the Pvriform ami Gemclli Muscles, accompanied 
bv the Sciatic Nerve, and having the Pyriforniis between 
it and the Gluteal Artery. 

It afterwards descends some way down upon the Thigh, 
in company with the Nerve, in the hollow' between 
the great Trochanter of the Thigh-bone and Tuber of the 
Ischium, — covered bv (lie gluteus Maximus. 

Within the Pelvis, it sends Twigs to the Rectum, Ob- 
turator Internus, and Pyriforniis. Without the Pelvis, 
it sends an Artery backwash, tunned Vocix^ca, which 
creeps along the Posterior 



It commonly passes in such a 
hiud, then at the inner side of a 

though sometimes we find the i 



i of that Ligament. 

s, the Levator Ani, 
the Fat and Bones "of the Coccyx, aud sends Branches 
! of the Lateral Sa- 
cral Allelic.-, through the Holes in the back part of the 



Branches 
distributed upon the Cot 
it and Bones of the Coc 



09 



The Sciatica givi 



^s off" also a Concomitant Branch, which 
Surface of the Sciatic Nerve. 

It sends "Branches to the Gluteus Medius and Minimus, 
to tin. Pyrifnnnisand ulln r 1 total or .Muscles of tin Tliijji, 
and to the Capsule of the Joint. 

The principal Eranchc of the- Sciatic Artery, however, 
are dUjiciscd upon the under part of the Gluteus Maxi- 
mus, some Twigs being sent to the Muscles arising from 
the Tuberosity of the Os Ischium, which 
with the Obturator and Pudic Arteries. 



Iliaca Externa. 

ion of th< 
;nds along the Brim of the Pelvis, behind the 
Peritoneum, taking a curved direction bv the inner and 
fore part of the Psoas Muscle, and afterwards passes over 
it, and under the Ligament of Poltakt, to form the 



iral Art 



nd off I 



■ Tli run In ■-, 



cle, Lymphatic Clauds, Stc. till it is about to leave the 

— the EpigaMrica, and Circumfleia Osxk llii. 

The Arteria Epigastrica, Tab. CXI. h. Tab. 
CXLI. r, goes off from the inner side of the External 
Iliac Artery, immediately before thai Vessel gels under the 
Ligament o/PovvAKT. 

At its origin, it is a little bent downwards ; and about 
half an inch from the place where it first comes off, it 
crosses obliquely upwards and inwards, at the inner 
aide of the upper Abdominal Ring, Lchind the Sper- 



ofthe Transveisus, nil 

ilie I'wamidalis, alter \ 

rectum along the back purl, and at tlie outer side of the 

middle of the Rectus Abdominis. 

Near its origin, it sends Brunches to the adjacent parts 
of the Pubes, one of which, in the .Male, frequently inns 
in the Spermatic Cord, and ill the Female to the Bound 
Ligament of the Uterus. 

Under the Umbilicus, it generally divides into two 
Branches, variable in their si/.e ; one directed towards 
(lie Umbilicus, the other continued in the line of the Rec- 

It furnishes Branches to the Muscles, Integuments, and 
Membranes of the fore part of the Abdomen, communi- 
cates in several places with the Lumbar Arteries, and ter- 
minates a little above the Umbilicus, where it forms seve- 
ral distinct though small Anastomoses with the under end 
of the Mammaria Interna. 

Circumflexa Ossis Ilii, sometimes termed Iliaca 
..Interior, Tab. CLI. g. almost as large as the Epigastric 
Artery, arises nearly opposite to it, though frequently a 
little lower, immediately behind the under end of the Fal- 
lopian Ligament. In some rare cases, it comes off in 
common with the ['".pigastric, or from the beginning of the 
Femoral Artery, or from the Profunda Femoris. 

It runs at the inner edge of the Crest or Spine of the 
Os Ilium, between the Transversalis and Obliquus Inter- 
nus, till it arrives near the Vertebra: of the Loins. 

It gives Branches to the Psoas, lliacus, and Sai-tonus, 
to the under end of the Obliqui and Transversa Abdomi- 
nis, between which it sometimes extends a considerable 
way. At length it communicates with the Epigastric, and 
with the Inferior Intercostal and t lie Lumbar Arteries. 



Arteria Femoralis. 

The Femoral, or Crural Ahtert, Tab. CLI. it- 
he continuation of the External Iliac,— passes out of the 
Ibdomen between the Ligament of PoePART and Brim 
f the Pelvis. 

At iis lii-t exit, it is situated superficially over the Ball 
if the Os Frmons, hai ing the inner edge of the common 
nd of the Psoas and lliacus Inteiinis between it and the 
apsular Ligament of the Joint. 

At the top of the Thigh it lorms the Inguinal or Com- 



Femm-.il Art 
;div 






. othe 



:V.] 



AND OF THE PELVIS AND INFERIOR EXTREMITY. 



farther down, it is lodged deep in an angular Cavity at 
the upper and inner part of (he Thigh, with the Rectus 
and Sartorius upon the outer, and the Triceps Adductor 
Femoris upon the inner side of it. From this part it de- 
scends at the inside of the Thigh, turning gradually back- 
wards till it readies the Ham, or rather, strictly speak- 
ing, having the Thigh-bone first upon its outer, then 
upon its fore part. 

From the Inguinal or common Femoral Artery, a few 
small Branches are sent oft' to the Skin of the Abdomen, 
to the Superficial Muscles and Inguinal Glands, aud to 
the common Integuments at the upper part of the Thigh ; 
also one or two tubers, lermed I'lidiccc Ktterna?^ and by 
some Authors Pirdicct Kitcrua' Superior el Inferior, to 
the Pubes, to the Integuments of die External Parts of 
Generation, and to die upper and inner side of the Thigh 
in both Sexes. Some of these Brandies sent from this 
part of the Femoral Artery, anastomose with those of 
the Epigastric, and others with the Arteries of the Penis. 
Tab. CLVIII. Fig. 2. 

About two inches below the Ligament of Poupart, 
and sometimes, though rarely, about three inches, and 
in some still more rare cases, directly under this Li- 
gament, the common Femoral Arlcrv divides, somewhat 
like the common Iliac, into anterior and posterior parts : 
— The former is the Femoral Artery strictlv so called, 
the latter is termed Profunda Femoris. Tab. CLI. 
CLIV. CLVIII. CLIX. 



pROFI 



i Femoris- 



The Arteria Profunda, also called Vasta Poste- 
rior, vel Muscularis Femoris, concealed at first by 
the proper Femoral Trunk, gives off at its origin from 
that Artery small Branches, arising separately or in a 
common Trunk, and dispersed upon the Integuments, 
Muscles, and Capsular Ligament, at the upper and fore 
part of the Thigh. 

It gives next, from if- origin also, two large Branches, 
—the Circumflexa Interna, and Circumflexa Externa, 
— which run in opposite directions at the upper part of 
the Thigh. 

The Circumflexa Interna, Tab. CLIV./, though 
most frcnuentK coming nil' from the beginning of the Pro- 
funda, often arises higher than it, from the common Fe- 
moral ; aud there are now and then two of them, one a 
little lower than the other, or sometimes it comes off in 
common with the Circumflcxa Externa. 

It passes between the under end of the Psoas and the 
Pectinalis, and afterwards turns round the inner part of 
the Neck of the Thigh-bone. 

It sends off 

Branches to the Pectinalis, Triceps, and Capsule of 
the Joint : 

A Superior or Anterior Ascending It ranch, to the 
Triceps and Obturator, having a considerable Anastomo- 
sis with the Obturator Artery at the external margin of 



the Foramen Thyroidcnm, though the communication is 
not so visible as main have supposed. From this Branch 
a Twig isdetached, which enters the Breach at the under 
and fore part of the Acetabulum, to be dispersed upon 
the Ligamcntum Rotundum aud the Substance called 
Claud of the Joint: 

An Inferior, or Inferior Posterior CimtmfU x Branch, 
which is the continuation of the Trunk. 

It bends round the Neck of the Thigh-bone, sending 
small Branches to the Capsule of the Joint, to the Obtu- 
rator, Quadratus, and Adductor Femoris; communicat- 
ing with the Obturator aud Sciatic Arteries, Hemorrhoi- 
dals, and small Branches from the Gluteal. 

Circumflesa Externa, Tab. CLVIII. E.— The 
(.'ircumlk-xa Externa arises lor the most part nearly oppo- 
site the former, but frequently a little lower.— Now and 
then it has a double origin ; one of the Trunks coming oil' 
higher than the other. 

It passes outwards between the upper ends of the 
Rectus, Tensor Vagina: Femoris, ami \ astus F.xtcnius 
and over the root of the Trochanter Major of the Os 

It sends Branches upwards to the under part of the 
Glutei, and to oilier Muscles placed at the inferior and 
back part of the Pelvis, which anastomose with those 
running down from the Arteria Glutea. 

Others which have more of a lateral direction, and are 
distributed upon the Skin aud Muscles at the upper and 
back part of the Thigh, upon the Muscles more imme- 
diately about the .Joint, aud also upon the Periosteum, — 
communicating with I he .Brant lies of the Ciremnllexa 
Interna. 

The largest Blanche-, descend between the Rectus Fc- 

reachiug almost as far as the outer pan of the Knee. 

Sometimes an Fxtcrna! l'tulie I ranch is derived from 
this Artery, which more frequently comes off from the 
Trunk of 'the common Femoral. 

The Profunda Femoris, ],u\ ing detached the Circum- 
flex Arteries, sinks deep behind the Trunk of the Feuio- 
rah's, and, passing between the Add : 



i Intel 
In 



. des 



o the middle of the Thij 
it sends off, or is divided into prim 
Rami Pcrfurauh", Tab. CLV. «1 



:, to be dispersed upon the Fli 
n the back part of the Thigh. 
The Perforantcs conic off in tin 
The Perforata Prima, whi 



Mi. 



perl 



id divides into ascending and descending Blanch- 
es, which supply the Muscles and Integuments in the up- 
per and back part of the Thigh. 

The ascending Branches form numerous communica- 
tions with the Circumflex Arteries, about the root of the 
Trochanter Major, and anastomose in particular with the 
under cud of the Sciatica : 
» The 



BLOOD-VESSELS OF THE CONTAINING PARTS OF THE ABDOMEN, [Pa: 



:V. 



The Perforans Secunda vel Magna, which comes off 
some way below the former, and is the largest of the per- 
forating Arteries, also perforates the Triceps. 

It gives Branches to the .Muscles in general about the 
middle of the back part of the Thigh, particularly to the 
Adductors, Vasti, and to the Flexors of the Leg; and 
communicates above with Branches of the Perforans 
Prima, aud with the Circumllex Arteries. 

Besides these, there is one, and sometimes two other 
perforating Branches!, which arc greatly inferior in size 
to the two former, and are lost upon the Flexors at the 
under and back part of the Thigh, and upon the Perios- 
teum ; one Twig sent oft' from these sometimes forming a 
Niitritiei or Mcilidlaris of the Os Femoris. 

The Femoral Artery, after giving oft' the Profunda 
Femoris, passes down, still covered hy the Fascia of ihe 
Thigh, between tin- Vastus Interims aud insertion of the 
second or long Head of the Triceps, giving only small 
Brandies in the Micales aud Integuments at the fore and 
inner side of the Thigh. 

One Branch, termed llamas Anaslamotictt* Magma.; 
more conspicuous than the rest, is sent oft" previous to 
the pa-sage of the Artery through the Tendon of the 
Triceps. It descends with many Kamifications upon the 
Vastus Interims, upou which it is chiefly dispersed ; in- 
f"ciil.uiiig u ith the descending Branch of the t ircuiullc\a 
Externa, and below, wiili Brandies about the Knee. 

About the middle of the inside of the Thigh, the 
Trunk of the Artery is situated behind the Sartorius ; 
and, nearly two- thirds down upon the Os Femoris, ji 
perforates the Triceps passing between that Muscle and 
the Bone, in its way to the Leg. 

Having perforated the Triceps, it is found in the 
back part of the 1 high, where it send- Itami I', rfonuttes 
to the adjacent Muscles and Integuments. 

Of the Kami 1'erforantes fwo are more constant and 
considerable than the rest, aud called by some Authors 
f'irfuitins Superior, aud Perforans Inferior; the former 
distributed to the Muscles at the back and inner, and 
the latter, after sending off Branches to the Periosteum, 
and the Principal Medullaris, going to those of the back 
and outer part of the Thigh ; aud both communicating 
above with the descending l\v .indie-, aln ady described. 
^ IiWhis part of the Thigh, the Artery lies close upon 



ed by, the Ham-strings Condyles of the Os Femoris, and 
Heads of the Gastrocnemius Ext emus. 

Where it passes over the Joint, it lies close upon the 
( '.ip.-ulir Ligament, ami is covered by its associate Vein 
and Nerve, and generally by a large quantity of Fat. 

It gives oft' m \iaal Branches, which vary in their num. 
her, termed Artkulares Supcriores ct Inftriores^ to the 
Join " 

our of these, sit 
Joint, are more regular and cons 

The Articular i,\ Superior Interna, which turns round 
the Os Femoris, above the Inner Condyle, passes under 
the Semi-membranosus aud JSenii-tcudinosus, and, after 
perforating the Tendon of the Triceps, is dispersed upon 
the upper and inner part of I lie Knee, anastomosing with 
Branches sent dowu from the Femoral Artery: 

The Articular it Superior Eucnta, which arises near- 
ly opposite to tlic former, passes outwards between the 
Tendon of the Biceps and Body of (he Os Femoris, im- 
mediately above its outer Condyle, aud is lost upon the 
Vastus Externus, and upon the upper aud outer part of 
the Knee ; its Branches anastomosing with those of its 
fellow, and particularly with the long descending Branch 
of the ( ireumik-xa Externa: 

The Articularh Inferior Interna, which arises oppo- 
site the bending of the Joiut, passes downwards, and then 
turns round the Tibia, immediately below its Inner 
Condyle. 

It sends Branches first to the back part, then to the 



Arteria Poplitea. 

The Arteria Poplitea, Tab. CLV. CLVL stri 
so called, is that part of the Femoral Artery which 
over the Joint of the Knee ; the name, however, is 
nerally applied to all that portion of it which extends I 
the parts where it perforates the Tendon of the Tri< 
to the under edge of the Popliteus, or where the Ar 
is divided into two great Branches. 

It is lodged deep in the Hollow between, and p:ob 



ith the Branches of the Arti- 
cularis Superior Interna : 

The Art ic a far 19 Inferior Juxterna, which comes off 
near the former, and pas-.es fust downwards, then out- 
wards, between the External Lateral and the Capsular 
Ligaments, to be dispersed upon the under and outer part 
of the Knee and inner part of the Joint ; communicat- 
ing with its Fellow of the opposite side, and above, with 
llie Branches of the Aiticularis Superior Externa. 

Besides the Superior and Inferior Articulating Arte- 
ries, another Branch is IreoucniU found, termed Aiticu- 
laris Media, vel A^ygos, which is irregular in its origin, 
arising sometimes from the Trunk of the Poplitea, at 
other times from one of the Superior Articular Branches. 
It is situated between the Condyles, and is exhausted 
upon the Ligaments, Fat, and Bones, at the back part 
of the Joint ; inosculating with all the adjoining 
Branches. 

The other less constant Articular Branches are dispers- 
ed upon the Muscles a little above the Joint. 

The Aiticular Armies fbvni numerous Communications 
with each other ; some are expanded in the form of a 
net-work over the Patella ; others arc distributed upon 
the Capsular and other Ligaments of the Joint, while 
numerous Branches penetrate the Substance of the corw- 
.'puiiiliiij Bones. 



Part V.] AND OF THE PELVIS AND INFERIOR EXTREMITY. 17 

TheArteria Poplitea, having furnished Brandies to It supplies the greater part of the Muscles, Intcgu- 

tlie Joint of the Knee, gives others to the Muscles of the raents, &c. on the upper and outer part oi' the Foot, ami 

upper and back part of the Leg; two oi which, termed scuds Branches, termed Jnlei'i.^en; to the Muscles bc- 

Surales, more considerable than the rest, pass by dilfe- tween the Metatarsal Hones of tiie small Toes, which, 

rent Brandies into the Heads of the Gastrocnemius Ex- however, are frequently derived from the Metatarsal Ar- 

The Trunk of the Artery descends afterwards between Branches from the Artery upon the Dorsum Pedis, 

the heads of the Gastrocnemius F.\ tenuis, and commonly distributer! upon the Jul- -unit in s, Muscles, Membranes, 

from two to three indies below the bending of the Knee, and Bones, at the upper and inner side of the Font : 
and at the under and outer edge of the l\>pliteus, or up- The Arterta Metatorsea, Tab. CLVJI. CXVIII. 

per end of the Soleus, divides into two large Arteries, which goes off about the middle of the Dorsum Pedis, 

the Tibialis Antica, and Tibia/it Postica. and passes obliquely towards the root of the Little Toe, 

Tibialis Antica, Tab. CLVI. — The Tibialis Antica assisting the Aiiciia Tar>ea in linni-hing Branches to the 

arises from the fore part of the Poplitea, aud passes di- upper side of the Foot and Toes, aud sometimes, in part 

rcctly through the upper end of the Interosseous Liga- or entirely, supplying the place of that Artery. 
ment to the fore part of the Leg. The remaining portion of the Anterior Tibial Artery 

In its descent in the Leu;, it adheres closely to the an- at'lcrwaaals advances between trie Pa tensor of the Great, 

terior Surface of the Intero-scous Ligament ; lying at and long Extensor oi" the dirndl Toes, sending Twigs to 

first between the Tibialis Amicus aud Extensor Digi- the adjacent purls, and dividing, between the Metatarsal 

torum, and then between the Tibialis and Extensor Pol- .Bones of the Great Toe, and that next it, into a Large 

licis. Posterior, and a Small Anterior Branch. Tab. CLVii. 

A little above the Ankle, it passes upon the outer and CXVIII. 
fore part of the Tibia, and, getting under the Annular The Posterior Branch, termed Anastomotica Profun- 

Ligament and Extensor Pollieis, advances in a waving da, which may be considered as the continuation of the 

direction upon the convex surface of the Foot. Trunk, siuks between the Metatarsal Bones of the two 

It supplies, in general, the Muscles and Iuteguments first Toes, and anastomoses in the Sole with the Poste- 

which belong to the outer aud fore part of the Leg and rior Tibial Artery. 

upper part of the Foot, and is ultimately spent upon the The Anterior Stanch runs forwards, under the name 

deep Muscles of the Sole. of Dorso-metatarsea, vel Dorsalis Pollieis, to be dis- 

Its Branches come off in the following order, viz. pcrsed upon the Great and Second Toes. 

A Small Branch sent off" before the Trunk perforates Tibialis Postica. — The Tibialis Postica, somewhat 

the Interosseous Ligament, to be dispersed upon the larger than the Antica, divides about a fingers-breadth 

Muscles, Bones, &c. near the Joint ; the superior Twigs under the origin of the Tibialis Antica, though sometimes 

running in a retrograde direction, and inosculating with considerably lower, into the Fibularis, and Tibialis Pos- 

the Inferior Articular Branches : tica strictly so called. 

The Becurrcns Anterior, which arises from the Ar- The Fibulakis, termed also Peronca, which is smaller 

tery after it has perforated the Ligament, and is distri- than either of the Tibial Arteries, though sometimes 

buted upon the Ligaments at the upper part of the Leg, nearly ecjual in size, runs down at the inner side of the 

and upon those at the under part of the Knee ; anasto- Fihul.L for a considerable way along the Leg, and is situa- 

mosing therewith the Inferior Articular Arteries : ted, first between the Tibialis Posticus and Flexor Lon- 

Niunerous Branches sent off in a lateral direction to gus Pollieis, and is afterwards covered by the last-named 

the Muscles and Integuments on the outer and tore part Muscle, 
of the Leg: Its Branches are distributed to the Muscles at the 

The Malleoli Interim, which comes off near the lower outer part of t l, e Leg iu the neighbourhood of the Fibula, 
end of the Tibia, and is dispersed on the parts about the — a small Medullary Branch also penetrating the Sub- 
Inner Ankle : stance of that Bone. 

The Malleoli Externa, which arises a little lower than A tittle above the Inferior Articulation of the Tibia 

the former, aud is distributed to the pails near the miter and 1'ilml.i, ii sends a l!r;uicli forwards, termed Fibula- 

Ankle: rix, vel Peronca Anterior, which perforates the Interos- 

The Arteria Tarsea, Tab. CLVJI. CXVIII. which seoos Ligament, and is dispersed upon the forepart of 

takes its origin a little before the bending of the Ankle- the Ankle, v. here it anastomoses" with the external Branches 

joint, and is more considerable in size than the Malleolar oi the 1 ibialis Antica. 
Branches. The continuation of the Trunk, sometimes termed Fi- 

It passes obliquely outwards and forwards under the bnluris, vel Peronca Posterior, descends behind the 

Extensor Brevis Digitorum, and sends Branches to the Malleoli!- I'.xtcnius, to the enter and back part of the 

Joint of the Ankle, where it communicates with the Foot, e 

Malleolar Arteries. sal Br; 



7S BLOOD-VESSELS OF THE CONTAINING PARTS OF THE ABDOMEN, [Part V. 

The Tibialis Postica, properly so called, Tab. CLVI. It is afterwards arched forward, between the Flexors 

passes down at the back pan of the Tibia, and runs over and Metatarsal Hones of the small Toes, the Trunk be- 

Itic Tibialis Po.-iicu-5 ;nu: l:'le\nr Digit orum, aad under the ing continued to the root of the Great Toe, under the 

Gastrocnemius Inic inn-, in its descent through the Leg. name of Arcus Plantaris. 

At the under part of the Leg it becomes more superfi- The External Plantar Artery sends offi- 
cial, running between the Tendo Achillis and Malleolus A. considerable Branch, first to the under, then to the 
Intetnus ; havinp ihe Tibialis Posticus and Flexor Digi- outer part of the Heel, which communicates externally 
tnruin Longus on the inner, and the Flexor Longus Pol- with Branches of the Anterior Tibial and the Fibular 
litis on the°outer side of it. Arteries : 

From the Ankle, it run? in the hollow of the Os Cat- Several Branches to the Flexors of the Toes, and to 

cis, between that Bone and the Abductor Pollicis, to the other parts in the outer portion of the Sole ; which 

Sole of the Foot. communicate, on the inner side, with the Branches of 

Jts Branches supply the Muscles at the back and inner the Plantaris Interna, and at the outer, with those of 

part of the Leg, and the diflerent parts of the Sole; the Anterior Tibial Artery. 

forming many Inosculations with the Branches of the An- The Arcus Plantaris, Tab. CLVII. Fig. 6. gives- 

terior Tibial, and the Fibular Artery. out,— 

In its course aloug the Leg, it gives off — Several Branches to the deep Muscles of the Sole, 

Numerous Branches, similar to those of the Tibialis particularly, 

Antica, to the surrounding Muscles: Rami Bite rossei to the Muscles between the Metatar- 

The Arteria Nutritia Tibia; which begins a little sal Bones : 

below the upper end of the Trunk, descends for some A Branch to the outer side of the Little Toe : 

wav in the Leg, and gives Branches to the deep Muscles Three Large- Digital Arteries, which are forked at 

and Membranes near it, and one Branch, termed Arteria the mots of the Toes, and run along the edges of these in 

Meihtlltuis, which enters the Hole near the middle of the the manner the Digital Arteries do along the Fingers. 

Bone : \ Between the Metatarsal Bones of the Great Toe and 

Several Branches to the parts behind, and at the in- the one next it, the Plantar Arch anastomoses with the 

ner side of the Ankle and Heel, which communicate Posterior or perforating Branch of the Anterior Tibial 

with others of the Anterior Tibial Artery. Artery, forming a free communication between the Arte- 

The Trunk of the Artery divides in the hollow of the ries of the upper and under side of the Foot. Frequent- 

Os Calcis, at the place where it is about to go behind the ly it sends off here a Digital Artery, which forks and 

Abductor Pollicis, into imi principal Plantar Branches, runs along the outer side of the Great Toe, aud inner 

— the Interna and Externa. side of the Toe next it, so as to supply the place of one 

The Plantar Arteries run forwards under the Aponeu- of the Branches of the Internal Plantar Artery. 

rn-js Plantaris, having the Flexors of the Toes between At the roots of the Toes, the anterior extremities of 

them. the Trunks of the Digital Arteries also form distinct A- 

The Plantaris Interna, Tab. CLVII. Fig. 6. C, nastomoses with the Interosseous Arteries of the upper 

passes near the inner side of the Sole, between the Apo- part of the Foot. 
neurosis Plantaris aud Abductor PolUcis. 

It gives Branches which run in a retrograde direction Veins 
to the back part of the Ankle and adjacent parts of the 

Heel ■ The Veins of the Inferior Extremity, like those 

Several Brandies lYmn < ;idi side, which go forwards of the Supeiiioi;, consist of a Suln.ii I 'aiicoua and a Deep 

to the Muscles and Integuments, and other parts at the Set, and, like them also, are furnished with numerous 

concave edge of the Sole. Valves. 

At the root or the Great Toe, it sends a Principal Subcutaneous Veins The Subcutaneous Veins are 

Branch to it? inner nde ; il then passes under the Flexor situated between the common Iinc^imiiuts and general 

Longus Pollicis, din), after amiMlniiuiMiig w itli the Areas Aponeurosis, and, in ninny parts are entirely concealed 

Plantaris, gives off a Ltf-e Brunei), which splits into bv the Fat.. Tliev anastomose frequently with each other 

' the outer side of the Great Toe, and the by large Brandies, and have several communications ako 



other t 

which may be considered ay the couth 
Trunk, being in general much larger than 
passes obliquely outwards between the Fie 
fitorum and Flexor Aeccssorius, till it re 
<■■ ' (he Metatarsal Bone of the Little Toe. 






:ipal Trunks called SapktE 



AND OF THE PELVIS AND INFERIOR EXTREMITY. 



From the Leg, it passes 
and afterwards from the 
part of the Thigh. 

It is at first composed of Veins, derived from the up- 



at the upper part of the Thigh, is joined by the Vena 
Profunda. 

The Vena Profunda receives the Veins correspond- 
ing with the Brunches of the Artery of that name, and 



> the 



then 



In its ascent, it is joined by Branches from the super- 
ficial parts of the Leg, and some way below the Knee, 
is ti'ccj ucn I Iv sjilil into a Plexus. 

It receives Branches from the superficial parts of the 
Thigh, and small Twigs fVi.nn (la- Inguinal Glands. 

It perforate.-, the Fascia Lata at the edge of the Falci- 
form Ligament, and terminates in (he top of the Femoral 
Vein, nearly opposite to, or a little higher than, the ori- 
giu of the Arteria Profunda. 

The Saph.ena Minor arises upon the outer side of the 
Foot, and aftcrwmiis passes behind the Malleolus Ex- 

Froin this it ascends, in the back part of the Leg, 
upon the Surface of the Gastrocnemius Exteraus, and 
goes into the Ham. 

It is formed originally by the Veins of the upper and 
outer part of the Foot, and is joined to the Saphaena Ma- 
jor, over the Metatarsi Bones, by one or more Arches, 
which receive a Plexus of Branches into their lower or 

It is joined by the Superficial Veins of the outer and 

back part of the Leg, which have livipieul Ana^lomo.'-e-; 
with each other, and with the Branches of the Saphama 



only in such cases accompanying the Trunk of the Fei 

Resides the Vena Profunda, the Femoral Vein takes 
in small Veins from the External Parts of Generation, 
from the Inguinal Glands, and from the other superficial 
parts of the Groin ; — and, in particular, it receives a 
Branch of considerable size, which descends from the 
Integuments of the fore side- of the Abdomen, and is often 
very conspicuous iu cases of Ascites. 

The Trunk of the Femoral!-, having received the dif- 
ferent Veins of the Inferior E\1remily, passes into the 
Ah. lumen, behind J'uit.\ kt's Lig.uiu nt, being still situa- 



Majoi 

It terminates in the Vena Poplitea, and, a little above 
the Knee, communicates constantly by a small Branch 
with the Saphaeua Major. 

Deep Veins.— The Deep Veins of the Leg, like thote 
of the Fore-arm, run close at each side of their Arteries, 
and are double their number, but ilitli i a little from the 
Radial or Ulnar \ tins, in In log proportionally larger. 

The Tibial and Fibular " 
places with each other, and 
Subcutaneous Veins. 

At the upper part of the Leg they ate united together, 
to form the Vena Pnplitea, and the union is nearly at the 
same place where the eon. -ponding Arteries come off. 

The Vena Poplitea adheres closely to the upper or 
posterior Sulfate ol' the Artery, which it in a great mea- 
sure conceal-, ami i- commonly -ingle, excepting a small 
Vein which sometimes accompanies it, and communicates 

The Popliteal Vein receives the Vena: Surales and Ar- 
licularcs, and the Saptacna Minor ; after which it forms 
the Femoral Vein. 

The Vena Femoralis, Tab. CLIX. receives the 
\ eins which correspond with the perforating Branches of 
the Femoral Artery, and passes in through the Triceps, 
where the Artery comes out. 

In the middle of the Thigh it lies deeper than the Ar- 
tery, afterwards turning gradually to its inner side ; and, 



and afterwards crosses hehiiu! it mi the right, ami behind 
the Internal Iliac Artery on the left side of the Pelvis, to 
join the Trunk of the Hypogastric Vein. 

The Vena Hyfogastrica, vel Iliaca Interna, 
Tab. CLIX. is situated at the outer side of the Conco- 
mitant Artery, and receives the different Veins which 
cone-pond "ilh lite Branches of that Artery, and which 
are furnimc.l with Valves where they are situated among 
the Fleshy pails of the Pelvis. 

The External and Internal Iliacs unite, and form the 
Common Biacs, a little below the division of the corrc- 
spcodiiig Arteries. 

The Iliacs: Communes ascend by the right side of 

their respective Arteries, and a little below the Bifurca- 

with the tion of the Aorta, — or upon the fore part of the Fifth 



The Vena Cava Inferior, Tab. CLXXIX. which 
is much larger than (he Cava Superior, and greatly ex- 
ceeds in size the descending ./&//(.', — receives, at its be- 
ginning, the Vena Sacra, and, higher, the Venae Lum- 
barcs, which, in the left side, pass behind the Trunk of 

It likewise receives the Vena: Renales, and the Sprr- 

At length it takes in the Vena; Hepaticae and Dia- 
phlagmalic;e, anil, perioral jug the Tendinous part of the 
Diaphragm, at the root of the Liver, it terminates in the 
under part of the Right Auricle of the Heart ; thus re- 
ceiving the Rlood from the Inferior Extremities, from 
the Viscera and Parities of the Abdomen, or from all tha 
parts situated under the Diaphragm. 



PART VI. 



ABSORBENT SYSTEM. 



OF THE ABSORBENTS IN GENERAL. 



T^HE Absorbent System consists of the Absorbent Ves- Most of the Lymphatics, 

-*- seta and Conglobate Glands; the former of which natc in the Thoracic Dut 

are divided into Lymphatic and Lacteal Vessels, on ac- Chyle are conveyed to the Red Veins, and i 

count of the colour ami nature of their Contents. the Blood. 

The Absorbents are small I'd tin id Tubes, which have The large Veins in the bottom of the Neck are the 

been discovered in most parts of the Body, and are sup- common place of termination ; no facts nor observations 

posed to exist in all. having been yet established "1 their terminating in any 

They begin by numberless open Mouths, too minute to other part of the Venous System, 

bs visible to the naked Eye : By the assistance of Glass- The Coats of the Absorbents are thinner and more 

es, however, the Orifices of the Lacteals have been seen transparent, but stronger than those of the Red Veins, 

in the Human Body ; — and those of the Lymphatics in bein- able to support a column of Mercury of consider- 

certain kinds of Fishes. — See Monro's and (.'ruikshank's able weight ; — but, from their thinness, they cannot be 

Treatises on this Subject. enumerated. 

They arise from the External Surface of the Body, The Absorbents, however, like the Blood-vessels, are 

from the Cellular Substance, from the Surfaces of the generally supposed to be formed of different Membranous 

large Cavities, and from the Surface and Substance of Layers. — Fibres can be seen in them, and their Muscu- 

the different Viscera ; but have not yet been distinctly lanty is rendered probable by the contractile power which 

observed in the Cavity, of the Cranium and Spine, nor in they areobserved to possess in a living or moribund Animal, 

the Placenta and its Membranes. Sy this contractility, together with a degree of elasti- 

In the different parts of the Body, they generally run city they possess, they convey their contents from their 

in two Sets ; one Superficial and very numerous, much Origins towards their terminations, in which they are 

more so than the red Veins, the other accompanying the assisted by the motions of the surrounding Muscles, and 

Arteries, and at least double their number. pulsations of the neighbouring Arteries, independent of 

The Lacteals are of the same nature with the other such a Vis a Tcrgo as contributes to propel the Blood 

Absorbents. They begin from the inside of the Intes- through the Veins. 

tines ; and when these contain Alimentary Matter, they They are furnished with Blood-vessels for their non- 
carry a white Fluid, called Chyle, which, on account of rishment, as is sometimes clistiiicth observed by throw, 
the thinness of their Coats, readily appeal's through ing penetrating Injections into them ; and this is render- 
them. At Aher times, they carry a Clear Fhiid or Lymph, ed still more evident, by their being susceptible of inllam- 
to be mixed with the contents of the Lymphatics. mat ion and pain. 

In the Human Body, and in Quadrupeds, the Chyle The presence of _Y ( nrsal-o appears probable from the 

has the appearance of Milk. It has a sweet and some- acuteness of their feel in:; when in a si ate of inflammation. 

what saline taste. By allowing it to remain at rest for In general, they have a waving direction, and form an 

some time, and exposed to the air, it is said to afford irregular Set-ifir/:, having frequent communications with 

Cream, and also to coagulate. It is found to contain Al- each other ; and these are most numerous in the vicinity 

bumen, Serum, and different kinds of Salts, and, accord- of their Glands, 

ing to some, Saccharine Matter. Through their whole extent, they are intercepted by 

Where a Person has died a few hours after taking too T'a/tcs, which, like the sides of the Vessels to which 

great a quantity of Food, the Lacteals have been observed they belong, arc of great proportional strength. They 

gorged with Chyle ; and, upon opening tin- Abdomen «i' are placed in pairs, ami are of a semicircular form ; hav- 

a Dog, &c. three or four hours after the Animal has taken ing one edge of each Valve fixed to the side of the Ves- 

Food, the Lacteals are found full of this Fluid. At longer sel, and the other edge loose across its Cavity, but turned 

periods than that just mentioned, the whiteness of the towards the general terminations, being quite similar to 

Fluid diminishes; and where the Animal has lusted turn- the Valves of the Red Veins, 

ty-four hours, the contents of the Lacteals are colourless. In some parts, the Valves are founti to be situated at 



OF THE ABSORBENT SYSTEM IN GENERAL. 



equal distances ; in others, more irregularly. — Tlieir 
number aNo is very miccilah), amoimling in some parts 
to three or four, and in others to seven or eight pairs, or 
upwards, in the length of an inch ;— but varying still 
more with respect to number in different Bodies, and in 
different parts of the same Body. Sometimes there is 
not abovea single pair in the space of an inch. 

When the Absorbents are distended, they appear largest 
on the side of the Valves towards their gem-rid termina- 
tions, and the enlargements are such as to give the Lym- 
phatics a jointed, and the Lacteals frequently a Vesicular 
appearance. 

In the termination of the Absorbents, whether in the 
Thoracic Duct or in the Red Veins, there is always one, 
and commonly two Valves, to prevent the contents of the 
Duct or of the Veins from passing into them. 

The Valves promote the general course of the Lymph 
and Chyle, ami prevent the retrograde motion of these 
riuiils within their Vessels. 

The Lymphatics take in the Fluids applied to their Ori- 
fices by Capillary Attraction, and afterwards by a power in- 
herent in themselves, and by their contractile nature, con- 
duct them into the Mass of Blood, whereby they prevent 
Morbid Accumulations. — They absorb the thinner parts 
of the secreted fluids so as to give them a proper consis- 
tance, — take up solid parts originally formed for tempo- 
rary purposes, to make way for others that are to be more 
permanent, &c. The Lacteals in a similar manner re- 
ceive the Chyle from the Intestines, for the nourishment 
of the Body. 

The Conglobate Glands, or Glands of the Absorbent 
\ esstls, are found solitary or in groups in various parts of 
the Body, and are situated in the Cellular Substance under 
the Skin, generally near the great Blood-vessels, or over the 
Trunks of the Vessels belonging to the different Viscera. 
They are chiefly found at the beudings of the Knee and 
Thigh ; about the Vessels in the Pelvis ; between the 
plies of the Mesentery, where they are in greater abun- 
dance than in any other part of the Body ; about the 
Vessels going to the oilier Viscera of the Abdomen ; 
about the Vessels in both Mediastina, especially the 
Bronchi ; at the inner part of the Arm ; in the Axilla ; 
about the large Vessel* of the Neck ; under the Lower 
Jaw ; before and behjnd the Ear. They have not yet 
been found upon the Hands or Feet, nor in the Cavity of 
the Cranium ; and scarcely have any ever been obscrud 
upon the Fore-arms or Legs ; and only a small stiasrgliii'.; 
Gland is occasionally met with upon the superficial parts 
k of the Body. This '- - 
alline Lens, sometimes 
times on the fore side of the Thora 

They are of a round or oval form, and frequent? v a 



i different parts of the Body,. 



Tlieir colour also \ 
and at different times 

Id young Subjects, they are generally largest, and of 
a reddish or brown colour, but become smaller and paier 
with increasing age; and immediately under the skin 
they are redder and tinner than within the large Cavities, 

In the Mesentery, they are of a pale colour ; about the 
Bronchi, they are almost black. 

They have a smooth, dense, Membranous Covering 



Their Coat is connected to the Glandular part by a 
Cellular Membrane, which, according to Dn Hallir, 
is pervaded by a .Siuius l'lvpiiiis full of Globule-, wlnih, 
Mr Hewson supposed, afterwards form the red Glo- 
bules of the Blood. 

Like other Glands, they are supplied with Arteries, 
Veins, and Nerves, which they derive from those of the 
adjacent parts. 

They are described by some Anatomists as being com- 
posed of Cells internally, while others consider thera as 

a Congeries of to/ivoluttd Absorbent Vessels Most of 

the Glands have much of the former, but many of them of 
the latter appearance. 

The Absorbents entering into the Glands, are called 
Vasa Inferinfia. When they approach, or come in con- 
tact with the Gland, they split into radiated Branches, 
which, after spreading out upon it, penetrate into its Sub- 
stance, where they divide almost to infinity, in some parts 
coiling up upon themselves ; then they rejoin, and pass 
out at the opposite side. 

The greater part of the Absorbents, approaching a 
Gland, terminate in it in this manner, while others turn 
aside, or go over it, and terminate in other Absinbt-ntt, 
or in other Glands, but at such a distance that virulent 
matter may enter the mass of blood without being at first 
perceived. 

From the opposite side of the Glands, the Vessels go 
out nearly in the manner they entered them, and are there 
termed Vasa Efferentia. These are frequently, though 
by no means always, fewer in number, but larger than the 
/ II--U hifirentia. 

Most of the Absorbents go through several Glands, but 
in some parts through one only, befoie they reath tlieir 
general terminations. Few appear to enter the Bed 
\ eius without previously having penetrated one or more 
Glands. 

The Lymph and Chyle are strained through the Glands 
by which they arc supposed to undergo certain changes, 
— but the nature of these changes has not yet beeu asccr- 
t::ined, though they are fuund to be as essential to the 
Absorbent Vessels as the Ganglia are to the Nervous 



C 85 ) 



PARTICULAR ABSORBENTS. 



The Superficial Absorbents of the Lower Extremities, 
consist of numerous Vessels^ which one imbedded in the 
Cellular Substance, between the Skin mid Muscles. 

They belong to the Integuments in general, and are 
much more numerous than the Subcutaneous Red Veins. 

They can be traced from the Toes, round which they 
form a Plexus. 

From the Toes several Branches, likewise forming a 
Plexus, ruo over the top of the Foot, to the inner part 
of the Leg, and from thai aloin^ the corresponding part 
of the Knee. Tab. CLXI. Fig. 1. Tab. CLXXVII. 
Fig. 2. 

From the outer part of the. Foot, another Plexus arises, 
which runs along the outside of the Leg, where it splits 
into two divisions, one of which crosses obliquely over 
the fore part of the Tibia, to the Lymphatics at the in- 
ner side of the Knee. Tab. CLXI. Fig. 3. 

The other division passes partly lo the Popliteal 
Glands, some ascending upon the outer and back part of 
the Thigh. Tab. CLXI. Fig. 3. Tab. CLXXVII. 
Fig- 2. 

The Popliteal Glands, Tab. CLX. Fig. 3. Tab. 
CLXXVII. Fig. '£. are commonly two or three in num- 
ber, and are situated near the Artery of the same name ; 
but frequently they are so small, and so much buried in 
Fat, as to be discovered with difficulty. 

From the Sole another Plexus of Lymphatics arises, 
and joins those upon the Leg already described. 

From the inside of the Knee a Plexus runs up, consist- 
ing of from twelve to twenty Trunks, which pass after- 
wards on the fore and inner part of the Thigh to the 
Groin. Tab. CLXI. Fig. 2. Tab. CLXXVII. Fig. 2. 
Fig. 1. 

The greater part of the Trunks of the last Plexus ac- 
company the J eiia Saphioia Major, and, in their pas- 
sage, they receive inanv small Branches from the outer 
and back part of the Thigh. 

In the Groin, thev split into Branches, which pene- 
trate the Inguinal Glands. Tab. CLXI. Fig. 2. 

The Inguinal C/tuids are generally from six or eight 
to a dozen in number, and are of very dill'crciit sizes ; but 
sometimes the number is smaller, in consequence of two 
or more of them beiug united into one large Gland. Tab. 
CLXXVII. Fig. 1. 

Of the Inguinal Glands-, some lie in the Angle between 
the Thigh and Abdomen, and others a lew inches farther 
down on the fore part of the Thigh. Tab. CLXII. 

The greater number are placed upon the outer part of 



The Superficial Lymphatics of the Thigh enter tin 
lowest of these Glands; one or more of them, however 
frequently pass the iirsl Gland- thev meet with, and pe 



others higher in the Grc 
do not enter any Glands till they go into the Abdomen, 
Tab. CLXII. The superficial Lymphatics of the upper 
and back part of the Thigh, with those of the Nates, 
Abdomen, and Loins, also enter into the Inguinal Gland.-. 
Tab. CLXII. 

The Deep-seated Lymphatics of the Lower JCitr, w.v'/„, 
are situated among the Muscles. — They accompany the 
Blood-vessels, and are few when compaicd with the Sub- 
cutaneous Set. 

In several places, one only has been yet observed on 
each side of the Trunks of the Arteries, though, in 
others, they are somewhat more numerous, forming a 
Plexus over the Blood-vessels. 

They arise from the sides of the Toes, and from the 
deep parts of the Sole, accompanying the Plantar Arte- 
ries ; and, after reaching the Leg, they run up with lite 
Posterior Tibial Artery to the Ham. 

In the Ham, they lie close upon the Trunk of the Ar- 
tery, and enter the Popliteal Glands. 

Besides these, there are- .similar hut smaller Lympha- 
tics, which begin upon the upper part of the Foot, and 
afterwards accompany the Ann rinr Tibial, and the Fibu- 
lar Arteries, receiving Branches from the deep parts of 
the fore and outer side of the Leg. 

The Anterior Tibial and the Fibular Lymph a tics, 
terminate with the Posterior Tibial in the Glands of the 

From the Popliteal Glands, two and sometimes more 
Trunks of considerable si/.e are sent out, which accom- 
pany the Femoral Artery, and, at different distances, 
communicate with each other, by Blanches which pass 
ol>ii(|Lielv across t he Artery. 

At the upper part of the Thigh, they enter the under- 
most of the Inguinal Glands, where the Lymph of the 
Superficial and dccp-scaicd Absorbents of the Limb is 
mixed and incorporated. Tab. CLXII. CLXXVII. 

The Superficial Lymphatic, of the Senium enter the 
upper and inner inguinal Glands; those deeper seated 
passing with the Lymphatics of the Testicle iuto the Ab- 
domen. Tab. CLXII. CLXXVII. 

The Superficial Lymphatics of the Par's begin at the 
Prepuce, and form a few Trunks which run principally 
upon the Dorsum Penis, receiving in their passage 
Branches which turn round from its Inferior Surface. 
Tab. CLXII. CLXXVII. 

In some Subjects, they unite into Trunks iu the middle 



OF THE ABSORBENT SYSTEM. 



[Part VI. 



of the Dorsum Penis, which afterwards separate into 

ji:. hi ami left parts. 

In others, they are more unconnected ; ant! in all, they 
appear to divide at the root of the Penis into right mid 
kit Brandies, posing into [lit- corresponding Inguinal 
<;1;nhI-,v. In, h lit- next the Symphysis Pubis. Tab.CLXIX 
CLXXVII. 

The Deep-seated Lymphatic* of the Penis arise from 
the Gkns, and from the P.udy of the Penis, and accom- 
pany the Arteries into the under part of the Pelvis. 

The Lymphatics of the Testicle are numerous, aud are 
among the largest of the whole Body ; some of them ex- 
ceedii.g the size of a Crow-quill. 

They arise from the Coats and Substance of the Tes- 
ticle, and from the Epididymis, and run with the Sper- 
matic Cord through tin- Abdominal Rings, to terminate 
in tiie Lumbar Glands.— In their passage, they have few 
communications witii each other. Tub. CLXXVIII. 

The Lymphatics of the F.itemal Parts of Genera- 
tion in Women, go partly to the Inguinal Glands of each 
side, and partly through the Abdominal Rings, in com- 
pany witli the fiuuiiil Ligaments of the Uterus, and ter- 



Abdomen, those of th« Loins, Sates, and Verge of the 
sinus; pass into the Inguinal Glands ; each set terminat- 
ing in such of the Glands as lie nearest the pails to which 
the Vessels belong. Tab. CLXII. 

The Inguinal Glands, having received the Lymphatics 
nf the Inferior Ivilremily, and likewise the Superficial 
Lymphatics of the External Parts of Generation, seud 
out Trunk- fewer in number, but considerably larger than 
those whidi enter the Glands. 

The Visa Efferentia of the Inguinal Glands enter the 
Abdomen under Poupaht's Ligament, in company with 
the Inguinal Artery and Vein. 

Some of them go into the Glands situated about the 
Iliac or the Lumbar Blood-vessels. The 1/iiu GIhjhI*, 
Tab. CLXII1. are frequently almost as numerous as the 
Glands of the Groin, and one of them is generally found 
larger than the rest, and placed at the inner edge of Poi'- 
fart's Ligament. The Lumbar Glands are more nume- 
rous than any of the classes already described, and are 
placed over the Abdominal Aorta, Inferior Cava, and 
Bodies of the Lumbar Vertebra, 

The rest of the Lymphatics from the Lower l",\trenii- 



bents from the 

ly by those of the Bladder and Vesh ulxSemm ales' in the freely in tfie Sub: 

Male, and by a portion of those of the Uterus aud of the ing them, comim 

Vagina in the Female. the plies of the 

The Lymphatii ■.-• of tin fllitddcr, in both Sexes, ae- lowing particular 

company the principal Blood-vessels of that Organ, pass CLXIV. CLXA 



through some small Glands upon the side of it, and, at 
the under part of the Pelvis, go into the Glands which 
surround the Internal Iliac Artery and Vein. 

The Lymphatics of the Uteri//,- run in two Sets. One 
which is the largest, goes with the Hypogastric, the other 
with the Spermatic Blood-vessels. 

'ihe Hypogastric Lymphatics form a Plexus which 
runs from above downwards, into Glands situated on the 
sides of ttie Vagina. From these Glands they pass to 
others which surround the Internal Jliac Vessels, and 
theu, intermixing with ihe Trunk, horn the Exlrenihies 
they terminate in the Thoracic Duct. 

The Spermatic Lymphatics terminate in the Lumbar 

The Lymphatics of the Uterus, lite its Blood-vessels, 
are much enlarged, and of course easily discovered, in 
the Gravid state, where they are also observed to be ex- 

The Lymphatics of the Bectttm go first into small 
Glands which lie between it and the Os Sacrum, and 
afterwards terminate in the Lumbar Plexus of Glands 
and Vessels. 

Besides the Lymphatics which lie on the inside of the 
External Iliac Artery, there are others situated on the 
outside of it, upon the Psoas. Of these one part passes 
up to the Lumbar Plexus, and goes under the Aorta in 
different Brandies which terminate in the Thoracic 
Duct. 

Another part passes under the Iliac Arteries, and ap- 
pears upon the Os Sacrum, forming a remarkable Plexus, 
wliieh goes through many Glands, and is chiefly situated 
behind the Aorta aud Vena Cava. Tab. CLXIII. 

The Lacteal Vessels, so called from conveying a Fluid 
of the colour of Milk, begin upon the inner Surface 
of the Intestines. Each Lacteal takes its origin upon 
one of the Villi by numerous short radiated Branch- 
. es, and each Branch is furnished with an Orifice for im- 
bibing the Chyle. 

From the Villi, the Lacteals run a considerable way 
under the Muscular Coat of the Intestines, and then pass 
obliquely tlouugli it, uniting in their course into larger 
Branches. 

They follow the direction of the Blood-vessels, and 
their Trunks are double the number of the Arteries, — 
one being situated on each side of an Artery. 

Upon the outside of the Intestines mi external Set ap- 
pear. They run between the Peritoneal and Muscular 
Coats, and commonly proceed some way in the direction 
of the Interline, and with few Ramifications. Tab. 
CLXIV. 

The Superficial and Deep-seated Lacteals communicate 
" " lance of the Intestines, and, after leav- 



Part VI.] OF THE ABSORBENT SYSTEM. 87 



The Lacteals of the Jejunum are large and more nu- the Inferior Mesenteric Artery, and communicate with 
merous than those of the Ilium; the principal part of large Lymphatics near its root, 

the Chyle being contained in the former. They terminate at last in the Lumbar Glands, or go 

Id their course, they pass through a great number of directly into the lower part of the Thoracic Duct. 

Lacteal or Mesenteric Glands, which, like the Lacteals Of the Absorbents of the Stomach, one Set runs upon 

themselves, are largest and most numerous in that part of its Small, and anotlier upon its Great Curvature ; but 

the Mesent«ry which belongs to the Jejunum. Tab. neither the one nor the other are found to cany Chyle, 

CLXIV. to CLXVIII. though a few Absorbents have been observed filled with 

The Mesenteric Glands are seated in the Fat, between it in other Animals, — as the Dog. 

the Layers of the Mesentery, near the Branches of the The first Set, < omposed of Branches from the upper 

Blood-vessels. and under Sulfates of the Stomach, accompany the Su- 

They are commonly scattered over the Mesentery, at perior Coronary Artery, 

a little distance from each other ; but there are seldom In their passage, they go through a few small Glands 

any observed within two or three inches of the lutes- situated at the junction of the Omentum Minus with the 

tines. Stomach, and, after becoming larger, they enter. other 

They are of different sizes in different parts of the Me- Glands in company with the Deep-seated Lymphatics of 

sentery, some being about half or two-thirds of an inch the Liver, along with which they terminate in the Tho- 

in diameter, while others are so small as to be traced racic Duct. 

with difficulty. The other Set pass from the Great Curvature of the 

Their Structure is the same with that of the Absor- Stomach, partly to the right, and partly to the left side, 

bent Glands in other parts of the Body, but they are aud, as on the Small Curvature, are formed of Branches 

generally flatter, and are of a pale colour. When filled from its opposite Surfaces. Tab, CLXXVU. 

with the Chyle, they are almost as white as the fluid con- Those on the left side receive the Lymphatics of the 

t aincd in them. , middle and corresponding half of the Omentum Majus ; 

They are considered by some Authors as dividing the running to the left side of the Large Curvature of the 

Lacteals into different orders. Stomach, and passing through one or two small Glands 

From the Intestines to the Glands, the Lacteals are on it, they go with the Lymphatics of the Spleen and 

called Vasa Laetea Primi Generis, aud from the Glands Pancreas to the Thoracic Duct. 

to the Thoracic Duct, Vasa Laetea Secundi Generis. Those of the right side receive the Lvmphatics of the 

Tab. CLXIV. corresponding half of the Great Omentum, and also pass 

Some divide them into three orders ;— the first consist- through some small Glands which lie close to the Iliglit 

ing of those which go from the Intestines to the Glands, Gastric Artery. 

—the second, of those which run from one Set of Glands In their descent by the Pylorus, they meet the Plexus 

to another, — and the third, of those which pass from the which accompanies llie Superior Coronary Artery, and 

Glands to the Thoracic Duct. run with them and with the Deep Lymphatics of the 

The Lacteals of the Small Intestines, after passing Liver lo the Thoracic Duct. 

through the different Glands in the Mesentery, form at The Lymphatics if the Liver, like those of the other 

least one, aud frequently two, three, or more Trunks, Viscera, run in two Sets ; the Superficial of which are 

which accompany the Trunk of the Superior Mesenteric numerous, and unite into Trunks in the manner Boots 

Artery, till they arrive at the right side of the Aorta, unite to form ihe Trunk of a Tree. Tab. CLXXVU. 

where they sometimes pass into the beginning of the Tho- The Superficial and Dee]) Sets ainiinuiiii ate so freely, 

racic Duct, Tab. CLXIV. At other times they descend that upon injecting flic Lymphatics of the internal Sur- 

a little, and join the Trunks from the Inferior ExLremi- face, the Deep-sealed Absorbents are readily Idled from 

ties, to form that Duct. them. 

The Absorbents of the Great are of an inferior size The principal part of fhc Lymphatic upon the convex 

in proportion to those of the Small Intestines, and have Surface of the Liver, go by a Uis-lii and Left Plexus tc- 

seldoru, though sometimes, been observed to be fdled wards the Su^peiiMji v Lieamcut. Tab. CLXXVU, 

with Chyle. Tab. CLXVIII. Running along this Ligament, they directly perforate 

In their course, they go through the Mcso-colic Glands, the Diaphragm, after which they pass through Glands 

which are situated between the Layers of the Meso-colou, situated upon the anterior part of the Pericardium, 

but are generally much less numerous and considerably Other Lymphatics from the convex part of the Liver 

smaller than those of the Mesentery, or of most other run towards the Lateral Ligaments, where they form on 

parts of the Body. each side one or more Trunks of considerable size. 

The Absorbents of the Cetcum, and of the Right Por- From the Lateral Ligaments they pass through the 

tiunoftke Cnton, join those of the Small Intestines, about Substance of the Diaphragm, and afterwards run for- 

the root of the Mesentery. wards on its convex Surface, following the direction of 

Those of the Left Portion of the Colon accompany the Ribs.— Not infrequently these Vessels, instead of 



88 OF THE ABSORBENT SYSTEM. [Part Vt 

perforating tlie Diaphragm, rim downwards, and tenni- The Superficial Absorbents run from its outer towards 

Jmte in the Thoracic Duct, nit hin the Abdomen, its inner edge, when-, meeting with those deep-seated, 

In their course upon the Diaphragm, they often send they commonly unite with llit-m, and form a Plexuswhich 

Branches backward-, which terminate in Glands upon accompanies the Renal Blood- vessels, after which they 

the Esophagus In other instances, these Branches are pass through some of the Lumbar Glands, and terminate 

observed to go directly into the Thoracic Duct. m large Lymphatic h m ar the Aorta. 

They receive Branches from the Substance of the The Lymphatics of the Capsu/a Jtenaiis, which an 

Diaphragm, and, after perforating two or three Glands numerous in proportion to its size, terminate in the Renal 

upon its Surface, they join the Trunks from the Liga- Plexus. 

mentum Suspensorium. All tne Absorbents already described, excepting those 

The Lymphatics from the Lateral Ligaments, joined from the convex Surface of the Liver, terminate in the 

by those from the Ligameutum Suspensorium, form either Thoracic Duet near its beginning. 

a principal Trunk, or a Pkxus which runs up, sometimes The Thoracic Due/, at its under extremity, is formed 

between the Layers of the Anterior [Mediastinum, and at by the union of three, or sometimes of more principal 

other times in companv with the Internal Mammary Trunks ; the first of which is composed of the Lympha- 

Blood-vesscls on each side. tics of the right, and the second of those of the left Jn- 

When they run in the Anterior Mediastinum, tlieymost ferior Extremity ; — the third Trunk, or set of Trunks, 

frequently terminate in the upper end of the Thoracic belong el. idle to the Lac teals. Tab. CLXUI. CLXJV. 

Duct i_ sometimes, however, they communicate with the CLXXIV. CLXXVII. 

general termination on the right side of the Neck. These large Absorbents unite so as to form the Duct 

When they accompany the Internal Mammary Ves- over the third Vertebra of the Loins, 

sels, they are observed to terminate, the left in the Tho- Sometimes they unite upon the second Vertebra, where 

racic Dnct, and the right in the general termination of the Duct formed by them is twice or thrice as large in 

that side. diameter as it is higher up. 

The Lymphatics on the concave Surface of the Liver Commonly it enlarges again upon the first Lumbar Ver- 

run towards the Porta, and join the Deep-seated Set. — tebra, where it has generally been called the Beceptacu. 

One part of them goes over the under Surface of the lum Chyli, and considered as the beginning of the Dnct; 

Gall-bladder, froin which they derive numerous small being often found forming an oval, or Piriform Bag, 

.Branches. about the third of an inch in diameter. 

The Deep-seated Lymphatics accompany the Blood These large Trunks which form the Thoracic Dnct 

and Biliary Vessels, and, communicating with the Super- lie close upon the Spine, those of the right side being 

ficial Absorbents already mentioned, they pass through placed below the Bight Cms of the Diaphragm, and 

several Glands situated about the Trunk of the Vena those of the Left between the Aorta and Spine, while 

Ports, and terminate in the Thoracic Duct near the root the Thoracic Duct itself lies at first behind the Aorta, 

of the Superior Mesenteric Artery. but afterwards passes from it upwards and a little to the 

The Superficial Lymphatics of the Spleen are remark- right side, till it gets before the first Vertebra of the 

ably small. They pass from its convex to its concave Loins. 

Surface, where they join the Deep-seated Lymphatics, Here it is situated behind the Right Crus of the Dia- 

which are very considerable in *i/.e and number. phragm, a little higher than the Right Renal Artery, 

The Splenic Plexus of Lymphatics accompany the from whence it passes upwards, and afterwards appears 

Splenic Artery, and go through several Glands of a dark in the Thorax, upon the fore and right side of the Spine, 

colour, scattered along the Surface of that Vessel. between the Aorta and Vena A/.ygos, Tab. CLXXIV. 

The Lymphatics of the Spleen receive those of the Fig. 1. U, where it is supposed to be considerably assist- 

Pancreas, which run into them in a transverse direction, ed by the strokes of the Aorta in impelling its Fluids. 

In their course, they unite with the Lymphatics of In the middle of the Thorax, it is smaller than else- 
the Stomach and those descending from the under part where, being only about a line in diameter. After this 
of the Liver ; and the whole of them, near the Head it gradually enlarges, and, near its termination, is about 
of the Pancreas, form a considerable Plexus. From an eighth or tenth of an inch over, 
this Plexus Branches are sent off, some passing over the In the Thorax, it receives the Lymphatics of the Spa- 
Duodenum, and others under it, and all of tliem going lia Intercostalia, one or two of which accompany each of 
into the Thoracic Duct, near the termination of the the Intercostal Arteries, and the whole go through small 
Lacteals. Glands placed near these Arteries, but most numerous 

The Lymphatics of the Kidney are seldom seen, ex- about the sides of the Dorsal Vertebra, where thev form 

cepting when it is enlarged or ulcerated; in which a sort of Chain. 

. iise they may sometimes be distinctly observed. Tab. Here, likewise, it receives Branches from the Esopha- 

CLXXYII. g us ^ Jjungs ; the former of which is surrounded with 



Part VI] 



OF THE ABSORBENT SYSTEM. 



a number of Glands, and with a remarkable and intrit 
PJexus of Lymphatic Vessels. 

The Superficial Lymphatics of the Linigs form la 
Areola:, which have smallei' Areolse within tliem ; 
larger running chiefly between the Lobules, and 
smaller passing over them in such a manner as to co 
almost the whole Surface of the Lungs. Tub. (JLXXV 
Fig- 1. 

From the Surface they go to the root of the Lut 
where they pass through the Bronchial Glands, wli 
have already been taken notice of in the description 



:- Ab'- orb cuts of the Heart ; 



nid having reached as hi^i 
ciicbra, passes nblinni Iv o 
, behind the F/jupliagiis, ; 



Oc- 



ling ul the 



After this, it emerges liom tin: Thorax, and runs b'e- 

the Lungs. tween the Longus Colli and Internal Jugular Vein, to 

At this place they are joined by the deep-seated Lym- about the Sixth Vertebra of the Neck. Tab. CLXXVI. 

phatics, which creep along the Branches of the Trachea Fig. 1. I. 

and of the Pulmonary Blood-vessels. It now makes a turn downwards, and, after descending 

Through the medium of the Bronchial Glands, the near an inch, terminates in the upper and back part of 

Lymphatics of the two sides of the Lungs communicate the angle formed by tin- left Internal Jugular and Subcla- 

freely with each other. vian Veins. Tab. ILXMV. Fig. 2. A. Tab. CLXXVI. 

Having left the Glands, the principal part of those Fig. 1. K. Tab. CLXXVII. Fig. I. Ho. 13. 14. 

from the Left Lung form a Trunk of considerable size, Throughout 11= whole course, it has a waving appear- 

which terminates in the Thoracic Duct, behind the Bi- ance, and this becomes more conspicuous in proportion as 

furcation of the Trachea. it is distended by Injection, Tab. CLXX1V. Fig. 1. U, 



iilVei|neiitly 



11 m only divides 



The rest of the Absorbents of the Left Lung pass U. Near the middle of the Thorax, 

through Glands behind the Arch of the Aorta, which are splits into two or more Branches, and 

likewise common to the Lymphatics of the Heart. They Plexus, the Branches of which again u. 

run at last by a principal Trunk into the Thoracic Duct Trunk a little higher up. 
near its termination. After emergmg from the Thorax, it 

After leaving the Bronchial Glands, the Absorbents of into two parts, which unite auain previous to the termi- 

the Right Luug form a few principal Trunks, one of nation of the Duct iu the Red Veins, Tab. CLXXVII, 

which commonly asceuds on the fore part of the Vena Fig. 1. No. 13. 14. ; and where there is no division. 

Cava Superior, and, running iu a convoluted maimer, there is generally a Dilat; 
opens into the Trunk which terminates in the Veins in Sometimes there is one 
the right side of the Neck 



t of these Trunks go into the Thoracic Duct, 
near the Bifurcation of the Trachea. 

The Absorbents of the Heart are small, but numerous, 
and form principal Trunks \\ lii< !i a< eniiip my the Coronary 
Arteries, and, like them, the largest belong to the Left 
Ventricle. 

From the side of the Right Coronary Artery, an Ab- 
sorbent Trunk, which corresponds with it, passes over 
the Arch of the Aorta to a Gland commonly found be- 
hind the origin of theCarotid Arteries. Tab. CLXXVII. 
Fig. 1. x. 

From this Gland it goes afterwards to the general ter- 
mination in the right side of the Neck. 

The Lymphatic Trunk accompanying the Left Co 
nary Artery, is formed of two principal Br, 



the Angle li-niied 
by the Red Veins, and one or two in the Subelavian 
Veins, and now and then, though more seldom, in the 
Internal Jugular, near the Angle. 

In a few instances, it has been found double through 
'hole length ; one Duet going to the common place of 






othe 



1 few 1 



i formed of two principal Branches. — One panying the pr 

ot ttiese runs in the Groove between the Ventricles on deep-seated parts. 
the Superior Surface of the Heart : the other runs in a The Superficial Lymph 

similar Groove on the under side of I lit- Heart, and hav- ties are numeroi 

ing reached the space between the Auricle :uul Ventricle, Dropsital Nubjei 
turns round to join the former Braneli near its cone- Thev an-v lio 

sponding Artery! Tab. CBKXVII. Fig. 1. y. and Hand, by a 

The Trunk runs next to a Gland placed behind the form an cxfcusivi 

Pulmonary Arterv, between the Arch of the Aorta and of the Fore-arm. 
Root of the Trachea, which, with the other, here si- Tho.e upon tl 

Vol. III. M 



the Veins in the right side of the Nee 
while a short Trunk, similar to that commonly tot: 
there, has terminated in the left side. 

The Superior, in a similar manner with the Infer! 

F.Mremilies, have two sets uf Lymphatics, one Iving ii 
nieilial.'K under (he I'n: e- anient s ami belonging lo [' 
Skin and Cellular Substance under il, the other aeeoi 
Blood-vessels, and belonging to tl 






of the Supei 



'JO 



OF THE ABSORBENT SYSTEM. [Part \J r 



rectly upwards to the Ann, while the Lymphatics on Us ny the Blood-vessels, and pass through Glands in their 

back part separate into two sets ; one of which passes way to the Neck. 

obliquely over the Muscles on the Radius, and the other 1 hose accompanying the Temporal Artery go through 

over those on the Ulna, to join the Lymphatics on the small Glands connected with the Parotid Gland, and also 

anterior part of the F.,ic-ar.n. lab. CLXXV. Fig. 1.3. through others situated immediately under the root of the 

The Lymphatics of the Fore-arm run over the bending Zygoma. Tab. CLXXVIL Fig. 1. 

of the Elbow, and afterwards ascend upon the fore and The Lymplratica which accompany the Occipital 

inner part of the Arm ; the greater number of them ruu- Blood-vessels penetrate one or two minute Gland placed 

iiing near the Basilic Vein. Tab. CLXXV. Fig. 2. a little behind the root of the Ear, and over the Mastoid 

Some of them frequently pass through small Glands Process of the Temporal Bone, 

placed along the Humeral Artery, one of which is com- The Lymphatics proceeding from the different parts of 

monly found a little above the inner Condyle of the Os the Face, accompany the Branches and 1 runk of the Fa. 

Humeri ; others do not appear to enter any Glands till clal Artery. 

they reach those of the Axilla. Tab. CLXXV. Fig. 2. Some of them pass through Glanda situated upon the 
A few Lymphatics accompany the Cephalic Vein, and outside of the Buccinator, while the principal Trunks go 
receive Branches from the outer part of the Arm ; and, through a number of large Glands placed upon the outer, 
after passing between the Pectoralis and Deltoides, peue- and also at the under pari of the Lower Jaw, at the an- 
nate Glands at the under side of the Clavicle. terior edge of the Masseter, and about the Inferior Max- 

Of the deep-seated LymphalHca, two commonly accom- illary Salivary Gland, 

pany each principal Artery in the Fore-arm ; and these, The Lymphatics from the inner part of the Nose run 

uniting at the Elbow, form two principal Lymphatics, principally with the Internal Maxillary Artery, and pass 

which accompany the Tmuk of the Humeral Artery, through Glands situated behind (he Angle of the Lower 

Tab. CLXXV1. Fig. 2. 3. 4. Jaw, where they are joined by those which belong to the 

Having reached the upper part of the Arm, they enter inner parts of the Mouth, 

the Axillary Glands, where they are joined by Lymph a- The Lymphatics of the Tbngtic, and likewise of 

tics which come from the Mamma and lateral parts of the the Muscles and other parts about the Os Hyoides, 

Thorax, after passing through small Glands placed upon enter the Glands placed behind the Angle of the Lower 

the under edge of the Mamma and of the Pectoralis Ma- Jaw. 

jor. Tab, CLXXVI. Fig. 3. Lymphatics have been frequently searched for in the 

The Axillary Glands vary in number and size in diffe- Brain, but their existence in that Organ is not yet fully 

rent Persons : They are somewhat smaller, and fewer in ascertained ; though rendered highly probable, from Lym- 

n umber, than those of the Groin : They are generally phatics and Glands being occasionally found in, or imme- 

snrrounded by a considerable quantity of Fat, and are diately on the outside of the Passages of the Blood-ves. 

situated in the hollow between the Pectoralis Major and sels of the Brain, — from Swellings in the Lymphatic 

Lntissirnus Dorsi ; adhcriu" closely to the Trunks of the Grands of the Neck, following Diseases of the Brain, — 

Axillary Blood-vcds and Xei ves". Tab. CLXXV. Fig. from the absorption of Water, which has sometimes hap- 

'>. Tab. CLXXVI. Fig. 3. Tab. CLXXVIL Fig. 1. pened in Hydrocephalus Cases,— from an appearance of 

From the Axillary Glands large Branches go under the Lymphatics having been by some, as Mascagui, ob- 

Subclavian Muscle, aud form a Trunk, which, in the left served upon the Surface of the Dura Mater, and hetween 

side, commonly joins the Thoracic Duct near its termi- the Tunica Axachnoides and Pia Mater, and — from their 

nation, 'Jab. CLXXVI. Fig. 1. Tab. CLXXVIL Fig. having been found on the Brains of Fishes. 

I. In the right side, it joins the short Trunk which From the Superficial and Deep Parts of the Head in 

forms the second (inm-al T< nnination of the Absorbent general, the Lymphatics accompany the External and In- 

System, Tab. CLXXVI. Fig. 1. Tab. CLXXVIL tenia! Jugular Veins aud the Carotid Arteries ; receiving 

Fig. 1. Sometimes this Trunk, proceeding from the Su- at the same time Branches from the Larynx, Pharynx, 

pcrior Extremity, terminates in tin- Subclavian Vein, at Muscles, and oilier parts of the Neck, 

a little distance from tV -2< nrval termination. The principal part of these Lymphatics go along with 
Sometimes two Trunks arise from the Axillary Glands the Internal Jugular Vein and common Carotid Artery, and, 
in each side, in which case one goes to the end of the in their passage, form a remarkable Plexus, which goes 
Thoracic Duct, or the corresponding Trunk in ilie ri-ht through the numerous Glands seated near the Elood-ves- 

side, while the other terminates in the Subclavian Vein, sets, composing a chain, from which they are termed 

The Axillary Glands receive also the Subculuurous Cumatamtte. ' 'I ab. CLXXV II. Fig. 1. 
Lymphatics from the back part of the Thorax, 
with the Lymphatics from the Integuments and 
of the Scapula. 

The Lymphatics on the outside of the Ikad a 



Part VI.] OF THE ABSORBENT SYSTEM. 91 

through the Glandulae Concatenate, and having received It is formed by Lymphatics from the right aide of the 

some Branches from the interior part of the Thorax Liver, Diaphragm, Heart, and the Right Lobe of the 

and Axillary Glands, unite at the bottom of the Neck Lungs, by those of the Right Aim, right side of the 

into a Trunk, and sometimes two, which, in the left Head, Neck, and Thyroid Gland; the Lymphatics of 

side, enter the Thoracic Duct near its termination, and, the left side of the Thyroid Gland forming a Trunk 

in the right, go into the Trunk, which forms the gene- which ends in the Thoracic Duct. 

ral termination of that side. Tab.CLXXVII. Fig. 1. Besides this common termination, some of these Lym- 

The Trunk which forms this general termination is phatics occasionally open into the Internal Jugular, or 

only from a quarter of an inch to half an inch in length, into the Subclavian Vein, at a little distance from the 

but its size is not much less than that of the Thoracic Angle formed by these two Veins. 
Duct. 



( 92 ) 

TABLE CLX. 

Represents some of the Principal Trunks of the Lymphatics of the Inferior Extremity; 



FIG. 1. & 2. pany the Arteries on the hmer and Bach Part of 

The Superficial or Subcutaneous Lymphatics of the the Inferior Extremity. 
Inner and Fore Part of the Right Inferior Extre- 

A, A, A, The general course of the lymphatics upon this 

part of the extremity, 
n, A lymphatic upon the top of the foot; 

6, Its division into bran e Ins. passes. . 

c, c, c, Other divisions of this lymphatic. rf, The lymphatic passing under a small part of the soleus 

</, A small lymphatic gland observed iu the subject from which is left attached to the bone. 

which this figure was taken. e, The lymphatic crossing the popliteal artery. 

r, A ple\us from these divisions. /, g, A, The popliteal gland through which the lymphatic 

f, The pari where the injection had stopped in some of vessel passes. 

the lymphatics. — See the corresponding outlines. i, The lymphatic vessel passing with the crural artery 

g, The lymphatic \esscls from the inner side of the knee, through the perforation of the triceps magnus muscle. 
forming a plexus upon the thigh. fr, The lymphatic vessel now dividing into branches, 

h, //, A, The lymph: nit <•]:< nil, of' the groin. which embrace, 

l\ A lymphatic \;)iii li paws the lowest glands, and en- !■, The crural artery. 

ters a gland higher situated. wi, A lymphatic gland belonging to the deep-seated lyro- 

l; A plexus of lvn.phaiics at the inside of, phatic vessels. — Hi-ie the deep-seated vi>> els pass to 

sin, where they communicate with ihu superficial 



i„, The smiie of | lie OS ilium. lym_ 

n, The os pubis. «, A superfu i.il lwnp]i;i(ii upon the brim of the pelvis. 

0, The patella. o, The os pubis. 

irocnemius muscle. p, Tlie tuberosity of the os ischium. 

, The tibia. y, The iliac artery. 

r, The malleolus interims. K 'I'he gracilis muscle. 

*, The gastrocnemius and soleus, much shrunk by being 

FIC. 3. & 1, dried - - A 

f, The patella. 
A FA* of the Dieji-reahd Lymphatics which acton;- it, The os cJus. 



C 93 ) 



TABLE CLXI. 

Gives a View of the Superficial Lymphatics of the Inferior Extremity, the Integuments 
being dissected and turned to each side. 



FIG. 1. and Thigh ;—the whole tending upwards to the Ingui- 

A View of the Lymphatics on the Inside of the Foot nal Glands A ' A ' A ' A ' throu £ h which they pans, 

and Leg. B ? B) The continuation of the vena Saphjena major. 

.A, A, The vena Safhlena major, ^ 

~£\G 2 The Lymphatics on the outside of (he Leg, one part of 
the iii passing over the Tibia to the insult of the Kmi, 

A View of t/ie Lymphatics on the Inside of the Knee the other going outwards to the Glqnttttfa PopMtew. 




( M ) 



TABLE CLXII. 

Exhibits the Geoin and adjacent Parts, with the Integuments turned aside, to shew the 
Superficial Lymphatics. 



A, A, &c. The superior inguinal glands. 

B, B, The inferior inguinal, or femoral glands. 

C, C, The integuments turned back. 

I), The external oblique muscle of the abdomen. 

E, The teudon of the external oblique over the ) 
muscle. 

F, The tensor vaginx femoris, 

G, The Bartoriua. 

H, The rectus femoris. 

I, The vastus externus. 

K, The ring of the external oblirpie muscle. 

X/, The c rem aster muscle. 

M, The penis. 

y, A subcutaneous vein. 



The Lymphatics, in this Figure, are seen running 
from the Penis to the Superior Inguinal Glands ; — from 
the Tunica Vaginalis Testis to the same Glands ;— from 
the fore and inner part of the Thigh, partly to the eupe. 
rior, but chiefly to the inferior Inguinal Glands ; some of 
the Vessels passing the first set of Glands, and entering 
the second. From the Interior they pass to the Superior 
Glands. From the outer and lateral parts of the Pelvis, 
the Absorbents are seen running into the Superior Ingui- 
nal Glands. From the superficial and lower parts of the 
Abdomen, they go to the Superior Glands. From the 
different Inguinal Glands they pass behind Poi'pari's 
Ligament, in their way to the Loins. 



7://i./(.y. 




( M ) 



TABLE CLXIII. 

A Portion of the Under Part of the Trunk, and the Upper Part of the Inferior Extremities, 
on which are shewn the Ascent of the Lymphatic Vessels, and their Termination in the be- 
ginning of the Thoracic Duct. 



A, The eleventh dorsal vertebra. 

B, rib of the left side. 

C, C, The muscLili quadrati iumboru 

D, D, The psoas muscle of each sitl 



E, E, The iliaci iuterai. 

F, A section of the aorta, below the superior n 
artery. 

G, A section of the vena cava, a little above its origin, 
H, H, The crura of the diaphragm turned outwards. 

I, K, The os sacrum. 

L, L, The left common iliac artery. 

M, The left iliac vein. 

N, The left external iliac artery, pulled a little outward*, 

to obtain a view of the parts behind it. 
O, The left internal iliac artery. 
P, The nei'vus obturatorius. 
Q, The right external iliac, or beginning of the femoral 

R, The corresponding vein. 

S, S, The skin of the right and left thigh. 

T, Part of the aponeurosis, with Poopart's Ligament 
dissected and turned aside, to obtain a view of the 
lymphatic vessels which enter the pelvis under the fas- 
cia lata on the side of the crural vessels. 

V, U, The fascia lata. 

V, Poupakt's Ligament. 

W, The vena saphana. 

«, a, The inferior inguinal glands, which receive the 
ascending lymphatic vessels. 



, c, The superficial lymphatic vessels ascending from the 

anterior and inner region of the thigh. 
, d, The deep-seated lymphatics of the right thigh filled 

by anastomosing with the superficial ones. 
, The internal lymphatic trunks. 
J The external trunks. 

mal lymphatic vessels, or those which des 



from the interior iuguinal glands 
, The external lymphatic vessels, 

through the pelvis from the exterior glands, according 

to the length of the external ill 
, I, -i", Glands which both the internal and external lym- 
phatics penetrate. 
-, The plexus lymphaticus obturatorius. 
, The plexus ischiaticus. 
i, The lymphatic vessels arising from the exterior trunk' 

and glands, and inserted, on thi 

nal iliac artery and vein, into t 
', 1 'he plexus hypogastrics. 
, The plexus himbaris, partly glandular, partly vascular. 
i, The beginning of the thoracic duet, situated bcf'ojc 

the bodies of the first and second lumbal- vertebrae. 
j, y. Two trunks which ascend from, the lumbar plexus 

to increase the thoracic duct. 
■, The thoracic duct ascending before the bodies of the 

twdJ';li and < '.< \ '.■'!'. h ilur;*! vertebrae. 



t those which : 
ior glands, acci 



. ,,i, ; 



c 



) 



TABLE CLXIV. 

Gives a View of the Lacteal Vessels, and of their Termination in the Thohacic Duct. 



E, The tniuk of the celiac artery, immediately below 
the diaphragm. 

F, The trunk of the superior mesenteric artery, f 

G, G, The trunks of the emulgent or renal arteries, near 
of these trunks, before they which the lacteals fall into the receptaculum chyli. 

H, The trunk of the inferior mesenteric artery, 
passing to, I, I, The common iliac arteries, which divide nearly op- 

posite to the last lumbar vertebra, 
K, K, A plexus of lymphatics. 

Ii, L, Lymphatics ascending Horn the inferior extrerai- 
their way to the receptaculum chyli. 



\, A, &c. A portion of the intestine, with its mesente 
B, B, &c. The beginnings of the lacteal trunks, tied 

tlie points into which the injected tube had been 

serted. 
i, n, a, The continuati 

reach any glands. 
?, 6, The vasa inferent: 
;, c. The first 
J, d, The vasa efferent 
■, c, The second set of 
r , An oblong mtsenterii 

ing into it. 

f, A gland, with several lacteals entering it. 
i, Lacteal trunks passing from the mesenteric glands 
J, The receptaculum chyli, in which thehicteals 
D, D, The trunk of the aorta. 



passing from the first to, 
teric glands. 
, with a single lacteal pass- 



M, M, Tlie thoracic dm 



e of the 





TAB165. •*(?■* 














•< ' 



If: 





( 97 ) 

TABLE CLXV. and CLXVI. 

Represent Portions of the Small Intestines and Mesentery, with the Lacteal Vessels and 
Mesenteric Glands injected with Quicksilver and Wax.— They were considerably dilated, 
probably by having been included within a Herniary Sac. 

TABLE CLXV. 



^considerable Portion of the Small Intestines and 
Mesentery, with the Lacteal Vessels and Mesen- 
teric Glands injected with Qttickm'livr, nearly to the 
part where they terminate in the Thoracic Duct. 

A, A, A, Sections of the small intestines. 

B, B, B, The mesentery. 

C, C, The root of the mesentery, or that part of it which 
is joined to the spine. 

D, D, D, The lacteal vessels in their way from the in- A Se 
testines to, Ve 

E, E, Sec. The first set of glands. 

F, F, The second set of glands. 

Between D, D, D, E, E, &c. and F, F, arc seen 
ions of the Lacteal \ 



FIG. 2.3.4.5. 



Quicksilver. 

A, A branch of an : 

B, ,- a re 

C, A lacteal vessel. 



( 9a ) 

TABLE CLXVI. 

s somewhat similar to those exhibited in the former Table. 



liqin'vrnts it forgi Portion of the Mesentery, with the 
Lacteal Vessels and Mesenteric Glands, after 
u,i Injection with Quicksilver. 



uid frequently agitated i 

D, D, D, Numberless una 

each other, in their cow 



E, E, &c. Their entran 

F, ]■', Their coulimmtio 

FIG. 

Portions of the Small I 



;e into, and passage through the 
i along the trunks of the n 

2. 3. 4. & 5. 

■iTF.STINF. flWf/ MESESTKRr, 

and Glands injected u 

FIG. 6. 

nc Vessels and Glands i 
\uid Quicksilver. 



&. / v&/. 3. 




TABLE CLXVII. 



FIG. 1. tie Nnlunil She, with the Lymmatks silualed be. 

Sffrrsenli Part of lie Ibtestmum Jejunum, with ''"'"' "'"'' Vessels unit the Psoas Muscle. 

* Bl00d - Vesse1s ' LaCTE " S ' "* MESEKImc a. The external iliac artery. 

6, vein, drawn somewhat outwards. 

«, o, Tlic mesentery, the superior lamina of which is re- f » plexus. 

moved, and the interior left, on which appear the me- ''' (/ ' Tlu ' hinibar eland, which receive the vessels of the 

senteric glands,— distinguished by some into glands of external iliac plexus, 

the first, second, and third order,— with the blood- «) ° nc ol t,IL ' lymphatic InmU which abends from the 

vessels and lacteals. exterior inguinal glands, in a direct line, with the ex- 

M» Glands of the first, temal i,i;lc artery, to the lumbar pkxus. 

r , c, second ft Lymphatic trunks receiving variuu., Ijrauchcs, inserted 

d, </, third order. iai0 L ' ie lumbal- plexus. 

e, The superior mesenteric arten , with the mesenteric 

branches, and those which are distributed to the coats FIG. 3. 

of the intestines. 
/, The superior mesenteric vein. The Course of the Thoracic Duct. 

g,g y A somewhat long and oval arch of the lacteal vessels. 

h, h, Lacteal vessels beginning from the intestine. Their a, The first, and, 

course differs from that of the blood-vessels, which i>. The tenth dorsal vertebra. 

run in a more transverse direction. They are divided <, c, Portions of the ten superior ribs joined to the ver- 

into trunks, which enter, some of them, the mesente- tebrse. 

ric glands of the first, some those of the second, aud d, d. The internal intercostal muscles. 

others those of the third order. f, The ascent of the thoracic duel, in which various di- 
2, ', Trunks which unite and form the beginning of the virions and rejoining-; appear. 

thoracic duct. ff. The axillary glands. 

g, Two huge lymphatic dunks, inserted into the arch of 
•p T r » the thoracic duct. 

"" /,, Tire iciiniuath.il of the duct in the ! 
Represents the External Iliac Artery and Vein, of vein. 



( ioo ) 



TABLE fcLXVIII. 

A View of some of the Lacteal and Lymphatic Absorbent Vessels and Glands. 



FI G. 1. D, D, D, The mesenteric glands, into which the vessel 
Slum the Lacteals of Pm-l of the Small Intestine. penetrate. 

A, A, A, A, A portion of the small intestine. FIG. 2. 

B, B, &c. The origin of the lacteals from the coats of 

C, C, Sec. Trunks of the lacteals, variously connecting Sl "" s T«' e ' Cokcloeate Glands, with (JorTaj 
and separating iu their way to the mesenteric glands. Inferentia mid LffebeHIIA. 







- / / v, 4 m 



y j\ 




5& / 




C 101 ) 



TABLE CLXIX. 



Represents the Lacteals at the Root of the Mesente- 
ry, ami l/itir jm'tiui^ with tin- Lymphatics from the 
Lower Extremities, Pelvis, and Abdomen, pre- 
vious to their Terminal ion in the Thoracic Duct. 



A, 


A, A, Tlie root of the mesentery. 






B, 


The tru 


nk of the superior nte-tni 


"" » 


tay 


1). 


, D, The 


kidneys, shrunk in the d 


ryiug. 




E, 




iccmling aorta, injected w 


Illl .Ml 




F, 


The ii.f 




ted wi 


thw 


G, 


G, The 


renal veins, the left on 


e pass 






tore part 


of the aorta. 




11, 

7, 


The to: 

'Hi, hit 


n of the left renal gland. 






K, 


K, The 








I.. 


L, The lactenl vessels of the small 


andg, 






Hinting ii 


it the root of the nieseii 


leiy, i: 


ml i 




. onsidcrii 


ble plexus over the trui 


iks of 


the 



uuion of the absorbents from tin 
pelvis, and abdomen, previous 



mil Lvm 

lil'r.t I.I 



FIG. 2. 

' TYae r.f the /«,', 
les shewn in Ike 
ling of tke Tiioh 
ACULUM Chyij, 



C, C, The commo 
1), The left cu-inii 
E, Part of the Id 



s between the lacteals and lympba- F, The r, 



jieil .villi cellular sub- 



; of lymphatic 

ii,,- I.mpliu'ic . 



C 1°2 ) 



TABLE CLXX. 



L, M, N, 0, P, Q, Tho divis 
branches. 

„„,,„, 4 B,S,T,[,V,W,Tb«- 



Varicose Stat?.— Their Valves were 
• be thickened, and the Postages between 
them greatly obstructed. 

A, B, Tlie iotestiuum jejunum collected into folds. 
C, The root of the mesentery. 
II, D, Stc. The great curvature of the- intcstiu 
E, F, G, H, I, K, Varicose lacteals, with nuinc 
or pail's of valves. 



lactcals dividing ii 
their entrance into the j 
lacteal* are seen passing 
others they are observed t 



One of the Mesent 

entering it, magn 

' Crthtlar Jjycttrtth 



glands, with their 
(ranches, previous to 
Id some places, the 



J 



C 103 ) 

TABLE CLXXI. 

Lymphatics of the Upper or Convex Surface of the Live 



A, Tli* right, gammt, also to perfora 

B, The left lobe of the liver. with the two other sets, 

C, D, E, I\ G, The lymphatics of the middle of the con. P le *"»- 
f'-wx surface of the liver formed of numerous raoiilica- The Lymphatics, in the Preparation from which this 
k tlons, resembling the branchings of a tree, running Figure was taken, Here injected with Quicksilver from 
£ upon the ligament mn hepaus latum, previous to their their Trunks Ion arils then 11™. lies—Immediately alkr 

termination in the unhriu. thoracic plexus, the Lljeetion, the Surface of I he Liver v, as olM-nod to 

li^'lofTl''' w 'V'T"t "," ?"''« '"""J bc '«*rly covered with Lymphatic Vessels, but, to the 

ligament oi the I, cr, l„ perforate the diaphragm, and course ol drying the Preparation, manv of them disap- 

a-,,-! : ,„ lorn,,,,, the aui.rinr thoracic plexus pearcd, the injected matter having escaped into the deep. 

Jv, Iv. L, Ljmphatics tending tonards liie kit lateral h- scaled Absorbents. 



TABLE CLXXII. 



tng towards 

is taken, did 
:'H of the termination of the 



Pan 



FIG. 2. 



\, A, Sections, of tie right and li-l'i longs, with their Jlepramls Lymphatic Ibsobbebt Ye 
lymphatics forming areola.', and alU-rmud. pivot-ding ,.,„„„„, „ ; „„„-,,,, (,„,„ III, UnoMi IIIAL 

imerlul, h, l,n, lirumlu,; ,„!„ lie ThohacIC 
mt far from il» T C mmatim. 
A, The thoracic dnct ; 

C, I", Lymphatic trunks proceeding from these islands, B, Its termination. 

and terminating in the thoracic doct. C, C, Sic. The bronchial gland*. 

D, 1>, 1), Other lymphatics terminating in the thoracic D, D, ccc. Lymphatics injected, passing into, 01 
duct. " the bronchial glands. 

intuition of the thoracic doct. E, E, The lymphatics from the bronchial viand,, 

F, I'. i'\ Lymphatic vessels and glands which belong to nating by two branches in the thoracic doct, 



TJB. I, 




( '<w ) 



TABLE CLXXIII. 

Represents Lymphatics from the Lungs of the Left Side, terminating in the Bronchial, 
Glands, near to the Division of the Trachea, into its two Branches. 



A, The trachea, laid open from behind; 

B» Its right branch, also opened from behind ; 

C, ItsHeft branch, pari of which is opened. 

U, D, The left lung. 

E, E, &c. Bronchial glands at the root of the left lung. 



F, F, Lymphatics forming areolae upon the surface of th« 
lung, and afterwards euteriug the bronchial glands. 



( ioo ) 



TABLE CLXXIT. 



FIG. 1. 

4a Anterior View of the Back Part of the Trunk of 
the Body, with the Thoracic Duct and Principal 
Absorbent Vessels which enter it; — the Anterior 
Pari of the Thorax and Abdomen, and all the Vis- 

A, The trunk of the aorta cut off where it emerges from 
the left ventricle of the heart, and tied to the left side. 

B, B, The common carotid arteries. 

C, C, The aorta descending along the spine. 

D, The trunk of the cceliac artery going off from the 
aorta immediately below the diaphragm. 

E, The trunk of the superior mesenteric artery, with 
the beginning of some of its branches. 

e, The right cms of the diaphragm. 

1", F, The emuljrciu artc-ru-- going obliquely to the kid- 
neys _/j/, of which the right is somewhat lower than 
the other. 

G, The trunk of the inferior mesenteric artery. 

H, H, The common iliac arteries. 

I, I, The external iliac arteries. 

K, The internal iliac artery of the left side. 

L, The fundus vesica: urinaria. 

M, The superior vena cava, cut from the right auricle of 
the heart, and drawn a little to the right side by the 



N, N, The subclavian veins, that of the left side longer D, D,'The 
than the other. E, The ven 

O, O, The vena azygos, ascending along the right side 



Q, Q, Lymphatics from the inferior extremities, seen on 
each side of the bladder. 

K, A plexus of lymphatics at the lower part of the lum- 
bar region. 

S, S, Lymphatic trunks forming various anastomoses, 

'J', Lie teals running- along tin superior mesenteric artery, 
in their way to the receptaculum chyli, behind the 
right emulgent artery, where they fall in with the lym. 
phatics of the inferior parts. 

I , Hit' thoracic duct, or common lymphatic trunk, a. 
scending to the left subclavian vein, winch it enters 
near the termination of the internal jugular vein. 

The upper part of this Duet inclines to the left. This 
deflection is behind the Heart, after which it passes be- 
hind the Arch of the Aorta, which is here drawn aside 
to shew the top of the Duct. 

FIG. 2. 

A View of the Thoracic Duct, from the Diaphragm, 
nearly to its Termination in the Left Subclavian 

Vein. 
A, A, The trunk of tflWBct, the upper part of it form- 
ing a curvature before rr terminates in the left subcla- 

observed, espe- 



B, The trunk of the subclavian v 

C, Subdivisions of the duct soni 
chilly where the thoracic ivmpli 



FIG. 3. 

A View of the Inferior Part of the Thoracic Du< 
and its Formation. 

A, The beginning of the duct. 



( 107 ) 



TABLE CLXXV. 

The Superficial Lymphatics of the Superior Extremity,— the Integuments being removed. 



t Two small conglobate glands 
idyle of the os humeri 

e ulnar artery. 

superficial radial 



of .Lymphatics of the Anterior Surface of the Fore-Arm, 
proceeding to the Axillary Conglobate Glands 
A, A, A, through which they pass. 

■ the interna] B, The trunk of the humeral artery. 



E, The superficial ulnar i 

F, The cephalic vein. 

G, The basilic vein. 

H, The median basilic ve 



D, The cephalic vein. 
F, The basilic vein, 
forming the mediana G, The deltoid muscle. 

H, The sub-scapular muscle. 



The Superficial Lymfi 



Hand and Arm. 



i the Back Part of the 






( 108 ) 



TABLE CLXXVI. 

A View of the Lymphatics of the Superior Extremity, and their Terminationin the 
Red Veins. 



A, A section of the trachea immediately below the la- 

B, B, The common carotid arteries. 

t The common trunk of the right carotid and subcla- 
vian arteries. 

D, The arch of the aorta. 

E, E, The internal jugular veins. 
e, e, The subclavian veins, 

F, The vena cava superior. 

G, Lymphatics descending upon the fore part of the neck. 
H, H, Lymphatics of the superior extremities. 

I, The upper part of the thoracic duct, bending down- 
wards to, 

K, The angle formed by the meeting of the left internal 
jugular and left subclavian veins. 

L, The termination of the lymphatic vessels in the angle 
between the right internal jugular and right subclavian 




A, A, Lymphatic vessels passing upward* 

B, A lymphatic gland a little above the ii 
elbow, with a lymphatic vessel passing 
back part of the arm. 

C, Lymphatics coming from the back part of the 

F1U. 3 

A View of the Lymphatics of the Anterior Part of the 

A, A, A principal lymphatic forming frequent anasto- 

B, B, Lymphatic glands placed a little below the middle 
of the arm. 

B, ft, ft, The axillary glands through which the lympha-f 

C, The cut end of the humeral artery. — The 
tion of that artery, with its large branches 
obscurely along the whole length of the arm. 

FIG. 4. 



A, A, A, Principal lymphatic vessels, most of which pass 
over the radius to the fore part of the arm j — one is 
seen crossing by the inner condyle of the os humeri. 



7:m,//6; 




( 109 ) 

TABLE CLXXVII. 

Gives a General View of the Absorbent System. 



FIG. 1. & 3. 

The Hom AH Body, supposed to be to such a degree trans- 
parent^ as to shew the General Course of the Absor- 
bent Vessels mid Glands — The dotted Lines re- 
present the Deep-seated Absorbents. 

> FIG. 1. 

A, A, The subclavian veins. 

B, The vena cava superior. 

C, The right auricle of the heart, 
E, ventricle. 

F, The aorta. 

G, The lungs. 
I, The right, 

K, The left lobe of the liver, 
L, The stomach. 
M, N, The kidneys. 

"FIG. 2. 

«, The lymphatics of the foot. 

b t A lymphatic gland represented by Mr Hewson, in 
Tab. CLX. Fig. 1. d, but not met with by later Ana- 
tomists. 

*, The lymphatics of the outside of the leg. 

d, A lymphatic plexus which follows the course of the 
vena sapbana major. 

e, The lymphatics from the outside of the leg, joining 
those upon the inside of the knee. 

/, The glanduhe popliteae, through which the lymphatics 
which accompany the deep arteries, and part of the su- 
perficial lymphatics upon the back of the leg, pass. 

g, The large lymphatic plexus of the inside of the thigh. 

FIG. I. 

A, i, h, ?', The large lymphatic plexus of the thighs pass- 
ing into the different inguinal glands. 

The k on the left groin points out the greater part of the 
lymphatics of the thigh entering a single gland, winch 
the Author of this figure found to be the case in a 
particular subject. 



k, &, Inguinal glands belonging chiefly to the lymphatics 

of the scrotum and penis. 
/, The lymphatics of the scrotum, 
mi, A lymphatic trunk upon the dorsum penis, formed of 

three branches. — The trunk afterwards divides into 

two parts, one passing to the right, and the other to 

the left inguinal glands h, k. 
«, n, The external iliac plexus of vessels and glands. 

0. The absorbents of a portion of the great intestines. 
p 7 j, The lymphatic vessels of the kidneys passing to the 

lumbar plexus. 
t; The lymphatic trunks from the inferior extremities, 
joining with other lymphatics, and with the lacteals, to 

s, The thoracic duct. 

t., The absorbents of the large curvature of the stomach, 
which pass to the thoracic duct. 

«, 1/, f, v t w, Lymphatics of the upper surface of the liver, 
perforating the diaphragm in tlieir way to the anterior 
thoracic plexus, — Between r, r, several glands are seen, 
through which the lymphatics at this part pass. 

x, The right coronai-y lymphatic trunk of the heart, 
terminating in a gland between the common carotid ar- 

7/i The left coronary lymphatic trunk, formed of two 
principal branches. — It afterwards enters a gland be- 
tween the arch of the aorta and root of the trachea. 

a, z, z, z, The lymphatic plexus of the Jungs. 

1. Superficial lymphatics which come up from the ante- 
rior parts of the hand and fore-arm. 

2. Lymphatics front tlie posterior parts of the hand and 
fore-arm, next the little finder, joining the superficial 
vessels No. 1. and, akmg with them, forming a |>lc\us. 

3.3. A superiii_uMvi)i]i|i.<.ii plexus accompanying the 
basilic vein, and passing through gl.od. upon the fore 
and inner part of the arm. 

4. The axillary glands through which the superficial and 
deep-seated lymphatics of tin. aim pa-.-. 

5, A lymphatic trunk not appearing io pass into any 
gland, till it reaches the neck. 

>. (i. Lymphatics on the back ] 






the 



philig 



no 



TABLE CLXXVII. CONTINUED. 



pkalic vein. The dotted lines represent the deep-seat- 
ed lymphatics of the arm. 

7. A gland supposed to be seen on the opposite side of 
the arm, through which some of the lymphatics pass. 

8. The axillary cluster of glands blended with some 
others placed under the clavicle. 

D. The lymphatic trunks which accompany the temporal 
blood-vessels. 

10. 10. The lymphatics of the face. 

11. The lymphatics of the head and neck, passing through 
the glanduhe concatenate. 

12. The lymphatic trunks from the liver, diaphragm, 
heart, and lungs, emerging from the cavity of the tho- 
rax, and ending iu the right and left general termina- 
tions of the absorbent system. 

A little above 12. are seen the right and left trunks from 
the thyroid gland. 



13. The upper end of the thoracic duct splitting into two 
parts, before it terminates at 14. in the angle formed by 



e left subclavian aud internal jugulaj 



' of a Horse, par. 



Vhe same Gla?id cut longitudinally, and the Mercury 
allowed to escape ,- exhibiting a Cellular appearance 
and communications between the Cells, into u-hnl, 
Bristles were introduced, which are here repre^ntu). 






( 111 ) 
TABLE CLXXVIII. 

A General View of the Absorbent System ; after the Lymphatics and Lacteals had been 
jected with Quicksilver, the Blood- Vessels with Wax, and the Preparation dried. 



A, A section of the upper end of the sternum, and of the 
inner end of the claviftes, which are turned up. 

B, B, The internal jugular veins, between which are seen 
the musclis, fat, &c. which cover the trachea. 

C, The cavity of the right side of the thorax. 

D, D, The pericardium cut. 

E, The heart. 

F, F, The convex surface of the diaphragm. 

G, G, A flap formed by the integuments and abdominal 









H, Fart of the liver. 

I, The stomach, and part of the colon shrivelled. 

K, K, The descending aorta. 

L, The right common iliac artery. 

M, M, The inferior vena cava. 

N, N, The mesentery and small intestines collected ir. 

folds, and turned to the left side. 
O, The cavity of the pelvis. 
P, Thepubes. 

Q, R, The spermatic cord and testicle. 
S, S, S, The inguinal glands distended with quicksilvi 
' 1 part, assuming a cellular appearance, 
aphrena major. 



T, T, T, Branches of the 



Absorbents. 



Ltttei 

Those upon the upper part of the Feet, which take 
their origin from the Toes. 

Trunks, behind the inner Ankles, which ascend from 
the Soles. 

Lymphatics, from the outside of the Feet and Ankles, 
running across the Tibia; to the inside of the Legs. 

The principal Lymphatics of the Legs, running near 
the great Vena Saphama. 

Lymphatic Trunks, going obliquely across the Tibiae 
to the inside of the Legs. 

The Course of the principal Lymphatics of the Legs 
running at the inner sides of the Knees. 

A Trunk from the inside of the right Knee. 



The principal Lymphatics from the Legs, passing along 
the inside of the Thighs. 

An irregular Plexus formed by the Lymphatics in their 
course along the inside of the Limbs in general. 

The Inguinal Glands, receiving the Lymphatics from 
the inside of the Thighs, &c. 

In the right side: — The Inguinal Glands, receiving 
Lymphatics which run in a radiated manner from the 
fore part of the Thigh upwards and inwards, — from the 
Outer part of thu Pelvis inwards, and — from the under end 
of the superficial parts of the Abdomen downwards. 

Upon the right side of the Dorsum Penis :— Two Lym- 
phatic Trunks, one of which, at the Pubes, splits into 
Branches, which terminate, partly in the uppermost, 
and partly in the innevmn-i Inguinal Glands. 

A few of many Lymphatics injected from the Testicle, 
passing along the Spermatic Cord. 

At the right side of the Pelvis :— The Iliac Plexus of 
Lymphatics, formed by Trunks which ascend, some of 
them from the Inguinal Glands, behind Poupaiit's Liga- 
ment, others from the Spermatic Cord, through the Ab- 
dominal Ring, and some from the Content., of the Pelvis, 
along with the Iliac Blood-vessels. 

At the Bifurcation of the Aorta ; — Lymphatics which 
come up from the Surface of the Os Sacrum. 

At the sides of the Inferior Cava, and over the Aorta : 
— The Vessels and Glands which form the Lumbar 
Plexus. 

I T ^ on the Mesentery :— -A few of many injected Lac- 
teal-, directing ilii.ii course towards the beginning of the 
Thoracic Duct. 

TJ, Trunks descending from the under part of the liver, 

and from other viscera situated at the upper part of the 
abdomen, meeting with llij l;i.< HmN and lire hiinhai' plex- 
us, and terminating at this place in the thoracic duct. 
V, A very large lymphatic gland upon the convex surface 
of the diaphragm, appearing as if formed of convoluted 
branches. 

Large Lymphatic Vessels rnteriim this Gland, which 
perforate the Diaphragm from the right side of the Liver. 



132 



TABLE CLXXVI3I. CONTINUED. 



W, W, Lymphatics and glands placed at the under euii 
of the anterior mtdiast imun ; t lit: vessel;, [lasting from 
the ligament um liepatis latum, through the tore and 
middle part of the diaphragm, 

X, X, X, X, The anterior tiioracic plexus of lymphatic 
vessels and glands which accompany the internal mam- 
mary blood-vessels, receiving the lymphatics from the 
convex part of the liver and diaphragm, and lympha- 
tics of the right plexus running to the right general 
termination of the absorbent system, and those of the 
left plexus to the upper end of the thoracic duct. 

Y, A lymphatic trunk from the mamma, and other parts 
- and lateral parts of the thorax, entering 






: the axilla. 



Upon the Superior Extremities: — An extensive Plexus 
formed by the Superhchil Lymphatics, which pass from 
the anterior side of the Extremity upwards, and receive 
many Branches i\lurh a-eeiul in an oblique direction from 
ihe opposite sides of the Ami. 

At the Axillae : — The Lymphatics of the Superior Ex- 
tremities entering the Axillaiy Glands. 



a, a, Principal trunks proceeding from the gramL. of the 

by The termination of the principal trunk of the left 
arm, along with the thoracic duct. 

c, The thoracic duct receiving a lymphatic belonging to 
the neck, and terminating in the angle formed by the 
left internal jugular and left subclavian veins. 

In the right side of the Neck :— Some of the Lym- 
phatic Vessels and Glauds which form the Jugular l'lexus. 

d t The general termination of the lymphatic vessels of 
the right side of the head and neck, right arm, &c. in 
the angle formed by the rurfit internal jugular and 
right subclavian veins. 

N. B. A much greater number of Absorbents mere in- 
jected in the Preparation from which this Figure was 
taken, than are h<:re represented; — none having been 

painted except ithat could be distinctly seen, after the 
Preparation had been kept a considerable time in the 
dried state, and of course many Lymphatics so shrivelled,, 
as not to admit <f accurate delineation. 




_A 



i 



( 113 ) 

TABLE CLXXIX. 

V View of the THonAcrc Duct, and of the usual Terminations of the Absorbent System it 
the Red Veins. — The different Vessels in the Preparation from which this Figure was taken 
were injected with Wax. 






A, The seventh, and, 

B, The twelfth dorsal vertebra. 

C, The last vertebra of the loins. 

D, D, A section of the clavicles. 

E, E, first ribs. 

F, The eleventh rib of the left, and, 

G, The twelfth rib of the right side. 
H, The trachea,. 

I, I, The bronchi. 

K, The esophagus. 

Ii, Part of the diaphragm. 

M, M, The kidneys. 

N, The ascending, and, 

O, The descending aorta. 

P, The beginning of the 

Q, The arteria innominata. 

B, The right subclavian artery. 

S, The right carotid. 

T, The left carotid, and, 

U, The k-tt subclavian artery. 

V, V, The vertebral arteries. 

W, The left inferior laryngeal artery. 

X, X, The intercostal arteries of the 

Y. V, The diaphragmatic arteries. 

Z, The coeliac artery, sending off, 

!•] The splenic, and, 

c, The hepatic artery. 

rf, The superior mesenteric artery. 

e, The inferior mesenteric artery. 

/,/, The renal arteries, 

in tin" subject, 
g, g. The reual veins. 



double in each side 



rith the inferior 






t, ffl, The vena cava inferior 
, The vena azygos, commi 

cava, in this subject. 
, o, The continuation of the azygos, receiving the 

costal veins. 
, Part of the azygos, which belongs to the uudc 

left portion of the thorax, passing, in this subject, be 

fore the aorta. 
, The termination of the azygos in the superior cava. 
, The trunk of the left superior intercostal vein. 
, s, The external jugular veins. 
, f, The internal jugulars. 
, «, The subclavian veins. 
, i', Tiie great subclavian. 
■, The inferior laryngeal vein. 

, x, The termination of the internal mammary veins. 
, The vena cava superior. 

, The lumbar plexus of absorbents, obscurely seen. 
. 1. The thoracic duet receiving the great trunks form. 

ed by the lacteals and the Lymphatics of the iufcrioi 

parts of the body. 
. The receptaculuin chyli. 
. 3. The thoracic duel, funning :iu unusual turn aero- 

the aorta, and afterwards rerm cring its ordinary situa 
■The dotted lines point out the common cours-t 



v,hhh i 



- ? ic 



nal jugular and subclavi 

8. The lymphatic trunk, i 

right side of the head i 

jugular and right -ukia' 



formed by the left inter- 

ii g (lie absorbents of the 
ck, right arm, Sic. and 
ed by the right imcrn.il 



( 11* ) 



TABLE CLXXX 

Represents the Lacteals and the Lymphatics, from the Lower Parts of the Body, filled with 
Wax, terminating in the Thoracic Duct ; the Course of the Duct in the Thorax, and some 
unusual Terminations of the Absorbent System in the Red Veins. 



A, A, The spine. 

B, The top of the sternum. 

C, C, The first pair of ribs. 

3>, D, The eleventh pair of ribs. 

E, The cut edge of the back part of the diaphragm. 

F, F, The bronchi. 

G, The esophagus. 
H, The cardia, 

1, The ascending aorta, turned a little to the left side. 
K, The trunk common to the right carotid and right sub- 

clavian, concealing the root of, 
L, The left carotid artery. 
M, The right carotid, and, 
N, The right subclavian artery. 
O, O, The internal jugular veins. 
P, P, The subclavian veins. 
Q, The superior vena cava. 
K, The vena azygos, with the termination of the inter- 

costal veins of the right side. 
S, The inferior vena cava, with the terminations of the 

renal veins, cut and turned down. 
T, The descending aorta. 
U, The root of the cceliac artery. 
V, The root of the superior mesenteric artery. 
>V, AV, Lymphatic trunks which receive the absorbents 

of the iiili-'iiin i.xtn miiii.-, pelvis, &c. terminating in 

the beginning of the thoracic duct. 
X, X, Lacteal vessels at the root of the mesentery, nenr 

to the origin of the superior mesenteric artery, uniting 






Y, The termination of the lacteal vessels in the begin. 

ning of the thoracic duct. 
Z, Z, That part of the thoracic duct commonly called 

licctphiculum Chyli. 
a, The division of the duct into two parts, which imme. 

diately afterwards reunite. 

The trunks of that part of the lymphatics of the lunga 



which terminate in the thoracic duct, about the middle 
of the posterior part of the canty of the thorax. 
The thoracic duct, where it passes behind the arch of 



c, The lymphatics of the left side of the head and neck, 

terminating in the thoracic duct, 
y, The termination of the thoracic duct in the end of the 

left internal jugular vein. 
g, A lymphatic trunk from the inner side of the thorax, 

terminating in the- left internal jugular vein. 
A, A trunk formed by the lymphatics of the right side of 

the head and neck, terminating in the right internal 

jugular vein. 
t, A trunk formed by the lymphatics of the right arm, 

&c. terminating in the angle formed by the right inter- 
na! jugular and right subclavian veins. 



k, 



V 



( us ) 

TABLE CLXXXI. 

A View of the Thoracic Duct, with unusual Divisions, and with three Terminations in the 
Red Veins. 



, The left carotid, ami, 

', The left subclavian artery. 

, The superior vena cava, drawn a little aside 

, The left subclavian vein laid open. 

, The thoracic duct. 

, J, K, Lymphatic vessels of unusual s 



eating with each other, and afterwards ternmi 

the thoracic duct. 
L, L, An uncommon division of the thoracic di 

two trunks, one of which is again subdivided i 

to its termination in the red veins. 
M, A splitting of one of the divisions of the I 

duct Into two pari 
N, N, N, Three 

left subclavian 



( 116 ) 

TABLE CLXXXIL 

1 • 1 after running in the usual way to the Left 

A Lusus Natorb of the Thorac.c Duct w ^, ^ ^.^ ^ ^ .^.^ q{ the Rig , )t 

S ideoftheNECK,^urnsj»ver^the^g s ^^ Miis; ^ ^.^ the Absoments „f the 

■whole Body. 

w th other Parts of the Preparation from which the 
The Duct itself was injecte dwith. Was: .^ rf ^ ^ „ therefore not t0 

Figure is made, shovelled in the drying , 
be attended to. 



K, The thoracic duct passu.,; behind <h"°»^ 

A. The aorta. t A lymphatic trunt passing into the tho.acic tot, 

B The right, and, 'near thai part where It connnonly "r^to. 

?,' S.cl subclavian artery. „, The thoracic .tat P-mg* -£££*• " 

D, D, The common carotids. ceivlI1 g lymphatics horn tne : auj r 

G, The left subclavian vein. subclavian vein. 
it XIip vena cava superior- , 
"'The ander cad of Sie thoracic duct turned up. 



i 



PART VII. 



THE NERVES. 



OF THE NERVES IN GENERAL. 



T"*HE Nerves are firm, white Cords, which are gene- have numerous White Lines placed transversely, or hi a 

-I rally considered as being directly continued from the serpentine direction. Tab. XIII. 

Medullary Substance of the Brain and Spinal Marrow ; — When the Nerves are moderately stretched, this ap- 
although instances have been frequently met with, where pcarance becomes less evident ; am! when extended Con- 
ine Brain, and even the Spinal Marrow, have been found sidcrably, or when macerated in Water, it vanishes en- 
uearly obliterated in the Fcetus, and yet the Nerves re- tirely. 
tamed their usual appearance. Pkochaska (Dc Came Mttsculari) supposes these 

They are composed of Funiculi closely connected, and serpentine Lines to be owing to a decussation of Vessels 

each of these again of smaller Fibrilfa, which may be and Fibres of Cellular Substance >ti;tiieniiig the Nerves, 

subdivided into parts so extremely minute, as almost to Dh Monro considers them as Folds or Joints allowing 

elude the naked Eye, but which may be readily seen by the Nerves to accommodate themselves' to the various 

the assistance of the Microscope ; — no Cavity, however, states of flexion and extension, 

has been yet observed in them. The Nerves are supplied with Arteries from the neigh- 

The MedtUlary Part of the Fibrillac appears to be bouriug Blood-vessels, to which they return correspoud- 

furnished with Cineritious Substance derived from their ing Veins. 

Pia Mater; in proof of which, they are observed to be The Arteries, however, are small, and are injected 

in general of a browner colour than the Medullary Sub- with difficulty, excepting in the large Nerves, where 

stance of the Brain, and larger in their course than at they are more considerable — J 

their supposed origin. — Monro's Obs. on Nerv. Syst. injection, the Nerve recci\ 

The Medullary Substance of the Fibrillae is Pulpy and injected. 

tender, but rendered thicker and stronger by the cover- Upon dividing the Nerve: 

ings they receive from the Tunica Aiachnoidea and Pia sess much contractility ; w! 

Mater while within the Bones, and more particularly by cut, are observed t 

the additional covering given them by the Dura Mater They a 

upon their exit. stance am 

The Dura Mater, in its passage through the Base of Muscles, where they are protected from compression ; 

the Cranium, and between the different Vertebra;, is con- though in several parts they arc exposed to the hardness 

nected by its External Surface to the Pericranium and of Bones, or to the action of Muscles, over or through 

Periosteum ; while the inner part of it, together with the which they pass. 

Tunica Arachnoidea and Pia. Mater, is continued along In their course through the different parts of the Body, 

the Nerves. they generally run as straight 

The Inwlucra, or Coverings, inclose each of the nature of the particular part 

Nerves in general, and likewise the several Fibrillar of their own safety, 

which they are composed, whereby their size, as well as In their progress, they divide into Branches, whic 

strength, is greatly increased. become gradmilh smaller, and which, though taken co 

The Nerves, soon after leaving the Bones, have the lectively, are interior in size to the Trunks from whic 

Dura Mater so intimately connected with them, that it they issue. 

has been considered, by some Authors, as degenerating The Branches generally go off at acute angles; but i 

into condensed Cellular Substance, notwithstanding it still several places they have a retrogmde direction. 

retains the general appearance of the Dura Mater. They have commonly the same kind of distribution i 

When the Membrane connecting the Fibrillar of the the opposite sides of the same Body, and vary little i 

Nerves is exposed to an Alkaline Solution, it appear* like this respect in different Subjects. 

a bundle of hollow Tubes, the Medullary Matter being In sonic parts of the Body, several Nerves unite tc 

destroyed. This Substance is now known by the name gcther, and form a Pleuts i in others, they mute into 

of Neurilema. Common Trunk; and in many, a number of Nerves u 

Upon examining the Nerves, especially the small ones, nite together, and turn, a hard Knot, termed (uinglmn. 

in a living or recently dead Animal, they are observed to When the Plexuses or the Common 2 rwihs are mi 



120 



OP THE NERVES IN GENERAL. 



nuttly examined by slitting open their Coverings, it i 
found, that their Fibrillae are intermixed in such i 
manner, that each of the Nerves passing out from tin 
Plexus, or from the Common Trunk, is compoai A o 
Fibrill* from several, or from all the Nerves which en 
lered it, in consequence of which, the Organs in ge. 
neral are furnished with Nerves from various sources. 

The Ganglia differ from each other in size and figure 
They ha- 
the Nerv 

taken conjunctly, which i 
— They are supposed t 



"lT n ; 



t from them. 

fresh sources of Ner- 
0111 the Vessels ili.-j»_is- 



CPabt vn. 



ith those which eater thera, 
but are found, with only a few excepiions, as in some 
parts of the Sympathetic Nerves, to be rather larger. 

In the Trunk of a Nerve, the Cords appear to run 
parallel to each other ; but when macerated in water, so 
as to dissolve the Cellular Substance, or when otherwise 
accurately examined, they are observed to intermix 
somewhat after the same manner of the Fibnlla m the 
Plexus, or in the Ganglia, in consequence of which, the 
tt.iiii'TT :insih:: from Aiiidenl fir Disea.se is lessened. 

The Termination of the Nerves is soft, pulpy, and 



, and this di 
ed upon them. 

They are composed of Nervous Fibrill: 
--liiii'tliing- like :i Cincritious Matter, and are so divided, 
multiplied, and intermixed, that each of the Nerves 
fM'-siny out from ;i (.i.iiiiilion is found to be composed of 
Fi brill <e derived from the greater part of the Nerves 
which enter it. 

The Longitudinal Sccli 



pellucid, .:■- is distinctly seen in the Ri 
or Ear; the external covering being entirely laid aside, 
while the Fia Mater, in particular, accompanies them 
overed by throughout. 

The Nerves preserve the motion of the Muscular 



. perfectly r 



Fibre; 

They constitute the immediate Organs of Sensation, 
and convey impressions made upon (hem to the Mind. 

The manner in which these impressions are produced, 
— whether by a Vibration eoinmiiLiieuled to the Nerves, 
— or by a Liquid called Nervous Fluid, contained and 
i other parts of the moving iu them, — or by an Electric Matter common to 
them and many oilier Substances ; — or in what manner 
i the side of a Ganglion, that power acts, termed Animal £fcc/nc*fy, which dm 
been lately discovered to take place in the Animal king- 
dom, upon the application of certain Metals, — is not yet 
understood. 



tlit ■ 



DISTRIBUTION OE THE NERVES. 



According to the idea of some modern Physiolo-ists, 
the Nerve, instead of Inking their origin from the Brain 
and Spinal Marrow, have their terminal ion there. 

The Cerebral Nerves are generally reckoned Nine or 
Tin Pairs, besides a particular Pair, which has the 
name of Syittpatkt'tip. 

They pass through the Holes in the Base of the Cra- 

their order; or from their functions ; or from the l^arrs 
on which ilicy arc dispersed, &c. 

The Spinal Nerve.- u.n-i-t it 'A,. ,,,•■.-.,>> * oi Thirty 
Pairs, uhiihpass om ',. ■ , ,, r], .' , , ; \utibi;i, 

besides a Pair calif d ., . , • , , „ ... , , 1. , , . . . 
from the top of the Spin , I I, anon, :,i , .i'i. 



Tlie First Pair, nr Olfactory Nerves, Tab. 
LXIX. c, a. Tab. CLXXXIJ1. arise, on each side of 

the Corpor 



Striata. 

Ii.uk pa 


llic Slri 
it of the A 

are of a 
r Nerves, 
,! of Fasti. 
run each i 
utcrior J.n 


K Unite into Trunks at the miller ami 
ntetior Lobes, near where the Carotid 


Arteries 

They 

the olhe 

of the 'A 


lam ueii form, are more tender than 

mil also tiitler from them iu not being 

ttli. 

n a Furrow, upon the uniler Surface 

lies of the Brain, coiivcrfriii.tr a little, 

uhat lamer, till llicy reach the Cribri- 


Uiain, "t 




• ,l! ceo,', :.'(««, B.,ft, tchich, in 
ue. ic- nihil - llic Cortical pari of the 
uii.ii Mmlk... ol'Ale.lullari Mailer. 



Part VII.] OF THE NERVES WHICH PASS THROUGH, &c. 121 



From this Bulb, numerous Nervous Filaments are sent The Fouhth Pair, or Pathetic, Tab. LXXIII a 

off, which pass through the Holes of the Cribriform Plate, Tab. LXXV I. have their origin the highest of the Ce- 

and now become firm and strong like the other Nerves, rebral Nerves, and are the most slender of the Body 

by receiving a covering from the Dura Mater. being generally formed of one J'.w tculu- only on each side. 

After entering tin- Nose, thev divide into two Portions Each of the Nerves of thi, l'.ur an • ■=- by a single and 

orPlanes,Tab.CLXXXIV.Fig.ii.3.'l'ab.CLXXXV. sometimes by a double root, behind the Testes 'from 

Fig. 1. 2. one passing on the Septum, the other upon the the Medullary Expansion which lies over tlie passage to 

Os Spongiosum Superius, and other parts opposite to the the Fourth Ventricle, and which unites the Prove mv 

Septum, and both running at Hist in Grooves of the ad Testes to each other. 

Bones. It afterwards turns round the Cms Cerebri, and some 

They form a beautiful Plexus, which is spread out up- way behind the entrance of the Third Pair, perforates 

on that side of the Membrane of the Nose which is con- the Dura Mater at the edge of the Tentorium. 

tiguous to the Bones, and may be traced a considerable It runs afterwards along I Ik Cavernous Sinus, at the 

way upon it, in distinct Threads, which, becoming gra- outer side of the Third Pair, then crosses over that Pair; 

dually smaller, sink, into the Membrane, and are supposed and passing out of the Cranium through the Foramen 

to terminate on the Surface next the Cavity of the Nose, Laceruin, it goes obliquely over the Muscles at the upper 

there constituting the Organ of Smell. part of the Orbit, to be entirely dispersed upon the Obli- 

The Second Pair, or Optic Nerves, Tab. LXIX. amis Superior or Troehlearis. 

f,f. Tab. CLXXXHI. which are of great size, arise The Fifth Pair, or Trifacial, or Par Trigemi- 

"from the Thalami Optici; or, according to the opinion of num, Tab. CLXXXYT. No. 5. Tab. LXIX. Tab. 

some authors, they have their origin from the Nates and CLXXXIII. which are the largest Nerves of the Brain, 

Testes, and are connected in their passage to Tubercles at arise each by an anterior small and a posterior large Por- 

the root of the Infundibulum, which furnish them with tiou, from the side of the Tuber Annulare, where the 

an addition of Medullary Substance. Crura Cerebelli join it. 

They are of a purer white than other Nerves, having It enters the Dura Mater a little below the Tentorium, 

less Cineritious 'Matter entering their composition: and over the point of the Pars Petrosa of the Temporal Bone, 

differ also in the Pia Mater furnishing them with a gene- and farms a Plexus, in which upwards of fifty Fasci- 

ral Covering, before it invests the several Fasciculi of culi have frequently been enumerated. Tab. CLXXXVI. 

which they are formed. No. 5. 

At the fore part of the Sella Turcica they unite, and The Plexus sinks close by the outside of the Cavernous 

have their Medullary Paris intimately intermixed. Sinus, concealed 1>> a Doubling of the Dura Mater, and 

From this union, they go obliquely outwards and for- forms a Ganjjioii -ometimc.-. called Ci ASSJiitiAN. 

wards through the Foramina Optica into the Orbits; The Ganglion is of ;i Semilunar form, and placed trans- 

and advancing in the Orbit-, in a waving direction, m pre- versely with respect to the Trunk of the Nerve, 

vent them from being overstretched in the motions of the From the opposite and curved edge of the Ganglion, 
Eye, they perforate the Balls, to be expanded into the 
Retins, — which have been already described. 

The Third Pair, or Motores Oculorum, Tab. 

LXXIII. Fig. 16. p. Tab. LXXVI. smaller than the rior Maxillary. Tab. LXVL 

Optic Nerves, arise at the under, inner, and back part The First Branch of the Fifth Pair, Tab. 

of the Crura Cerebri, or between the Corpora Albicantia LXXIII. Fig. IG.y. Tab. LXXVI. at the side of the 

and Tuber Annulare, by numerous Threads, which are Sella Turcica, is situated lower than the Third Pair, and 

Mm collected into their respective Trunks. afterwards crosses over it, being previously connected 

They pass outwards, perforate the Dura Mater at the by Nervous Matter to the Trunk of the Fourth Pair. 

sides of the Posterior Clinoid Process, and, running It goes through the Foramen Lac erimi into the Orbit, 

along the upper part of the Cavernous Sinuses, al the out- ami is there divided into the full- 1 wing branches, viz. 

side of the Carotid Arteries, they go through the Fora- The Sitpra-Orbititr, which is the largest of the whole, 

inina Lacera into the Orbits. being a continuation of the Ophthalmic. 

Upon entering the Orbits, each of them divides iutose- It passes immediately under the Y 

viral Branches which supply the greater number of the the upper part of the Orbit, and spli 

Muscles of the Eve, in com eipieiicc of which the Nerves of unequal size, 

have obtained their particular name. The smaller Branch, termed ftupra- Trochkarii>, runs 

A Branch runs to each of the Muscles within the Or- under the Superciliary Ridge to the Upper Eye-lid aud 

bit, excepting the Troehlearis and Abductor ; and the Fore-head. 

Nerve likewise assists in forming a small Ciangl inn, termed The larger passes through the 1'oramen Supra-Orbi- 

Op/ithalmic, from which Twm s an tent oil, Uj taipplv the tariuin,— or over the Superciliary Ridge when the Foia- 

liill of the Eye. men is wanting,— scuds Branches to the Upper Eye-lid, 

Vol. ill. Q ^ 



1*2 OF THE NERVES WHICH PASS THROUGH [Part VII. 

anddividcsiutoseveralothers, whichnmback, partlyabove, or to each other, till.they reach the Ciliary Circle, where 

but chiefly under the Frontalis, to supply the fore and they divide into numerous minute Filaments. 

upper part of the Head in general, white minute Fibres Upon the Choroides, five or six are larger than the 



"' J"' 1 -'' 



; the others are so minute as almost to escape the 

Nasal Branch, which runs obliquely over the naked Eye. 

Optic Nerve, where it detaches a Filament or two to the At the Ciliary Circle, each commonly divides into two 

Eye, then under the Levatores Paipebrae et Oculi ; and, Branches, which arc covered by the Cellular Substance 

getting between the Abductor Oculi and Trochlearis, of the Circle ; and these, at the root of the Iris, are sub. 

passes to the inside of the Orbit. divided into still smaller Branches which run in a radii- 

It sends a Branch, which, after entering the Foramen ted and waving direction ; the Ciliary Vessels being in- 

Orbitarium. Internum Anterius, re-enters the Cavity of terposed. 

the Cranium, and gets upon the Cribriform Plate of the Near the Pupil, they are united into Arches, from 

Ethmoid Bone. which very minute Twigs ruu to the interior margin of 

From thence it passes down through one of the ante- the Iris, 
rior Holes of this Plate, and sends Twigs to the Mem- The Second Branch, or Superior Maxillary 

brane at the anterior part of the Nostril, while the Nerve Nerve, Tab. CLXXXVI. No. 28. Tab. CLXXXVIH. 

descending at the fore part of the Septum Narium, is dis- is larger than the Ophthalmic, and is principally dispers- 

persrd upon the Point and Wing of the Nose. ed upon the Parts belonging to the Upper Jaw, from 

The continuation of the Nasal Branch, mnv called which it has its name. 
Infra-trwhlcaris, passes forwards to the inner Corner It goes tlirou] 

of the Eye, and is distributed upon the Lacrymal Sac and noid Bone, and 

parts adjacent. es, viz. 

The Lacrymal Branch, which runs along the Abduc- The Spheno- Palatine, or Lateral Nasal Nerve, which 

tor Oculi, sends Twigs to the Membranes and Fat near sends a reflected Branch through the Foramen Pterygoi- 

it, likewise one or two through the Substance of the deum of the Sphenoid Bone, to join the Sympathetic 

Cheek-bone, and one in particular to the Substance of the Nerve in the Canalis Caroticus, and a Branch which 

Lacrymal Gland, while another passes over the Gland, enters the Foramen Junominatum of the Pars Petrosa, to 

and vanishes in the neighbouring parts : join the Portio Dura of the Seventh Pair. 

A Branch to the Ophthalmic Ganglion, which is some- The Lateral Nasal Nerve goes afterwards into the 

times sent off from the Nasal, at other times from the Spheno -Palatine Hole, to he dispersed upon the under 

Ophthalmic Trunk.' and back part of the Septum, and opposite side of the 

The Ophthalmic Ganglion, Tab. LXXIII. Fi^. 16. v. Nostril, aud upon the Membrane of the Sphenoidal Sinus 

Tab. CLXXXVI. Tab. LXXVI. termed also Lciiticn- aud Eustachian Tube : One Branch, in particular, after 

tar from its shape, is formed by this Branch from the passing along the Septum, goes through the Foramen 

Fifth, and by another from the Third Pair, and is com- Incisivuro to the Roof of the Mouth, 
monly the smallest in the Body. The Palate-Maxillary* or Palatine Branch, which 

It is of an oblong form, and compressed ; is situated descends through the Canal leading to the Foramen Pala- 

at the outside of the Optic Nerve, a little before the Fo- tinuni Posterius, and running near the Alveoli with con- 

ramen Opticum, and is concealed in Fat. Sometimes, siderable Blood-vessels, sends Branches to the Velum Pa- 

though rarely, the Filaments which form it take their lati and Roof of the Mouth, and minute Filaments which 

origin entirely from the Third Pair. penetrate into the Palate-plate of the Superior Maxil* 

From the Ganglion, about :t dozen of Filaments arise, lary Bone: 
termed Ciliary Nerves, collected into two portions, which Small Branches, which pass round the Upper Jaw, and 

creep along the opposite sides of the Optic Nerve, separat- vanish in the Cheek. 

cd a little from each other, and running in company with A Twig, which goes through the Hole in the Os Mate 

the Ciliary Artei ies. along with a Branch of the O. nl.ir Artery to the Face. 

Besides tlie Ciliary Nerves from the Ganglion, one, Small Filament*, which ion dowu into the back part 



WO Filaments ar^e f mm [|ic Ramus Na- of the Superior Maxillary Bone, and supply t 

salK and pa>s along with the Other Ciliary Branches. stance of the Upper J.iw, 'the Large Denies Molarcs, and 

The Ciliary Nerves, running with scarcely any divi- Membrane lining the Allium Maxillaie. 
sion, reach the back part of the Eye, and, a little be- The Second Part of the Fifth Pair, after sending off 

fore the insertion of the Optic IVeive, enter the Sclerotic tht-sv different Branches, goes into the Canal under the 

Coat, pass obliquely through it, and, about the middle Orbit, aud forms the Infra-Orbitur Ntrt-c, which, while 

of the Ball, appear upon the Surface of the Tunica Clio- in tin- Canal, gives off 'Filaments pawing thiough minute 

»'*»■ Conduits, in the Upper Jaw, to the Antrum, to the Sub- 

Upon this Coat they are flat, and run in a parallel di- stance of the Bone, to the small Molares, famous, and 

rection, sending very few evident Branches, cither to it Licisores ; and sometimes a Twig, the companion of a 



rVIL] 



THE BASE OF THE CIUNU'M. 



small Branch of the Internal Maxillary Artery, to the 

Membrane lining tlic Orbit. 

The Infra-OrbUar Xervc parses afterwards out of the 
Foramen infra-Orbilarium, and divides into many large 
B ranches, 10 lie distributed upon tin- Cheek, Under Eye- 
lid, Upper Lip, and side of the Nose. 

TlieTiriRDBRANi-n, or Inferior Maxillary Nerve, 
Tab. CLXXXVI. No. 1!». Tab. CLXXXVIII. goes 
through the Foramen Ovale of the Sphenoid Bone, and 
supplies the parts belonging to the Under Jaw, and the 
Muscles siiuated between it and the Os Hvoides, by the 
followiug Branches, viz. 

One or sometimes two Deep Temporal Branches, to 
the inner part of the Temporal Muscle : 

Branches to the Masseter, Pterygoideus, and Bucci- 

A Branch, which passes behind the Cervix of the 
Lower Jaw, and gives oil' Filaments to the fore part of 
the Ear, and afterwards accompanies the Temporal Ar- 



A Nerve of considerable size, termed Lingual or Gits- 
tatory* which passes between the Ptcrygoidei, to the in- 
ner of which it gives off some Filaments. It then sends 
oft", from its underside, a Ganglion which transmits Nerves 
to the Inferior Maxillary Gland. 

The Ungual Nerve also transmits several Branches 
to the Subungual Gland, and to the Muscles of the 



the entrance of the Filth Pair, and run forwards within 
the Cells of the Cavernous Sinus, but so surrounded by 
C< Hul.ir Substance, as to stein to be protected from ih'e 
Blood of that Receptacle. 

While in the Sinus Cavemosi, each is situated between 
the Opl.ihalmic Nerve and Carotid Artery, upon the Sur- 
face of the latter of which it sends off two or three Fila- 
ments, to assist in forming the Great Sympathetic Nerve. 

The Trunk of the Sixth Pair afterwards goes through 
the Foramen Lacermn, to be dispersed entirely upon the 



Abdu. 



■ Mm,],. 



t length, upon the upper and fore part 
of the Tongue, but more particularly upon its point, by 
many Branches which belong chiefly to the Papilla: ; in 
consctjuence of which, I his Branch is considered as the 
principal Nerve of the Organ of Taste. 

The Trunk of the Inferior Maxillary Nerve, having 
parted with the Lingual Nerve, directs its course between 
the Pterygoid Muscles to the Postcriur Foramen of the 
Inferior Maxillary Canal. 

Before entering the Canal, it sends off a long and slen- 
der Branch, winch is lodged at first in a Furrow of the 
Bone, and goes afterwards to be dispersed chiefly upon 
the Mylo-Hyuidens and Sublingual Gland. 

The Trunk of the Nerve i- afterwards conducted along 
the Canal of the Jaw under the Alveoli, where it distri- 
butes Filaments to the different Teeth of the correspond- 
ing side, and to the substance of the Bone ; and coming 
out of ihe Canal by the Anterior Maxillary Foramen, Tab. 
CLXXXVII. !/, somewhat diminished in size, it scat- 
ters its remaining Branches upon the Chin and Under 

Lip. 

The Sixth Pair, or Abducentes, Tab LXIX. /,*. 
Tab. CLXXXIII. arise from the beginning of the Me- 
dulla Oblongata, at the pari common to the Tuber Annu- 
lare and Corpma Pi nmiidalia. and are the smallest of the 
Cerebral Nerve-, the Fointh Pair excepted. 

They perforate the Dura Mater at the timet side of 



The Seventh Pair is- composed on each side of two 
portions, — the Kerens Auitihri'in,; .Vc/thv Acusticits, in 
Portio Mollis i and the Counniuiiuiu:; land, or Port,', 
Dnra. 

The Portio Mollis, Tab. LXIX. h m. Tab. 
CLXXXIII. is the softest of the Nerves, excepting the 
Olfactory. 

It arises by transverse Medullary Stria; from the ante- 
rior part of the Fourth Ventricle, and is separated from 
its fellow of the opposite side only bv the L'rena of the 
Calamus Scriptorius. Tab. CXCI. Fig. 2./,/. 

The Stria;, turning round the Medulla Oblongata, ap- 
ply themselves lo the Tuber Annulare, from which they 
receive an addition of Substance, and theu get to the side 
of the Portio Dura. 

The Portio Dura, sometimes also called Sympathe- 
tic/is Minor, arises from that part of the Brain which is 
common to the Pons Varolii, Crura Cerebelli, and 
Medulla Oblongata ; and, at its origin, is situated upon 
the inner side of the Portio Mollis. Tab. LXIX. 
CLXXXIII. 

Between the origin of the Portio Dura and Trunk of 
the Portio Mollis, a small Nerve arises, termed by WtilS- 
BERG, Portio Media niter Portion, m Ditravi et Portio- 
nemMollem, Tab. LXIX. CLXXXIII. 

It comes off bv minute Fibrilhe, which soon unite into 
a Trunk, from the posterior part of the Pons Varolii, 
or from the adjoining part of the Medulla Oblongata, and 



J Port 



. !>.:■ 



' The Portio Dura, considerably small-. ■ thnn the Por- 
tio Mollis, gets into a CifUc-Sar of the Meatus Audi- 
torius Internus, and is there lodged in a kind of half, 
sheath, formed by the Portio Mollis, to which it is con- 
nected by fine Cellular Substance; the Dura Mater, 
which lines the Passage, giving here a general Covering 

Portio Mollis The Portio Mollis is formed of two 

Fasciculi, nearly of equal si/.e, one of which belongs to 



fir-:- 1'ii.ii ill;.- 

if the Idea- 

;' the Laby- 



124 



OF THE NERVES WHICH PASS THROUGH 



Some pass between the Plates which form the Septa 
of the Gyri ; others go through Holes between the Os- 
M-oii- l'la'tes ol" the Lamina Spiralis ; but by much the 
^iv.iir-r number perforate the sides of the Modiolus, bc- 
nv-.ni the Septum of the Gyri and the Lamina Spiralis. 

The larger Fibrilke run upon the Membrane covering 
the Lamina Spiralis ; while the smaller go from ilk- Mo- 
diolus, between the Osseous Sepia, and on the inner 
sides of the Gyri, to be dispersed upon the Membrane 
lining them. 

The remaining Fibrillse perforate the Plate common 
to the Modiolus and Jnfundibuluin, and vanish upon the 
I hi half-tum of the Lamina Spiialis and the Cupola of 
t lie Cochlea. 

Upon the Osseous part of the Lamina Spiralis, the 
Nerves have the common appearance ; but upon the 
Membranous Portion, they are of llic colour of the Re- 
tina of the Eye. 

Jn the whole of their course upon the Lamina Spiralis, 
tliev form a real Retina ; though the reticulated struc- 
ture becomes much less apparent upon the outer part of 
this Lamina, aud upon the continuation of the Membrane 
lining the Gyri, — the Nerves seeming to terminate in a 
sc mi -pellucid. Pulpy Membrane, resembling the Retina of 
the Eye. 

The Membrane upon which the Nerves are expanded, 
is but slightly connected to ihe Periostcnm which lines the 
inner side of the Cochlea, and which, though thin, may 
be readily perceived, being painted with Blood-vessels ; 
■ — nor does it differ from ihe Periosteum lining the Tym- 
panum See Dr Monho's Treatise mi the Ear. 

The Fasciculus, which belongs to the Yestible and Se- 
micircular Canals, forms at first a Plexus, then a, Gangli- 
form Enlargement, previous to its entrance into the La- 



subdivided into smaller Holes by Cribriform PI; 
bottom of the Meatus Auditorius Internus, 

Of these Branches, small Filaments pass through the 
Macula Cribrosa in ilie Inferior I'o-sula of [he Meatus 
Auditorius Internus, to the Alveus Communis vcl Saccu- 
lus Ycstibuli, 

A small Branch goes through another Cribriform Hole 
in the Inferior Fossula, to the Ampulla of the Posterior 
Membranaceous Semicircular Canal. 

A Branch, larger than any of the former, enters the 
posterior Holes in the upper Fossula of the Meatus In- 
terims, to be dispersed upon the Ampullx of the Superior 
and Exterior Membranaceous Canals. 

The Nerves, after reaching the Saceulus Ycstibuli and 
the different Ampulla:, are spread out upon them, as in 
the Cochlea, in the form of a net-work ; the Fibres of 
which, by degrees becoming pellucid, disappear upon the 
beginning of the Membranaceous Canals. 

Portio Dura.— The Portio Dura, or Facial Nerve, 
separates -from the Portio Mollis at the bottom of the 



Meatus Auditorius Interims, and, by Ihe anterior Hole 
in ihe upper Fossula at the bottom of the Meatus, enters 
the Aqiucdnclns Fallopii. 

Alter getting into the Canal, it receives the retrograde 
Nerve from the Second Branch of the Fifth Pair, which 
enters by the Foramen Lin om in at urn on the fore side 
of the Pars Petrosa. * 

It seuds Twigs through Foramina in ihe sides of the 
Aqueduct, to the Mastoid Cells and to the Stapedius. 

A little before its exit from the Aqueduct in the Adult, 
but at the outer cud of it. in the Ftetus, it gives off" a re- 
flected Branch, termed Chorda Tympam\ which passes 
between the long Processes of the Malleus and Incus, 
and over the Membrana Tvmpaui. 'lab. LXXVI1. 
Fig. 8. Tab. LXXIXA. 

The Chorda Tympani goes afterwards in a Fissure at 
the outside of the Eustachian Tube, and soon after 
it has got out of the Cranium, it joins the Lingual 
Branch of the Fifth Pair. 

In its passage, it supplies the Muscles of the Malleus, 
and the Membranes, fitc. of the Tympanum. 

The Portio Dura afterwards parses out of the Aque- 
duct by the Foramen Stylo-mastoideum, and is at first 
lodged deep, being situated in a hollow behind the Paro- 
tid Gland. Tab. CLXXXVII. r. 

Here it gives a small Occipital Branch, which scuds 
Twin-, to the back part of the Ear, and terminates in the 
Oblique Muscles of the Head. 

It sends a Branch to the Pi gas trie us, and another to 
ihe Niylo-hyeiideus ; gives oil' a Filament which joins the 
Auricular Branch of the Inferior Maxillary Nerve, and 
goes to the fore part of the Ear ; and is connected by an- 
other small Filament at the under part of the Ear, with 
Branches of the Sympathetic Nerve which run along the 
External Carotid Artery. 

It also furnishes Filaments to the Parotid Glaud, and 
then perforates it; dividing into large Branches, which 
join, separate, and n join, different times, so as to form a 
Plexus on the side of the Face. 

This Plexus is expanded in such a manner as to con- 
stitute what has been called by some, Fe3 Anserimts, and 
is divided into the following Sets of Branches, viz. 

The Temprirat lirain-hcv, which ascend upon the side 
of the Head, to be distributed upon the Temple; some 
running over, others under the Branches of the Tem- 

Eoral Artery, and forming several joinings with the 
rontal Branches of the first part of the Fifth Pair of 
Nerves : , 

The Superior Facial Branches, which are dispersed 
upon the Orbicularis Otuli, and the parts in general about 
the outer Angle of the Eye, communicating in various 
places above and below the Orbit, with the first and se- 
cond K randies of the Filth Pair : 

The Middle Facial liranch, or the Great Facial 
Kent; which rims across the Masseter, and divides into 
many Branches, to be dispersed upon the Cheek, and 
side of the Nose and Lips : 



■vn.] 



THE BASE OF THE CRANIUM. 



They are connected with the Branches of the Superior 
Facial, and rear the comer of the Mouth, with others of 
the second and third parts of the Fifth Pair. They have 
likewise some communications with deep Branches of 
these two Nerves, which pass outwards between the Mas- 
seter and Buccinator ; 

The Inferior Facial Branches, which proceed along 
the side of the Under Jaw, to be dispersed upon the 
parts covering if, and upon the Under Lip ; and connect 
themselves with some of the Middle Facial Branches, 
and with others belonging to the third part of the Fifth 
Pair: 

The Dcscctiih'/iz, or Subi utaneou.t Ccreical Branches, 
some of which run forwards under the Lower Jaw, and 
others downwards, near the External Jugular Vein, to 
die Superficial Muscles, and to the Integuments at lire 
side and upper part of the N< < k. w here they form com- 
munications with the Inferior Facial Branches, and with 
different Branches of the Upper Spinal Cervical Nerves. 

The ErGHTH Paiji arise from the Medulla Oblongata, 
at the sides of the Bases of the Corpora Olivaria, aud each 
consists, on each side, of the Nervua Glosso-phanngeus 
and Pars Vaga. Tab. LXIX. n, o. Tab. CLXXXIII. 

The Glosso-Pharyngeus is the smaller of the two, 
being only a little larger than one of the Nerves of the 
Fourth Pair. 

The Pars Vaga comes off immediately under the 
former, and is composed of several separated Fasciculi, 
which are soon collected into a single Cord. 

The two Nerves, passing outwards, go through the 
Base of the Cranium, immediately before the end of the 
Lateral Sinus, by the Hole common to the Occipital 
aud Temporal Bones, and are separated from each other, 
and from the Sinus, by a small Process of the Dura 
Mater. 

The Glosso-pharyngeus, termed also Lingualis Late- 
ralis, upon its exit from the Cranium, scuds a Branch 
backwards, which joins the Diga-hit Hunch of the For- 

A little lower, it gives off Blanches, which, with others 
from the Pharyngeal Branch of the. Eighth Pair, and 
from the Great Sympathetic Nerve, form a Plexus which 
embraces the Internal Carotid Artery, and afterwards 
sends Branches along the Caroticus Communis to the 
Heart. 

Still lower, it gives Branches which communicate 
with others belonging to the Pharyngeal Nerve, and go 
to the upper part of the Pharynx, and to the Stylo-pha- 
ryngeus. 

The GloEso-pharyngeus, after sending a Twig or two 
to the Tonsil, to the upper part of the Pharynx, and 
Membrane of the Epiglottis, divides into many Branches, 
which run partly to the margin, and partly to the middle 
of the root of the Tongue, supph ing, especially, the Pa- 
pilla; Majores, aud the parts in their neighbourhood. 

The Pars Vaga, or Pneumo-gnstrie Nine, Tab. 
CXCJJ, No. 2? '. upon cnicrijiiie, fioin the Cranium, fre- 



quently becomes a little increased in diameter for about 
an inch downwards, forming what some Authors J,a\. 
termed its Gangtiform Enlargement. 

Jl descends in the Neck at the outer and back part of 
the common Carotid Artery, to which it is closely mined, 
being included along with it in the same common Miculh 
of Cellular Substance. 

At the upper part of the Neck, it transmits a Branch, 
called Pharyngeus, to the Pharynx; and imnie-diaielv 
afterwards, a larger one, termed Laryngeus Superior, to 
the Larynx ; aud near the top of the Thorax, it sends a 
Filament, and sometimes two, to the Heart. 

The Pharyiigcus, Tab. CXCII. No. 28. chiefly form- 
ed by the Pars Vaga, but pan!) al.o by a Branch from 
the Accessorius, is afterwards joined by Branches fro) , 



the Glosso-pharyngeus, aud desccuds obliquely 
Internal Carotid Artery. 

Near the origin of this Artery, it sends Filaments 
which join others from the upper part of the Great Sym- 
pathetic, and creep along the Common Carotid. 

Upon the middle of the Pharynx, it expands into a 
Gangliform Plexus, from which many small Branches an 
sent out, to be distributed upon the three Constrictors of 
the corresponding side of the Pharynx -, one or two Fila- 
ments uniting above with the Glosso-pharyngeus, and 
others below with the Laryngeus Superior. 

The Laryngeus Superior, 'lab. L'XCII. No. 29. 30. 
descends obliquely forwards between the Carotid Arteries 
and Pharynx; and, behind ilie origin of the Carotids, is 
divided into a large Internal or Superior, aud a snialJ Ex- 
ternal or Inferior Branch. 

The Internal Branch passes forwards between the Os 
Hyoides and Superior Comu of the Thyroid Cartilage. 

It divides into numerous Branches, sonic of which go 
to the Arytenoid Gland, and to the Arytcnoidcus Obli- 
quus et Transversus, and others to the Glandular Mem- 
brane of the Epiglottis ; while the greater number aud 
the largest of these Branches are dispersed upon the 
Glandular iMrmbraur liunh: iho upper portion of the La- 
rynx and parts adjacent. 

The External Brunch, — v. huh Scarpa considers '.is 
more properly termed l*ltanjirji-ltir',mqcin>, — is origi- 
nally composed of a Branch from tin haemal Laryngeal, 
aud another from the Great Sympathetic ; and is connect- 
ed by a Filament to the Pharyngeal, and sometimes also 
by one to the Internal Laivngi al Nerve. 

It imparts Twigs to the Middle and Lower Constric- 
tors of the Fharyn\, and afterwards terminates in the 
Thvroid Gland and inner part of the Larynx. 

the Filament, sent from the Pars A aga at the bottom 
of the Neck, joins the Great Cardiac Branch of the Sym- 
pathetic Nerve in the upper part of the Thorax, to be 
dispersed upon the Heart. 

The Ninth PAiu,Tab.LXIX.^,;.. Tab.CLXXXIII. 

frequently termed Liti^uoh^, and sometimes also Lin- 

qtiahs Mvtlii, — arise from the under and lateral parts of 

the Corpora Pyramidalia, oil the fore side oi the Medulla 

Oblongata, 



125 OF THE NERVES WHICH PASS THROUGH [Pam VII. 

Oblomrata. by numerous Filaments which arc collected long oval form, which is situated opposite to the Second 

into Fasciculi. Cervical Vertebra. Tub. CXC11. ... 

They pass out at the Superior Condyloid Foramina of From this Ganglion, the Nerve comes out very tittle 

the Occipital Bone, after which they" adhere, for some increased in size, lab. CXCII. No. H. and descends on 

way, to the Eighth Pair, by Cellular Substance. Tab. the Anterior Vertebral Muscles of the Nod., behind, and 

CXCJI. No. 77. t0 l ' le i" ner sidc oi '-> tlle Ears Vaga of tile Eighth P uu; 

A little below the Cranium, each of the Trunks of this of Nerves, with which, and with the Carotid Artery, it 

Fair of Nerves is conjoined by a cross Branch with the is connected by a Sheath oi Cellular Substance. 

Sub-occipital Nerve, or with an Arch which connects At the under part of the Neck, and nearly where the 

that Nerve and the First Cervical together. Inferior Laryngeal Artery turns towards the Larynx, the 

The Trunk then descends between the Internal Jugular Sympathetic forms another Ganglion, termed by sonic 

Vein and Internal Carotid Artery, and at the root of the Authors Cervicale Medium, and by others Ctrvicafc In- 

Occipital Artery crosses over both Carotids to its place ferius. 

of destination. The Inferior Cervical Ganglion, Tab. CXCII. No. 

Where it begins to cross over the Carotids, it sends down 11. \7. is somewhat similar in shape and size to the Su- 

a Branch of considerable size, termed De.scendeas AW. perior ; though it varies considerably in these respects in 

The Descendtus AW, Tab. CXCII. No. ?H. passes different Subjects, 

down a certain length along with the common Carotid From this Ganglion principal Branches are sent down, 

Artery, and, in its course, furnishes Blanches to the one of which, larger than the rest, and considered as the 

upper ends of the Omo-hyoideus and Sterno-thyroideus ; continuation of the Trunk, turns outwards between the 

after which it unites with Branches from the First and Inferior Laryngeal aud Vertebral Arteries to another 

Second, and with small Filaments from the Second and Ganglion. 

Third Cervical Nerves, forming an Arch, from which This third Ganglion, Tab. CXCII. No. 31. is placed 

long aud slender Twigs go to the under Portions of the at the head of the first Hib, and is termed hy some Au- 

Sterno-thyroideus, and to the Omo-hyoideus and Sterno- thors Ganglion Cervicale Inferivs, vel Inium, while 

hyoideus. others consider it as the first of the Thoracic Ganglia. 

The Ninth Nerve passes afterwards behind the Facial The Cervical part of the Great Sympathetic is con- 

and Temporal Veins, or the Trunk formed by these, and nected with other Nerves, and dispersed upon different 

over the root of the Facial Artery, — sending a Twig to parti, by the following Branches, viz. 

the Hyo-thyroidcus. One or two short but thick Branches, which connect 

Upon the Hyo-glossus, the Trunk of the Nerve is the beginning of the Superior Ganglion with the root of 

spread into many Brandies, wlilcli go to the middle of the the Sub-occipital Nerve ; 

Tongue, and terminate chiefly in its Fleshy parts ; a One or two Pulpy Nerves, which run forwards behind 

Twig extending as far as the Genio-hyoidcus, and two, the Internal Carotid Artery, and divide into many others. 

or sometimes only one Filament, anastomosing with the These, together with the Filaments from the Glosso-pha- 

Lingual Branch of the Fifth Pair. ryngeus, form a Plexus which sends Branches to the 

The Great Sympathetic Nerve,— obtaining its Gangliform Expansion of the Pharyngeus, and aftenronfl 
name from its numerous connections with most of the embraces the External Carotid Artery, sending Plexuses 
other Nerves of the Body, — is either formed originally of Filaments along its different Branches: 
by the reflected Branch from the Second of the Fifth One or two other soft Nerve-, ^oing behind the Inter- 
Pair, and by one or two, and sometimes three small Fi- nal Carotid, and with a Branch of the Laryngcus Iuter- 
lameuts, sent down from the Sixth Pair while in the Ca- nus of the Eighth Pair, forming the Laryngeus Interims: 
vernous Sinus ; or, according to the opinion of some Thick short Boots connecting the First, or Conjiiga- 
Authors, the Sympathetic sends off these small Nerves (o tion of the- First and Second Ccrvicals, with the Superior 
join the Fifth and Sixth Pairs. Ganglion of the Sympathetic Nerve. 

Upon the Surface of the Internal Carotid Artery, From the Superior Ganglion, also, are sent off small 

while in the Carotic Canal, the Branch,-, of the Filth Brandies, wind,, uniting with Filaments from the La- 

aud Sixth Nerves and Great Sympathetic making tin-, rvm<ciis Siipcnm , form the Ihtmus Cardiacu-s Supreme, 

connection, arc pulpy and tender, and form a Plexus yul'SuprrficiaHs VurHix. Tab. CXCII. No. 3. 4. 6. 

winch surrounds the Carotid, from which the Trunk of The S,,,; rUcial Cardiac y.-ri-e of the Sympathetic, in 

the Sympathetic is most frequently considered as being the riirhl side, divides into Brandies at the bottom of the 

sent out. Neck, which send a Filament or two along the Inferior 

Alter escaping from the Carotic Canal, the Trunk, Laryngeal Artery to the Thyroid Gland, aid altcrwards 

which is here of small size, is closelv connected, fop a unite vdlh the Superficial Cardiac Nerve of the Figlith 

slion -pare, with the Trunks of the Eighth and Ninth Pair before the Subclavian Artery, and with the Lann- 

Nerves} and, separating from llie.ir-, it c\]i:mds into a eia! Nerve In-hind it. — In I he left side, it terminates m 

large Ganglion, termed Gandiun (.trriade .V'/m int. of a the Cardiac Plexus of Nenes. 



Part VII.} THE BASE OF THE CRANIUM. 127 

From the Second, Third, and Fourth Cervical Nerves, the Dura Mater with one or two of the Bundles of the 

an equal number of Cords descend behind the Scaleni ami uppermost Spinal Nerves. 

Itectus Major, to the middle Ganglion of the Great Syra- The Trunk of the Nerve passes out, in each side of 

pathetic. the Cranium, in company with the Nerve of the Eighth 

From the opposite side of the Ganglion, Branches are Pair ; but forms no part of that Nerve, being included in 

sent down, which join and form the Nervtts Magnus its own peculiar Sheath received from the Dura Mater. 

Profundus s others are fixed to the Superficial Cardiac, After perforating the Cranium, it separates from the 

and to the Recurrent of the Eighth Pair. The rest go Eighth, and descends obliquely outwards through the 

partly over and partly behind the Subclavian Artery, to Sterno-mastoideus to the Shoulder, 

the Inferior Cervical, and to the first Thoracic Ganglion. At its exit, it sends off a Branch, termed by some Ba. 

Nervi Accessorii ad Par Octavum. — The Acces- mus Minor, (the Trunk itself being then called Ramus 

Bory Nerves arise by small Filaments from the lateral Major), which assists in forming the Pharyngeal Nerve i 

parts of the Medulla Oblongata and upper portion of the and gives another, smaller than the former, to be connect- 

Spuutl Marrow. ed to the Pars Vaga of the Eighth Pair. 

The Filaments from the Spinal Marrow come off" be- At the fore part of the Sterno-mastoideus, it is joined 

tween the Anterior and Posterior Bundles of the Cervical by an Arch to the Sub-occipital, and frequently by an- 

Nerves, — the first of them frequently exteudiug as far as other to the First Cervical Nerve. 

the space between the Sixth and Seventh Pairs. In its passage through the Stcrno-mastoideus, it sends 

The different Filaments unite by degrees into their re- several Branches to the Substance of that Muscle, and 

spective Trunks, and often have connections while within terminates at length in the Trapezius. 



( I2S ) 



TABLE CLXXXIII. 

Represents the Base of the Brain, with the Origin of its Nerves, from a Child of Three Years 
of Age, in which the Size of the Brain is observed to be little inferior to that of an Adult ; 
but the Gyri are rounder, the cohesion of the Lamina of the Cerebellum slighter, and the 
Cerebellum a little larger in proportion to the Cerebrum. The Nerves are rounder, and 
more distinctly Fibrous. 



A, A, The anterior lobes of the cerebrum. 

E, B, The lateral lobes. 
(J, C, The posterior lobes. 

D, The distance between the anterior lobes. 

F,, Tin; apace where the anterior lobes are contiguous. 

F, The sinuosities of the anterior lobes corresponding 
with tlie orbits. 

G, The distance between the posterior lobes. 

II, H, The right and left portions of the cerebellum, with 
some branches of arteries and veins dispersed upon 

T, The middle of the cerebellum uniting its right and left 

portions. 



K, The i.ifundibtilm 
JL., The pars cincre 

M, The corpora alb; 



which the in fundi bulum de- 




ber cinereus, with a fibra ruedullaris interaa and a libra 

inediillaris externa. 
c, c, The bulbus cinereus of each of these nerves, 
tf, d, The tractus optici. 
e, The union of the optic nerves. 
/,/, The trunks of the optic nerves. 
g, £, The third pair. 
h, A, The fourth pair, 
i, i, The fifth pair. 
£, k, Their smaller anterior portions ; 
/, /, Their larger posterior portions. 
m, m. The sixth pair, each composed of a smaller inter- 
nal, and a larger external portion. 
«,«, The portio dura of the seventh pair on each side, or 

nervus facialis. 
o, o, The portio mollis, or auditory portion <>( the scvtnili 

pair, sulcated for receiving the facial nerve, and nearly 

as large as in the adult. 
Between tin; facial and auditory nerves, the filaments are 

seen which join the facial nerves. 
p,p, The glosso-phai-yngei of the eighth pair. 
q, </, The nervi vagi of the eighth pair, composed of three 

fasciculi. 
r, r, The ninth pair, or nervi hypo-glossi, which in the 

right side consists of two trunks. 



"W^- 



Tab J S3, 




C 129 ) 



TABLE CLXXXIV. 



Represents the Nerves of the Inside of the Nose. 



A, The frontal sinus. 
B, ■ bone. 

C, The os nasi. 

D, The point of the nose. 

E, The upper lip. 

F, The palate-plate of the superior maxillary bone, 

G, The roof of the mouth. 
H, The uvula. 

I, The fauces. 

K, The mouth of the Eustachian tube. 

L, The body of the sphenoid bone. 

M, The sella turcica. 

X, The sphenoid sinus. 

0, The opening of the sinus into the nose. 

P, The crista g;-all.i of ilie • ihmoid bone. 

Q, R, Openings from the ethmoid cells into the nose 

S, The r-upoiior spongy bone. 

T, A probe introduced into the opening of the an 

maxillare. 
l T , The inferior spongy bone. 
V, A probe in the lacrymal duct. 



Represents the Distribution of the Branches of the 
First, or Olfactory Pair of Nerves, and of the 
Nasal Branch of the Fifth'Paik upon the Mem- 
brane of the Nose. 

A, The ridge of the nose. 

B, The teetli of the right side. 

C, C, C, A section of the antrum maxillare. 

D, Its openings into the nose. 

E, E, The cells oi' the ethmoid bone. 

F, The right frontal sinus cut open,. 
Vol. III. 



G, The right sphenoidal sinus cut open. 

H, H, Branches of the first, or olfactory nerves. 

I, The nasal branch of the fust branch of the fifth pair 
of nerves, ending partly in the septum narium, and 
partly in the membrane which lines the- outer side of 
the nose. — The branch represented too large. 

K, The nasal branch of the .->{.-<. omi Imuich of the fifth 

L, Its division into bianchc.-, i\lm li arc dispersed on the 
nieinbrane which lines the outer side of the uosc. 

FIG. 3. 



t between the Membrane and Bo: 

A, The os frontis. 

B, The frontal sinus. 

C, The cartilaginous part of the septum narium. 

0, o, a, a. The cut edge from which the septum has been 
separated all round. 

D, The surface of the common skin, where it is lost in 
the membrane of the nose. 

E, The upper lip. 

F, Part of the alveolar process of the os maxillare, next 
the symphysis. 

G, The roof of the mouth. 
H, The bony palate. 

1, The uvula and palatum molle. 
K, The upper part of the fauces. 

1,, The opening of the Eustachian tube. 

M, The cuneiform process of the os occipitis. 

N, The inside of the cuneiform p rot ess, near the for a- 



130 TABLE CLXXXIV. CONTINUED. 

It, The crista galii. A, The os frontis. 

P, S, The membrane of the left nostril, which lined the B, The os nasi. 

septum,— the septum being removed. C, The cartilaginous and membranous pa 

T, A branch of the fifth pair of nerves, which comes D, The ala nasi, with the skis left on it 

through the foramen commune, or spheno-palatinura. E, The septum oaniim. 

V, U, U, The first pair of nerves ramifying on the mem- F, The upper lip. 

brane of the septum, after having passed through the G, Part ot the alveolar process of the c 
cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone. the symphysis. 

r H, The membrane of the nose. 

pig j I, A portion of the first pair of nerves, 
wards lost upon that part of Schnei 
which c 

upon the Membrane of the Nose K, The branch nf the fifth pair of r. 
$ the Turbinated Bones. posed to be lost oil the membrane of the u 



( lai ) 

TABLE CLXXXV. 

Additional Views of the Nerves of the Nose. 



PIG. 1. 

The Left Portion of the Base of the Head divided by 
a Perpendicular Section proceeding from before back- 
wards, and the Osseous and Cartilaginous Portion of 

the Septum Narium separated from their investing 

Membrane The Nerves upon the Membrane of the 

Septum are drawn by the assistance of a Magnifying 
Glass. 



f,f, The naso-palatine nerve of the right and left sides 

descending to the palate, 
g, A coalitioii of the two naso- palatine nerves, and their 

distribution upon the glandular membrane of the palate. 
h y //, The nasal branch to the septum from the Vidian" 

FIG. 2. 



A, The frontal sinus. 

B, Part of the crista galli. 

C, The sphenoid sinus. 

D, The membrane of the arch of the fauces perforated 
by many mucous folb'cles. 

E, The mouth of the Eustachian tube. 

F, Part of the palatum molle. 

G, The membrane lining the roof of the mouth. 

H, H, A section of the superior maxillary and palate 

I, The canalis incisivus of the left side. 

K, A section of the cuneiform process of the occipital 



L, Part of the i 



. bone in the cavity of the < 



M, The passage of the ninth nerve. 

N, The occipital condyloid process. 

0, The mastoid process. 

P, The styloid process. 

a, o, The olfactory nerve, a little raised at its outsi 

In it are seen, its cut end behind, of a triangular 1 
its anterior bulbous extremity ; the division of 
into medullary stria; ; and the nervous fibril la; sent 
it, through the lamina cribro>a of the cranium. 

\ The nasal nerve of the ophthalmic of the fifth 



hig upon the side of the 

the osseous and cartilaginous pa 

num. At their entrance into 

considerable size; near the loi 

. brane, they become extremely 

tunning u zonula of nervous libr 

<', Nasal 'twigs from the spheno-pal 

*> <i The naso-palatine nerve. 



nvards the point of the 
■ the first pair, deseend- 



frontal b 

c, c, The lamina ethmoidis, perforated by two series of 
larger foramina ; an internal next i he crista galli, and 
an external at the outer part of the lamina. Between 
the two larger series, a set of smaller holes are ob- 

rf, A sulcus for the nasal nerve from the ophthalmic of 

the fifth pair, 
f, A rima in the lamina cribrosa, opening into the nose, 

and separated from the above-named sulcus by an os- 



Shem the Orifices of two Canals for the Passages of 
the i\aso-1*alatine Nekves to the Glandular Mem- 
brane t.f the- Palatx. 



c, c, The orifices of the du< 

no's ducts, to the palate 

</, The exit of the posteru 



iucisivi, termed also Ste. 
i left caual, for the naso- 
■ right canal, for the naso- 



Nerve upon the Os Sfongiosi-m M'n;p.n.'s • 
Nasal and Palatine Branches of Mb Fiw.-. * 
upon the Ossa Sfongiosa «w</ Palate. In the N 
the Nerves «™ ««r/cr Me Pituitary Membr/ 
The Periosteum is partly saved, fin,! part/,/ deitn 
The Bones are cut, to shew the Ethmoid C'anai 



A, The frontal sinus. 

B, The crista galli. 

C, The left os nasi. 

D, The nasal process of tr 
B, The sphei " ' 



['ABLE CLXXXV. CONTINUED. 

I of the distributed upon the i 






spongiosum superius, and adia. 

i the ophthalmic of the fifth pair, 
dividing into external and internal branches. 
(/, A filament of the externa] branch, after going through 
an osseous canal, passing towards the integuments of 
the nostrils. 
e, Filaments of the external branch of the nasal nerve 
which run between the pituitary membrane aud the 
periosteum of the nostril. 
ullary bone. /, The sphenopalatine ganglion. 

g, Superior anterior naaal nervea from tlie fifth pair, 
lal. h, The origin of the naso-palatine nerve. 

i, The Vidian nerve, sending upwards, near its origin, 
two twigs to the membrane of the sphenoid sinus, and 
downwards two brandies to the membrane of the 
ipal artery of the dura mater. fauces and Eustachian tube. 

illary and palate k, The division of the Vidian uervc into a superficial 



of the carotic canal. 

I'm the third branch of the fifth 






G, Part of the occipi 
H, The foramen ovale 

pair of nerve.. 
I, The passage for the 
K, K, A section of 

bones. 
Ii, The os spongiosum superius. 

H, inferius. 

N, N, Two bristles introduced i 

u.'.so-p.dutine nerves. 
O, Tht levator palati. 
P, The uvula. 
Q, The tonsil. 
k, The olfactory nerve turned a 



section of its trunk behind, are seen as in 
b, b, h, The filaments of the olfactory nerve, 

ing through the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone, 



deep bianch. 
/, The larger anterior palatine nerve, 
7/1, The origin of the anterior iuferior nasal nerve, and 
c the its division into a smaller ascending, aud a larger de- 
scending branch, both dispersed upon the ossa spon- 

«, The lowest of the nasal nerves spent upon the os spon- 
giosum inferius. 
shew o, o, The egress of the larger palatine nerve to the arch 
?itnk. of the palate ; its distribution on the palate, aud lei- 
jid a ruination upon the gums. 

p, p. The external palatine nerve. 
:- q, The smaller paster;:,! 1 p.ihuinc nerve, dispersed upno 
the levator palati, palatum uiolle, uvula, and tonsil. 






Tab 186: 




!( "3 ) 

TABLE CLXXXVI. 

A View of the Inside of the Base of the Cranium, covered by the Dura Mater ; containing 
Sinuses, Nerves, &c. — The Upper Parts of the Orbits are removed. 



A, A, The frontal sinuses. 

B, B, Tbe balls of the eyes. 
(7, n. The ocular artery. 

b, The external blanch, sending a branch to the lacrr- 

mal gland, 
r, The internal branch, sending a branch to the nose. 
</, Branches to the eye. 

f, Veins from the anterior lobes of the brain, ending in 

g, A section of the levatores palpebral et oculi. 
//, The end of the levator palpebral, 

/, The lacrymal gland. 
/■, The musculus troclilcaris. 
/, The cochlea. 
«», The levator oculi. 
v, The adductor oculi. 
o, A section of the abductor oculi. 

I.I. '['lie tiibi ilbriii plate of the ethmoid bone, lined 
with the dura mater, through which the first pair 



.■-."my. 



the 



and the other 



»f 1H-I 



The 



spass 



D, The end of the superior longitudinal sinus, whi 
this ligmv, is also bifurcated. 

E, E, The lateral sinuses. 

e, e, e, The cerebral veins terminating in the lateral s 

F, F, The cavernous smu.es cut open. 

G, The sella Turcica with a transverse sinus iu it. 
H, The top of the spinal marrow. 

I, The fak cerebelli. 

K, K, Sections of the carotid arteries. 
L, L, The lateral sinuses, where they turn down 1 
the petrosal parts of ilie temporal bones. 

II. 11. The inner edge of Hie leutoiium. 

12. 12. Thefalxceiebeili. 

13. 13. The jugular fossa;. 

14. It. The inferior petrosal sinuses 






3. 3. The th 
1. I, Thefoi 
p, A branch 

palpebra. 
y, Trunk of the third pair. 

r, The first, or ophthalmic branch of the fifth pair, 
i, The external bunch v.liith passes through the 

men supra-orbitarium. 
/, The internal branch. 
v, The branch to the lacrvma! -land, &c. 
r, A branch whit h passes through the os mala; 



15. 15. Thes 

16. 16. The vi 

17. 17. The a 

18. 18. 

19. 19. Thee 



20. The te 
L'l. :<l. Th 



asal b!V 



ch. 

sal twig of that brand 
on of the nasal brane 
rof tbe orbit. 



of thai 

of the superio 

i of the caven 
is of Ridley. 



( 13* ) 

TABLE CLXXXVII. 

The Nerves of the Face. 



\, The sterno-inastoid muscle. 
H, The masKter. 

C, The digastric muscle of the under jaw. 

D, The zygomaticus major. 

E, E, The occipitofrontal is. 

1\ The aponeurosis of the temporal muscle. 

G, The attollcnsaurein. 

H, The retrahentes aurent. 

I, The external carotid artery. 

K, The occipital artery. 

L, M, Anastomoses of the occipital and temporal arteries. 

U, The anterior branch of the temporal, communicating 

with the frontal artery. 
O, The posterior branch of the temporal artery. 
P, The facial artery. 
Q, The coronary artery of the under lip. 

R, ■ upper lip. 

S, The continuation of the facial artery. 
T, The facial vein. 
1', The temporal vein. 

\V, The duct of the parotid gland. 
X, The inferior maxillary gland. 

it, The git- a i frontal hi. inch uf the ophthalmic nerve. 

/', e, d, c. The deep branches of thai nerve, which, after 
sending twigs to the upper eye-lid, run backwards, 
chiefly under, and partly over I lie frontal muscle, to 
be dispersed upon the muscle and integuments of the 
fore and upper part of the head. 

/', The small frontal branch, or ramus siipra-irochleuiis 
of the ophthalmic nerve, sending brandies to the up- 
per eve-lid. 

g, A, The continuation of that nerve dispersed upon the 
fore-head, ami having Mime cm morions with ilie great 
frontal nerve, and with the nasal branch, or i'nlivt- 
trochlearis, which is seen ;it the root of the nose, aud 
.■ndiug 



, The 



■ rhita, 



From the root of the Portio Dura is seen an Occipital 
Brunch passing backwards, which gives some Twigs to 



separate hole to the side of the 11 



f, A reflected branch going also through a separate hole 
in this figure, to the under part of the orbit. 

,;,, Branches of the mlVa-orbitar nerve, anastomosing with, 

«, The inferior cutaneous nerve of the os aialsc. 

o, The superior cutaneous nerve of the os malic, which 
is also joined to the nerve ». 

p, An incision in the aponeurosis of the temporal muscle, 
to shew the anterior cutaneous nerves of the temple. 

5, The mental nerve, or continuation of the inferior max- 
illary nerve, passing through the anterior maxillary fo- 
ramen, to be distributed upon the chin and under lip. 

r, The portio dura of the seventh pair of nerves. 

From the root 

„ranch passing h 

the back part of the Eai. 

A Branch is sent up from the Portio Dura, termed 
Auricularis Anterior, which inns behind the Temporal 
Artery, scuds Twigs to the fore part of the Ear, and 
afterwards ascends upon the side of the Head. 

.«, A middle temporal branch, from the portio dura, a- 
scendiug at the fore part of the trunk, and afterwards 
going deeper than the anterior branch of the temporal 

i, Another temporal branch, forming different connections 

W, An arch formed between the superior and middle facial 

i', The superior facial branches, sending branches to the 
muscles and integuments at the outer angle of the eye, 
and forming many connections with each other, and 
ivitli the supra and infra orbitar branches of the fifth 



the ma-eter and bu. . in ilnr tun-. 1'-, forming numerous 
niining-, separation-., and rejoining, vs ith (lie superior 
'and inferior maxillary nerve, and with deep branches 



Tab. j ay. 




TABLE CLXXXVII. CONTINUED. 



which pass out between the two muscles from the su- 
perior and inferior maxillary trunks. 
%. Tlie inferior facial branches of the poviio dura, giving 
filaments tollicdi,if;i«tvic mid Mylo-liyoid miincles, send- 
ing some down upon the neck, which commonly run 
near the external jugular vein, others forwards to the 
superficial parts of the throat, while the rest of them 
pass along the lower jaw, and have 



the branches of the facialis medius. 

1. The continuation of the inferior facial nerves, v 
some connections to the branches of the maxilhiri < 

2. The middle cutaneous nerve of the neck, 

3. The inferior cutaneous nerve of the neck, whirl 
ofteu a branch of (ho third cervical. 



■1. Branches of the middle cutaneous nerve of the neck, 
which have connections with the inferior branches of 
the portio dura, and with the inferior maxillary 

5. The posterior auricular nerve, which is a branch of 
the second cervical nerve. 

6. The ante rid [■ branch of the aininilari.- posterior to the 
under part of the ear, 

7- A cutaneous nerve, not constant, from the first cervi- 
cal, running across, to be dispersed upon the skin 
which covers the under part of ilic parotid gland, 

8.9. The posterior brandies of the auiicularis poste- 
rior, distributed upon the back pails of the ear and 
temple. 



( 136 ) 

TABLE CLXXXVIII. 



In tin's Figure, the Skull-Cap is remove,/, and the Base, r, The submaxillary gland. 

of the Cranium separata! fr»m the Temporal Bone /, The tensor tympani cut from Us ( 

forwards to the Os Maxillare Supehius, and in- g. The common carotid artery. 

wards to the Bmhjof the Sphenoid Bone, chiefly to h, The internal or cerebral carol id. 

shew the First and Second Branches of the Fifth i, A flexure of this artery under the 
Fair of Nerves. called Cowferian ; 

I; Its fast curvature within the care 

A, The joining of the parietal, temporal, and occipital /, Its fourth curvature, 
bones. tfl, The ocular artery. 

B, The cut edge of the skull at the middle of the pars n, The 



l'he thyroidea superior descending, and cut across. 
The lingualis passing under the hyo-glossus muscle, 
palatini! sent oft" from the lingualis to t 



pharynx and palatui 
, The phaiyDj 



and that by its inferior extremity to the r, The pharyngea ascendens, giving a branch off behind, 

which goes by the side of the internal jugular vein to 

;rior elinoid process. the dura mater , a branch forwards to the pharynx ; 

iUry membrane lining the outer part of the and a branch upwards, to the circunifiexus palali and 



, The 



7 passing tlirongti the lamb- 



which sends a 

'.nil gums, and 
s, to the pitui- 

ie substance of 
aids with the 
md afterwards 

with 



i. One of the corona of the os hyoides, which is here the dentalis posterior. 

turned towards the neck. 8. The paiatina superior, from which three pterygo-pa- 

3, The hyo-gora™. l atme branches descend. 



Tam. J,9,9. 




TABLE CLXXXVHI. CONTINUED. 



9. The spheno-palatina, divided into two branches. 

10. The fifth pair of nerves. 

11. The ophthalmic or fust branch cut over. 

12. The second or superior maxillary branch. 

13. The third or inferior maxillary branch. 

14. A subcutaneous nerve of the clicek, from the second 
of the fifth, cut across. 

15. A descending branch from the second of the fifth. 

16. The Vidian nerve from that branch. 

17. The superior-anterior and superior-posterior nasal 

18. A superficial braach of the Vidian nerve, passing 
under the third branch of the fifth pair, to join the 
portio dura. 

19. The deep branch of the Vidian nerve dividing into 
two, the superior joining the filaments from the sixth 
nerve, aud forming the root of the sympathetic nerve, 
the other branch passing behind the internal carotid to 
join the sympathetic. 

20. The pterygopalatine nerves descending through the 
ptcrygo-palatiue canal to the palate aud nose. 

21. The nervus dentalis, vel alveolaris posterior, sending 
a branch forwards which communicates with the infra- 
orbital- nerve, and branches downwards through the 
substance of the superior maxillary boue to the root of 
the dentes melares. 

23. A branch to the buccinator muscle. 

23. The infra-orbitar branch. 

24. The ramus -dentalis anterior, which joins the dentalis 
posterior. 

25. The division of the infra-orbitar nerve into the nasa- 
lis superficial is superior, to the nose and under eye-lid ; 
the nasalis inferior, which anastomoses with the former 
branch i and the hrbialit superior, which sends branches 
to the upper lip, and twigs to the under eye-lid. 

26. A remarkable connection between branches of this 
nerve and the portio dura. 

17. Four cut branches of the third branch of the fifth 
pair; the anterior is the buccinatorius, behind it are 
two temporales profundi, and backmost is the masse- 

28. The ramus pterygoideus. 
20. The proper inferior maxillary nerve cut. 
30. The superficial temporal nerve formed in this subject 
of two roots. 



31. The lingual branch. 

32. The maxillary ganglion formed by branches from 
the lingual nerve, and sending filaments, to the sub- 
maxillary gland, and a branch forwards to join thf 

33. Branches from the lingual nerve to the sublingual 
gland and lining of the mouth. 

31. A branch to the substance of the tongue, and con- 
nected by a filament with the ninth nerve. 

35. The continuation of the lingual nerve to the substance 
and point of the tongue. 

36. The sixth nerve, from which two branches are seen 
descending to form or join the great sympathetic nerve. 

37. The portio dura of the seventh nerve in the Eallo- 

3S. A branch of this to the tensor tympani. 

39. The chorda tympani reflected from the portio dura, 
then passing across the tympanum, aud afterwards de- 
scending to join the lingual branch of the fifth pair. 

40. A branch which sends uerves to the temple and orbit. 

41. The facial branch. 

42. A descending branch. 

43. The nervus vagus cut over. 

44. A branch from it to the upper ganglion of the sympa- 
thetic nerve. 

*l."i. Tin; laryngeal branch of this nerve. 

46. The ninth nerve, or hypu-glosaus. 

47. Its descending branch. 

48. A connection between a branch of the ninth, and one 
from the maxillary ganglion, and farther forwards the 
connection between the ninth and lingual branch of the 
fifth nerve. 

49. The termination of the ninth nerve in the genio- 
glossus muscle. 

50. The sympathetic nerve arising by two roots. 

51. The upper ganglion of the sympathetic nerve, un- 
ify long in the subject of this figure. 



The 



- the I 



54. A connection between tliir, and the sympathetic. 

55. The second cervical nerve, and n connection between 
it aud the sympathetic. 



( 1S8 ) 

TABLE CLXXXIX. 

Gives a View of the Ninth Cerebbal Nerve, or the Hvpo-Glossus, of the Right Side. 



A, The 

B, The 

C, The 

D, Thi 
F, Tin 

F, The 

G, 

H, The 
I, The 
K, The 
I* 

M, The 
N, The 
O, The 
P, The 
Q, The 
It, » 



styloid process. 

upper part of the sternum divided. 

clavicle. 

masseter muscle. 

pterygoideus interims. 



«, The ramus descenders Noni, passing over the com- 
mon carotid artery. 
i', Two branches which unite into one, from winch 
t to the upper part of the omo-hyoid 



T, The 
TJ, Th« 
V, Par 



genio-glossus. 

■ hyoideus. 

roylo-hyoideus cut and turned down, 
hyo-thyroideus. 
s t e in o-t h y ro ideu s . 

omo-hyoideus, with one edge turned back, 
st e ino-hy oideu s . 
_ of the left stemo-hyoideus. 
origin of the left stemo-uiastoideus. 
obliquus superior capitis. 



, The thyroidea super 
. Tbe lingual, arising i 

, The tempoi 
, The internal niuxill; 
, The occipital. 
, The temporal 



o the right carotid and subclavian 



ry. 



Tliflinu.i 



e and the second, third, 

hyoideus. 

m of the cervi. 

in this coalition 



and sterno-hyoid muscles. 
«-, Connections between this 

fourth, and fifth cervicals. 
x t A branch to the upper end of the < 
^, A plexus of nerves formed by the 

cals with the trunk of the ninth. 

of cerebral and spinal nerves, the 

supply the muscles between the os hyoides and larynx, 

viz. the steruo-hyoid, the sterno-thyroid, and the omo- 

a, The trunk of the ninth nerve advancing between the 
great arteries and veins of the neck. 

1 . A branch of the hyo-thyroideus. 

2. A series of small nerves spread over the hyo-glossus, 
and giving filaments to this muscle and to the stylo- 



3. A double anastomosis between this nerve and the lin- 
gual branch of the fifth pair. 

•1. The extreme branches of ilus nerve going to the ge- 
nio-glossus. Filaments from these accompanying the 
lingual artery to the point of the tongue ; 

5. Brandies of this nerve to the genio-hyoideus. 

6. The lingual branch of the third of the fifth pair; 

7. Branches of this nerve cut, which go to the submaxil- 
lary gland ; 

8. A branch of this nerve to the sublingual gland. 

i>. Nervous pcnicilli which go to the point of the tongue, 
and .it length terminate in the papillae. 



12. Tin 

l;i. 'flu- 



the 



i the 



ia nerve and^hc accessory pne 

r, the upper part of the bra- 
lir third root in this nubje< 




vv 



\w 



( is» ) 



TABLE CXC. 

Shews the Nervus Glosso-Pharyngeus, and the Ramus Pharyngeus of the Nervus V*hk. 



G, The posterior belly of the digastricus, 
H, The stylo-hyoideus cut and turned bat 
J, The pterygoideus interims. 



p, The inferior facial branch, with numerous anasto- 

5, The trunk of the glosso-phciryngeus. 

7-, A branch of this connected with a branch of the por- 

tio dura, which goes to the digastric muscle, 
5, A branch joined to the pharyngeal nerve. 
t, Numerous branches sent from the glosso-pharyngcus, 

upon the internal carotid artery, along which they 

run with soft nerves from the superior cervical gan- 

glio 



L, Part of the hyo-glossus cut. 




v, A nerve formed of numerous filaments of the glosso- 


M, The hyo-thyroideus. 




pharyngeus, to which are added, i 


iome fibrillar from 


N, The crico-thyroideus. 




the soft nerves of the uppermost cei 


vieal ganglion. A 


0, The sterno-hyoideus and stemo 


•thyroideus of the left 


branch of this runs upon the comn 


ion carotid artery, 






to the superficial cardiac nerve, 
i', A branch to the pharyngeal nerve. 




P, The obliquus superior capitis. 






Q, The splenius. 




■W, Branches' to the sl.ylo-pli:ir_yngeus. 




11, The levator scapulae. 




.r, The lingual blanches of this nerve, 


to the side of the 


S, The rectus major capitis. 




root of the tongue, and to the tonsil. 




T, Part of the buccinator. 




#, Two filaments dispersed upon the 




V, U, The constric tores pharyngis 
V, One of the cornua of the os hyo 








ides. 


z, The nervus pharyngeus of the pars 


vaga, formed by a 


W, The thyroid cartilage. 




branch from the accessorius, added t 


o fibrillar from the 


X, — - - gland. 




pars vaga. 




Y, Part of the parotid gland, 




1. A gangliform plexus over the con 


stridor pharyngis 


Z, The zygomatic process. 




medius. From this plexus, branch* 




j, The cartilage of the meatus aud. 




strictores pharyngis superior ct inferi 




ft, The mastoid process. 




2. Descending branches to the const 


rictores pharyngis 


■ , The common carotid artery. 




medius et inferior. 




J, The external carotid cut at its o 


rigin. 


3. The laryiigtus internua of the pars 


vaga, and a com- 


e, The thyroidea superior. 








/, The internal carotid. 




4. The taryngeus externum, arising by 


a branch from the 


£, The internal jugular vein. 




laryngeus interims, joined to one frc 


m the uppermost 


'.', 1 Ik- vena thyroidea inferior. 




cervical ganglion. 
;.. Braucln-s dividing into others, to 




t, I'he nervus rfarew, vol communic: 




the constrictoreg 


k, One branch to the digastricus. 


, and another to the 


pharyngis medius ct inferior, to the 


inner part of the 


stylo-hyoideus. 




larynx, and to the thyroid gland. 




/, An auricular branch from the third of the fifth, anasto- 


6. An anastomosis, not constant, betv 


rtcii the external 


motic with the nervus durua. 




and internal laryngeal. 




ni, The temporal branch of this lie 




7. Anastomose- between the laryngcus 


externus and soft 


<i, 'Che mpt-rior facial branch. 




nerves, from the uppermost cervical ganglion. 


o, The middle facial branch. 


£ 


8. A nerve to the superficial cardiac ne 


i 1 . Nerves 



no 



TABLE CXC. CONTINUED, 



9. Nerves to the thyroid, gland. 16. Two nerves passing between the first cervical nerve 

10. The ganglifora trunk of the nervus vagus, and uppermost cervical ganglion. 

11. The nervus accessorius, and, \7. A connection by thick short roots, between the se_ 

12. The ninth ncne, or hypo-glossns, cut across, cond cervical nerve and uppermost cervical ganglion. 

13. The ganglion cervicale superius of the great sympa- 18. A connection between the second and third cervicala 
thetic nerve. and inferiorextremityof the uppermost cervical ganglion! 

14. Nervi molles sent off from this ganglion, some of 19. An anastomosis between the second and third cer- 
them connected with filaments of the glosso-pharyngeos vicals. 

upon the internal carotid artery. 20. The third cervical, 

15. A connection between the first and second cervical 2l. The fourth cervical. 

nerves, viz. the tenth of the head and fust of the neck, 22. The fifth ccrvicafy and beginning of the brachial 

of former Authors, and between the first cervical and plexus. 

hrpo-glossus. 23. The nervus pkr&iicvs. 



C 1*1 ) 



SPINAL MARROW, AND ORIGIN OF THE SPINAL NERVES. 



The Spival, o 
Tab. CXCI. is the couth 
gata, oiid obtains its nan 
Osseous Canal of the Spii 



Marrow, Tab. XCVI. 
lion of the Medulla Obion, 
from being contained in the 



It is invested by the same Membranes which cover the 
Brain, and has an additional partial Involucruin from the 
Ligamentous Membrane which lines the Bodies of the 
Vertebrae, and which has been already taken notice of in 
the description of the Ligaments. 

jOn the inner side of thu Ligamentous Lining, the Du- 
ra Mater is situated, which passes out of the Cranium by 
the Foramen Magnum Occipitis, and forms a Cylindrical 
Sheath, which loosely envelopes the Spinal Marrow, and 
extends as far as the Os Sacrum. 

It is more elastic than the Dura Mater of the Brain, 
and thereby admits more readily of the different motions 
of the Spine. 

At its egress from the Cranium, it is intimately con- 
nected to the beginning of the above-mentioned common 
Ligamentous Lining, and is also united with the Pericra- 
nium at the edge of the Foramen Magnum of the Occi- 
pital Bone. 

Below the first Vertebra of the Neck, this intimate 
connection between the Dura Mater and inner Ligament 
of the Vertebrae is discontinued ; a Cellular, Fatty, and 
Slimy Substance, which surrounds the Dura Mater 
throughout the rest of the Canal, being interposed be- 
tween that Membrane and the Ligament. 

The Dura Mater is only in contact with the Tunica 
Arachnoidca, and this also only in contact with the Fia 
Mater, aud lying so loosely over the latter as to be sepa- 
rated from it with facility through the whole length of 
the Spine. 

The Spinal Marrow, like the Brain, consists of a Cor- 
tical and Medullary Substance, but differs in this respect, 
that the Cineritious Mat ter is placed within the Medullary. 

Upon the Surface of the Spinal Marrow, while lying 
in its natural situation, many transverse Wrinkles or 
Folds are observed, which allow it to be extended in the 
motions of the Vertebrae. 

It is a little flattened on its anterior and posterior Sur- 
faces, and is larger near the under part of the Neck, and 
at the top of the Loins, where the great Nerves of tlit 
Extremities are sent off, than in the other parts of the 
Spine. 

It is divided into two lateral Portions or Cords, which 
are separated from each other externally by an anterior 
and posterior Fissure continued from the Medulla Oblon- 
gata ; and each of the lateral Portions is iu some measure 
subdivided by a superficial Furrow, iuto a large anterior 
and small posterior Cord. 

The lateral Portions are firmly united together by fine 



Cellular Substance, but, without lacerating either, may 
be separated from eaeli other, before as well as behind, ro 
near their middle, where they are connected by a Layer 
of Ciiierkious Mailer, which pa.iE.ed from the one Cord 



When the Medulla Spinalis 
liueritious Substance is obs 
ppearance, corresponding wi 



lsversely, the 
: which it is 



The Body of the Spiual Marrow descends in the Child 
to the Twelfth Dorsal, and in the Adult :u far as the Se- 
cond Lumbar Vertebra, aud terminates there by a Coni- 
cal point, which is concealed by Funiculi of Nerves. 

Each of the lateral Portions of the Spinal Marrow 
sends oft* from its anterior aud posterior pares, flat Fasci- 
culi of Nervous Filameuts, which are placed opposite 
their fellows on the other side. 

Several of the Fasciculi of the Cervical Nerves detach 
Filaments to those immediately above or below them ; 
and the same thing is occasionally observed, of some of 
the Bundles of Dorsal Nerves. 

The anterior and posterior Fasciculi perforate the Du- 
ra Mater, from the inner part of which each Fasciculus 
is furnished with a proper Sheath, which is continued 
along it, and the Sheaths are connected by Cellular Sub- 
stance only, till they get between the Vertebrae. 

Between the anterior aud posterior Fasciculi of Spinal 
Nerves, and between the Tuni.a Araihiioidra and Pia 
Mater, a small Ligamentous (.'mil. termed L^/tmaiti/m 
iJtittiaitatiim, is situated, which is attached to the Du- 
ra Mater, where that Membrane comes out from the Cra- 
nium, and accompanies the Spinal Marrow toils inferior 
extremity. 

It adheres by Cellular Substance to the Pia Mater, 
and sends off from its opposite sides slender Cords, in 
the form of Denticu/i, which carry the Tunica Arach- 
noidea along with them, and, running more or less in a 
transverse direction, are fixed, each by minute Fibres, to 
the Dura Mater, in the Interstices of the Fasciculi. 

The Ligamenta Denticulata of the right and left sides 
incorporate with the Pia Mater at the inferior extremity 
or conical point of the Spinal Marrow, and form a Liga- 
mentous Filament, which perforates the under end of the 
Dura Mater, and is fixed by small Fibres to the Mem- 
branes covering the Os Coccygis, iu the manner the Den- 
ticuli are fixed to the Dura Mater. 

It is termed by some Authors Ligament urn Pia' Ma- 
trix, and was considered by the Ancients as the Fortieth 
I'u-'i .if Nerves. 

It assists in preventing the Spinal Marrow and theten- 
cVr origin of the \iT\es from being ovtr-iretched. 

Haying got between the Vertebrae, each of the postc- 



142 OF THE SPINAL MAR.KOW, AND ORIGIN OF THE SPINAL NERVES. [Part Vil. 

rior Bundles of Nervous Fibrillre forms a Ganglion, from Upon the beginning of the Spinal Marrow, they gene- 

the opposite end of which a Nerve comes out, and is im- oily mute into a common Trunk, which descends in that 

medi.telv joiu.'d !>v tht amuim Bundle, thu, con.,litut- depn.-j-.KJii on ihc amtnov Surlace oi the Medulla, where. 

ingthe beginnings of the Trunks of the Spinal Nerves. by it is distinguished into two Lateral Portions, Tab. 

The Nervous Cords sent out from the Spinal Marrow, L\\. Fig. M. A, and in tins course is covered by the 

after receiving their Coverings from the Dura Mater, be- Tunica Arachnoidea. The Artery continues nearly of 

come considerably larger than the Fasciculi which form the same size throughout, in consequence of additions It 

them; as has been Already observed in the general de- receives from the neighbouring Arteries. 
sorption of the Nerves. In the Neck it communicates with the VertehraL Thy. 

As soon as the Spinal Nerves emerge from between the roid, and Cervical Arteries, by Branches which pa's- 

Vertebrx, eaci, sends Branch.-* backwards to the Musi- through ihc same Holes uitii the Nerves. 
ties near the Spine, and others forwards to join the Great In the Back, it receives Branches from the Intercos- 

Syrnuathetic Nerve while (he Trunk is continued out- taL, and iu ihc Loins from the Lumbar Arteries ; all of 

wards to its place of destination. which go through the Intervertebral Holes. 

The Spinal Nerves are distinguished on each side by It terminates at the under end of the Spina! Manow j 
numbers, according to the Bones under which they pass : the Cauda Equina being supplied by Branches from the 
Thuiii Pair* are most commonly enumerated ;— one go- ' Internal Iliac Artery, which enter through the anterior 
ing under the Head, aud termed Sub-wct)n'tal : — seven and posterior Holes of the Os Sacrum. 
[Kissing under the Cervical,-»twelve under the Dorsal,— The Posterior Spinal Jrttrie.i, Tab. CXCI. Fig. 3. 
live under the Lumbar Vertebrae, — and five under the arise commonly from the Inferior Arteries of the Cere- 
pieces which originally composed the Os Sacrum. bellum, aud frequently from the Trunks of the Vertebral 

The Fasciculi which form the Cervical Nerves are Arteries within the Cranium, 
short, running nearly in a straight direction from their They are equal in length to the former Artery, but 

origin to the Intervertebral Holes. Those which form considerably inferior to it in size, aud continue separate 

the Dorsal Nerves are longer than the former, and run through the whole of their course. 

more obhrjuely downwards; and those which form the They have constantly a serpentine appearance, and 

Lumbar and Sacral Nerves are very long, and run still form frequent Inosculations with each other, and with 

more obliquely downwards, till at length the undermost Arteries, the Branches of which communicate with the 
Anterior Spinal Artery. 

The .Arteries of the Spinal Marrow are divider! into 
minute Branches, which are dispersed upon its Substance, 
upon the Membranes which inclose it, and also upon the 

giving origin to the Great Nerves which supply the Su- Substance of the Vertebra and Origins of the Nerves. 

pcrior Extremity Those of the Back are much more The Veins of the Spinal Marrow accompany their 

slender, while the Fasciculi of the Loins and the three Arteries, and afterwards terminate in the Sinus Vencai 

upper Sacral ones are of great size, to form the very large of the Spine. 

Nerves which run to the Lower Extremity.- The Sinus Vetiosi consist of one on each side of the Spi- 

The Lumbar and Sacral Fasciculi, while included in rial Marrow, which runs exterior to the Dura Mater ; be- 

the Dura Mater, form a Bundle of Cords, termed Cauda ing chiefly lodged in the Ligamentous Membrane which 

LqiniKt, from the resemblance it lias to the tail of a lines the fore and lateral pa 
Horse ; especially when the Fibrillar of the Nerves are They extend from the I 

uuravclled by separating them from each other. ci'pital Bone to the under end of the Os Sa. 

The fan ieuli pcH'urare the Dura Mater, nearly oppo- are so irregular on their Sm face, ami so mum uiviut 

site to the parts where they pass through the Vertebra;, and subdivided within l.n ihc openings of Veins, as i 

—of course the Nerves of the inferior parts of the Spi- many parts to have the aj-pearance of Cells. 
nal Marrow emerge from the Spine, considerably lower At the different Vertebra', they are joined by cros 

than their dim-rent, origins. Branches, which have a semilunar form, like the Surfac 

Blood-Vessels of the Spinal Marrow— The Ar- of the Bones which surround them, 
teries of the Spinal Marrow consist of Anterior and Pos- They communicate at their Superior Extremity with 

■(trior Spinal Arteries, and of man ■ additional Branches the Occipital and Lateral Sinuses, and send numberless 

communicating with others from the adjacent Vessels. Blanc-Ins outwards, which open into the Veins, the 

of which anastomose with those of the Spinal 



( 1« ) 
TABLE CXCI. 

Views of the Spinal Marrow, — in a Child. 



FIG. 1. 

presents a Posterior View of a Production of the Dura 
Mater investing the Spinal Marrow audits Nerves, 
as in its Natural Situation ; together with the whole 
Vertebral Nerves, their Direction, Situation, and 
Natural Size in the Specus of the Vertebra. 

a, a, The superior oblique processes of the first vertebra. 

b, The processus dentatus of the second vertebra. 

c, c, The specus of the vertebrae. 

A, A section of the spinal marrow at its origin. 

d, d, The coverings of the spinal marrow produced from 
the dura mater, continued from the os occipitis to the 
middle of the os sacrum. 

f, A ligament continued from the os coccygis. 



f, The uppermost spinal nerve, commonly called Tenth 

of the Head. 
g } —h, The seven cervical nerves of the left aide. 
?i— fc, The twelve dorsal nerves. 
/, — m, The five lumbar nerves. 
u,—c, The five nerves of the os sacrum. 

FIG. 2. 

Gives a Posterior View of the Medulla Oblongata, and 
the whale of the .Spinal Marrow produced from it, ty- 
ing in its Natural Situation within the Sheath of the 
Vertebrae, which is concealed by the Dura Ma 
being laid open longitudinal/;/, arid pinned back. 

a, a, The space which the lobes of the cerebellum 01 

pied. 
»t 1'he vermiform process of the cerebellum. 

9 of the os petrosum and os uceipil!-, <:o 



g, g. The eighth pair'. 

A, h\ The uervi accessorii, arising by different roots from 
the upper end of the spinal marrow. 

■/, i, The lowest roots of these nerves. 

k, k. The ninth pair of nerves. 

/, /, The dura, mater cut longitudinally, and turned back. 

tn, The beginning of the spinal marrow. 

B, The under part of the spinal marrow sending off the 
nerves n, n, which form the cauda equina. 

o, The under end of the spinal marrow terminating in two 

p t A ligament, mistaken by the ancients for a fortieth 
pair of nerves, running through the dura mater, to bo 
fixed to the os coccygis. 

q, The upper end of the ligament urn dent ieulat urn of t lie 
left side, adhering to the dura mater. In the inter- 
stices of the spinal nerves, the teeth of this ligament 
are seen inserted into the dura mater, as far as the un- 
der end of the spinal marrow. 
, Nervous filaments which join the bundles of spinal 



Lch othe 
s, s, Posterior bundles of twenty-six of the thirty pairs of 

t, /, Portions of the anterior bundles of the spinal nerves, 
contiguous to the posterior bundles, but going through 
separate holes from them in the dura mater. 

«, «, Vy Holes in the dura mater through which the pos- 
terior bundles of spinal nerves pass. 

c, The uppermost spinal nerve. 

■w, «•, The seven cervical nerves. 

j', a', The twelve dorsal nerves. 

y, y, The five lumbar nerves. 

z, The first sacral nerve. 

FIG. 3. St 4. 

Give a View of the Arteries which belong Jo the Ter- 

TEBRJE om/'SriNAi Makkow; the Sfinf. being cut 

open at its Lateral and Had. Part — These Figures, 

through the inadvertency of tin £ngraw, arc rc- 



, called Cahviw: Scrij-t 



144 



TABLE CXCI, CONTINUED. 



€, The 

B, The arch of the aorta. 

E, E, The left carotid artery. 

d. The left subclavian artery. 

e. The inferior thyroid artery. 

f. Its ascending cervical branch, sending an inferior and 
a superior branch between the vertebra; to the spinal 

£, The arteria cervicalis profunda, also sending branches 
to the spinal marrow and its membranes. 

F, F, The trunk of the left vertebral artery sending 
branches to the bodies of the vertebra:, to the spinal 
marrow and its membranes. 

ft, The trunk of the vertebral artery within the dura ma- 
ter, and where it is about to enter the foramen magnum 
cipitis 



the anterior spinal 



if, The first aortic intercostal artery, 

r. The tenth aortic intercostal artery. From the inter- 
costal arteries, numerous branches arc sent off to the 
vertebra, dura mater, and spinal marrow. 

, The first lumbar artery. 

, The fifth lumbar artery. 

, The first sacral artery. 

, The sixth sacral artery. 

, The arteria azygos, arising iYoi 
artery. 

i f The upper end of the spinal marrow. 

t, The under end, forming the cauda equina. 

', C, The dura mater, cut and turned back. 

! c, C c, The teeth of the ligamentum dtnticulatum fijed 
to the dura mater. 

I, 1. The first cervical nerve. 

, 7. The seventh cervical nerve. 

), 1. The first dorsal nerve. 

>, 12. The twelfth dorsal nerve. 

,, 1. The first lumbar nerve. 

., 5. The fifth lumbar nerve. 

, 1. The first sacral nerve. 

, 5. The fifth sacral nerve. 




( l*ff ) 



NERVES OF THE NECK AND SUPERIOR EXTREMITY. 



Nravus ACCESSORIES. — The Accessory Nerve belongs 
in some respect to this Class of Nerves; but having 
^art of its origin within the Head, and from its passing 
out with one of the Cerebral Nerves, it lias been already 
described along with these. 

Sub-Occipital Nerve, Tab. CXCI. Fig. 2. v, v.— 
This was formerly called Tenth Nerve of the Head, and 
by many at present is termed First of the Neck. 

It arises from the beginning of the Spinal Marrow 
"by an anterior and posterior Fasciculus, like the rest of 
the Spinal Nerves; and, like these also, it has its Gang- 
lion where it passes out between the Bones. 

It perforates the Dura Mater immediately under the 
entrance of the Vertebral Artery, and goes forwards under 
that Vessel, and over the Transverse Process of the At- 

It afterwards appears in the fore part of the Neck, 
and is connected above by an Arch to the root of the 
Ninth Nerve, and below by a similar Arch to the first 
Cervical Nerve. 

Anteriorly, it is joined by one or two short Branches 
to the upper Ganglion of the Great Sympathetic Nerve. 

It afterwards divides into Branches, which are dis- 
tributed upon the Recti ct Obliqui Capitis, and upon some 
of the deep Extensors of the Head. 

The First Cervical Nekve, Tab. CXCII. No. 45. 
comes out between the Atlas and Vertebra Dentata, 
and immediately splits into two parts ; the first of which 
passes forwards under the Transverse Process of the 
Atlas, aod is joined by an Arch with the Nervus Ac- 
cessorius, and by Branches with the Ninth Pair: It 
is also connected by a soft Ganglit'orm Pellucid Root 
with the upper Ganglion of the Sympathetic Nerve, send- 
ing a Branch downwards, to be fixed to the second Cer- 
vical Nerve, and also small Branches to the Muscles 
connected with the fore part of the \ erttbrae. 

The other, which is the principal part, goes backwards, 
-aod, after sending Branches to the Extensors of the Head 
and Neck, perforates these, aod forms the Proper Occi- 
pital Nerve. 

The Occipital Nerve ascends upon the Head with the 
Artery of that name, and terminates upon the Muscles 
and Integuments upon the upper and back part of the 
Cranium ; some of its Filaments anastomosing with others 
belonging to the First Branch of theTifth, and Portio 
Dura of the Seventh Pair. 

The Second Cervical Nerve, Tab. CXCII. No. 
46. after escaping from between the Bones, gives off a 
Branch, which perforates ihe Muscles connected to the 
fore and lateral parts of the Vertebrae, and joins the middle 
Ganglion of the Sympathetic Nerve. 
Vol. III. T 



It sends another Branch of considerable size downwards 
to the Trunk of the Third Cervical Nerve. 

It sends several Branches to the Sterao-Mastoideus, 
behind which it is connected by an Arch, and still fanner 
out by a Filament, with the Nervus Accessorius. 

It is afterwards divided into several Branches ; one 
of which passes downwards some way upon the Externa! 
Jugular Vein, and, together with a Branch from the 
First Cervical, i'uniu, an Aicli i\uh the Dcscendens of the 
Ninth Pair. 

It gives off a small Root, which is united with others 
in the formation ot the Diaphragmatic Nerve. 

A large Branch comes out from it behind the Sterno- 
Mastoideus, which, turning over this Muscle, scuds off the 
following Nerves, viz. 

The Inferior Cutaneous Nerve of the Neck, which 
passes forwards to the parts under the Lower Jaw: 

The Middle Cutaneous Scree, which runs towards the 
Angle of the Jaw : 

The Great "Posterior .lurk utar Nerve, which furnishes 
an anterior Branch to the under part of the Ear, and a 
posterior Branch dividing into many others which go to 
the back part of the Ear and Temple. 

The Cutaneous and Auricular Nerves are dispersed upon 
the Platysma Myoides, Integuments of the side of the 
Neck and Head, the Parotid Gland, and External Ear ; 
and have several Communications with the Portio Dura 
of the Seventh Pair. 

The remainder of the Second Cervical is distributed 

3 ion the Levator Scapulae, and the Extensors of the 
cck and Head. 

The Third Cervical Nerve, Tab. CXCII. No. 52. 
after emerging from between ihe Vertebra, sends down 
a Branch to the Trunk of the Fourth Cervical, and an- 
other Branch, ■ which forms the principal root of the Dia- 
phragmatic Nerve. 

A Third Branch perforates the Muscles on the side of 
the Vertebra?, and joins the middle Ganglion of the Sym- 
pathetic Nerve. 

A Small filament connects the Third Cervical with 
the Descendcns of the Ninth Pair. 

The Nerve is afterwards divided into External and 
Internal Branches. 

The External Branches form Anastomoses with the 
Nervus Accessorius, near the upper part of the Scapula ; 
while the Internal, after furnishing Twigs to the Jugu- 
lar Glands, are dispersed by several large Branches upon, 
the Muscles and Integuments at the under part of the 
Neck, and upper part of the Shoulder. 

The Fourth Cervical, Tab. CXCII. No. 62. sends 

a Branch behind the Must Its situated on the fore and 

lateral 



Or THE NERVES OF THE NECK AND SUPERIOR EXTREMITY. 



Cctm-als and ! 


(lie First 1! 
f'ir.,t Uu.s.i 


.p*M,r the X 


111., Sixth, 



lateral pnil** of the Cervical Vertebra:, to the middle 
Ganglion of the Sympathetic Nerve. 

It isconuetUil b\ une, and -nun. times I>y two Filaments, 
to the Diaphragmatic Nerve. 



the Fidt Dorsal Nei 



Thev pass out between the Scalenus Anticus and Me- 
dium, tab. IXCU. C\CV. and afterwards run between 
tin- Subclavius and First Itib, at the outer side of the Sub- 
clavian Artery, hi (lie Axilla. 

In the Axilla thev separate, unite, and separate atsun, 
forming an irregular l'li'Xus, termed .tu'li'tiry nr [iruchial, 
Tab. CSCU. CXCV. which surrounds^ the Axillary 

In the Axillary Plexus the Nervous Fibrillar are so in- 
termised, tliat each of the Trunks passing out from it, 
nniv be considered as being formed of Fibres from most of 
the Nerves which enter iiilo its composition. 

The Axilla' 1/ Pit. at* sends lhauches to the Subscapn- 
laris. Teres Major, and Laiissimus Dorsi, and furnishes 
the External Thoracic Ntnrs which accompany the 
Blood-vessels of that name to the I'ccloi'ales, Mamma, 
iud integuments. 

The Ple\us afterwards divides into Nerves, most of 
which are remarkably iar^c, to supply the Superior Ex- 
tremity.— They are as follow : 

The Scafulahis, Tab. CXCIV. Fig. 1. No. 2. which 
commonly arises from the combination of the Fourth and 
Fifth (el viea!-, and, t-xti neb in: uul\i arils, nuts tlinmgh the. 
Semilunar Arch in the upper <dge of the Scapula, after- 
wards descending between the Root of the Spine and Head 
of that lion.-. 

It furnishes Branches to the Supra-Spinatus, and is 
ultimately spent upon the Infra-Spi 



to the Fourth and Fifth C< 

It sinks deep in the Axilla, and getting between the 
under edge of the Subscapular, and insertions of the 
Teres Major and Lati.sshuus Dorsi, it follows the course 
of the Posterior Circumflex Artery, round the Body of 



the Os Hum 



immediately below the 



w&es 



. Mino 



and* 



j Ta 



o the Ligament of the Joint i but is chiefly 
ipoii the LMtttidesi 
The Nekvus Cutaneus, Tab. CXCI1I. Ftg. 1. n,j>, 



and first Dorsal Nerve; but is principally formed br 
Fibrilla from the latter. r J 

It runs down at the inner and fore part of the Arm, 
near the Badial JN erve. 

It sometimes gives a small Branch to the upper nart 
oftheCoraco-Bracbialis and Biceps; and iartner down, 
it gives others to the lutegnments and Coats of the Blood! 

About the middle of the Aim, it splits into tw» 
Branches,— an Internal and External. 

The Internal Brunch, uliieli h, rather the smaller of 
the two, passes before the Basilic Vein, to the inner part 
of the Elbow, where it divides into Branches ; two of 
which, larger than the rest, turn obliquely over the Heads 
oi the rk'Miis nl the Daud, to bedispersed upon the inner 
and back part of the Fore Arm. 

The Eilernal Branch divides into several others, be- 
hind the Median Basilic Vein, which descend on the An- 
terior and Ulnar side of the Fore Ami, as far as the "Wrist. 

They pass partly over and partly under the Subcuta* 
furnishing Twigs to these, and vanishing 



ed C'iitaneux Minor Internal of Wrisberc, which, like 
the rest of the Nerves of the Superior Extremity, lakes 
its origin from the Axillary Plexus ; but is more particu- 
larly connected with the IJlu&r Nerve. It is consider, 
ably smaller than the Nervus Cntaneus. 

It soon separates from the Ulnar, running afterwards 
between it and the inner side of the Arm. 

A little below the Axilla, it splits into two Branches: 

The smaller, turning to the posterior part of the Arm, 
is divided into Filaments, which are chiefly dispersed upen 
the Triceps and its Integuments : 

The larger Branch descends at the inner edge of the 
Triceps, and vanishes upon the under end of that Muscle, 
and upon the Skin of the Elbow : 

The Musculo-Cutaneus, called also Pcrfiratu Ca- 
serii, Tab. CXCIV. Fig. 1. No. i. which consists of 
Fibrillze from almost all the Nerves enuring the Plexus. 

The Cord formed by these Fibrill* perforates obliouely 
the upper part of the Coraco-Braehialis, to which it gives 
Branches. 

It afterwards passes between the Biceps and Brachials 
Interims, furnishing Branches to both. 

At the Elbow, it gels to the outside of the Tendon of 
the Biceps, and runs behind the Median Cephalic Vein. 

From thence it descends in the Fore Arm, between the 
Supinator Longus and Integuments ; furnishing Branches 
to the latter, as far as the root of the Thumb and back 
part of the Hand: 

The Spiral, or Spiral-Muscular Nerve, Tab. 
CXCV. Fig. I. r, which is apparently formed by all th« 
Nerves entering into the Axillary I'lexus, and when the 
Sheaths of the Nerves are .slit open, is found to be c 



U 



OF THE NERVES -OF THE NECK AND SUPERIOR EXTREMITY. 



^"]"-'- 



rte Extremity, and is distinguished by its 

It is at first situated between (lie Axillary Artery and 
the Ulnar Nerve, and passes obliquely downwards be- 
tween two of the Heads „f the Triceps Extensor Cubili, 
and afterwards behind the Os Humeri, to the outside of 
the Elbow. 

From thence it proceeds among the Muscles of the 



Jlhe E 



Radial side of the Fore Ami, as far as the Hand. 

While passing behind the Os Humeri, it gives several 
Brandies of considerable size to the different Heads of 
the Triceps; some of them accompanying the Branches 
of the Arteiia Spiralis, and terminating oil the Heads of 
the Extensors of the Hand. 

Immediately behind the Body of the Os Humeri, it 
transmits a Subcutaneous Branch, which is distributed 
upon the Muscles and Integuments on the posterior part 
of the Fore Arm, anastomosing at last with the Nerves 
on the back part of the Hand. 

The Trunk of the Nerve, having arrived at the Elbow, 
is lodged in a Fissure between the Brachialis Internus 
and Radial Extensors of the Carpus, and there gives off 
other Branches to the Extensors and to the Supinators 
of the Hand. 

At the Head of the Radius, the Trunk of the Nerve 
divides into two nearly equal-sized Branches, — the Super- 
_/ieia/wand Profundus. 

The Supeijici'a/i.t, continued almost straight from the 
Trunk, transmits first a Branch to the Extensores Ra- 
diales and Supinator Longus, and then descends at the 
inner edge of this Muscle along with the Radial Artery. 

A little below the middle of the Radius, it crosses be- 
tween the Tendons of the Supinator and Kxtcnsores Ra- 
diates, and is divided into a Volar and Dorsal Branch. 

The Volar Branch, after sending Twigs to the Annu- 
lar Ligament, is distributed to the Muscles and Integu- 
ments of the Thumb. 

The Dorsal Branch is again subdivided into numerous 
other Branches, some of which go to the Muscles in the 
interval of the M.ia. :n|ul Hon^ of the Thumb and Fore 
Finger, a few rilameiii- being distributed to the Annular 
Ligament; while principal Branches run, one along each 
side of the Fore and Mid Finger, and likewise along the 
Radial side of the Ring Finger. 

The Ramus Profundus, after sending several Branches 
to the Extensores Hadiaksand Supinator Brevis, perfo- 
rates the latter, and gets to the back part of the Fore 

After quitting the Supinator, it descends under the Ex- 
tensor Primi Iuteniodii Pullicia and Extensor Digitorum 
to the back of the Hand. 

In this course, it sends Branches to the different Ex- 
tensors of the Thumb and Fingers, and at length dege- 
nerates into a slender Branch, which, at the Wrist, ad- 
heres closely to the Annular Ligament. It has here * 
Ganglifoim appearance, and is dispersed, partly upon this 
Ligament, and partly on the Membranes and Muscles on 
the back part of the Metacarpus : 



middle and lower part of the Plexus 

Fasciculi from all the Nerves which enter the Plexus, and 

is nearly of a similar size with I he Spiral Nerve. 

It descends in the Arm, along the anterior Surface of 
the Humeral Artery, to which, and to the Deep Veins, 
if adheres closely by Cellular Substance. 

In this course, it does not give off any considerable 
Branches : — Twig;, however, are icnt from it to the Coats 
of the adjacent Vessels. 

At the bending of the Elbow, it slips over the Tendon 
of the Brachialis Internus, and perforates the back part 
of the Pronator Teres. 

It afterwards descends betwen the Flexor Radiali* 
and Musctdus Sublimis, and goes in the middle of the in- 
terval of the Radial aud Ulnar Artery in its way to the 
Hand. 

When it approaches the Fore Arm, it transmits Branches 
to the Pronator Teres and Integuments near that Muscle. 

In the Flexure of the Arm, it furnishes Branches to 
the Pronator, Flexor Radialis, and Flexor Sublimis, and 
an Interosseous Branch, which, in some Subject--, receives 
an addition from the Spiral Nerve. 

The Interosseous Nerve gives Branches to the Flexor 
Longus Pollicis, and to the Flexor Profundus Digitorum, 
descends upon the Interosseous Ligament with the Vessels 
of that name, and terminates in the Pronator Quadratus. 

Near the Hand, it sends a Branch, dividing into others 
which supply the Muscles and Integuments forming the 
Ball of the Thumb. 

The Trunk of the Nerve, having given Branches to 
the Fore Arm, passes under the Annular Ligament of 
the Wrist, where it divides into Branches which are si- 
tuated behind the Aponeurosis Palmaris and Superficial 
Arch of the Arteries. 

The principal Branches iu the Palm ( 






asiderable size 

are distributed to the Thumb and Fingers. Of these, 
two go to the Thumb, aud one to the Radial side of the 
Fore Finger: the rest come off from two forked Trunks, 
near the Heads of the Metacarpal Bones, and supply the 
adjacent sides of the Fore aud Middle, and of the Middle 
and Ring Fingers. 

These Branches send Twigs through the Aponeurosis 
to the Integuments of the Palm, and others to the Mnsculi 
Lnnibricales ; after which they accompany the Arteries 
sent out from the Superficial Palmar Arch, bestowing 
Twigs to the corresponding parts of the Fingers, at the 
points of which they terminate, by numerous Fibres. 

The Ulnar Nerve, Tab. CXCIII. Fig. 1. X, F.g. 
2. r, whicfc, like the former, is of great size, and comes 
off chiefly from the hist Cervical .iwd first Dorsal Nerve. 

It extends aloug the inside «,!' the Triceps, frequently 
perforating some of its Fleshy Fibres, and, near the Elbow, 
slants a little backwards, to get into a Groove between 
ihP inner Condyle of the Os Humeri and Olecranon of 



I I'lua. 






lis 



OF THE NERVES OF THE NECK AND SUPERIOR EXTREMITY. 



From thence it passes to the Fore Arm. where, after 
perforating the Heads of the Flexor Muscles, it joins the 
Ulnar Artery a little below its origin, and accompanies 
that Vessel, — running behind it all the way to the. lland. 

Under the Axilla, it sometimes receives a Branch from 
the Spiral Nerve ; and from this connection, or from the 
Trunk of the Ulnar Nerve itself, a Subcutaneous Branch 
is sent off, which runs between the Triceps and Integu- 
ments ; furnishing Branches to the latter for a consider- 
able way along the Fore Arm. 

Near the under end of the Os Humeri, a Twig or two 
commonly go to the inner end of the Triceps. 

Under the bending of the Elbow, a Branch in given oat 
lo be dispersed upon the Belly of the Flexor Ulnaris. 

Immediately below the former, another Branch is pro- 
duced, which is distributed upon the Flexor Profundus 
Digitorum. 

About the middle of the Fore Ann, a Filament is 
transmitted, which adheres to the Uln.ir Anerv, furnish- 
ing small Twigs to the Sheath and Coats of the Artery, 
and terminating in tin? cun'esponJiug parts of the V\rist, 
and Integument.* of the Palm. 

Near the end of the Ulna, a considerable Brauch, 
termed Durso&S, is sent out, which, turning between the 
Flexor Ulnaris and Ulna, is directed to the back part of 
the Hand. 

The Dorsal Nerve sends Branches to the Integuments 
of the Wrist and Metacarpus, which have various Anas- 
tomoses with others of the- Spiral Nerve. 

It sends off a Branch, which proceeds along the Ulnar 
side of the Little Finger ; and at the Heads of the Meta- 
carpal Bones, another splitting into two Branches, winch 
run along the adjacent sides of the Auricular and Ring 
Fingers. 

The Trunk of the Nerve passes with the correspond- 
ing, Artery over the Annular Ligament into the Palm, 
where, like the Radial Nerve, it is covered with the Apo- 
neurosis Palmaris. 



latter for the Deep Begion nf the Hand. 
The Superficial Palmar Sent smds — 
Branches to the short Muscles of llic Little Finger : 
A Branch to the Volar-Ulnar side of the Little Finger : 



one to the Radial side of the Little Finger, the other tm 
the Ulnar side of the Ring Finger. 

Thi i Veep Palmar NW sinks in between the Abduc- 
tor and Flexor Parvus Digin Minimi, or perforates the 
Head ot the latter, and forms an Arch which accompanies 
the Deep Arch ot the Arteries, under the Tendons of the 



A Branch to the Abductor Minimi Digiti, and one t 
each of the Iuterossei : 

A Twig to each of the Lumbricales, which enters froi 
behind : 

the Flexor Brevis and Adductor Pollicis. 



,ln. 



al short Branch- 



es upon the Abductor lndicis 

The Nerves on the Palm and corresponding part of tire 
Fingers, like the Arteries, are much larger than those of 
the opposite side of the Hand. 

ThePalmarDigitalNervessendoff many lateral Brandies 
to the Integuments and other parts of the Fingers, and lei- 
iiiitiate, each, by a Brush of Fibres, at the Apices of the 
Fingers. 

Between the Branches of the Radial and Ulnar Nerves, 
different AjiupIoii.o.'h/-. are liv^uently found ; and the same 
may be observed between the Nerves of the Palmar and 
Dorsal sides of the Fingers. 

Intercosto-Humehai.es.— Besides the Nerves of the 
Superior Extremity sent from the Brachial Plexus, there 
are others belonging to it, which take their origin from 
the Intercostal Nerves, and which may therefore be term- 
ed Intercasto-Humerales. 

The Intercosto-Humeral Nerves, Tab. CXCIII. Fig. 
I. i, A, /, consist of a Branch from the Second, and of 
another from the Third Intercostal Nerves ; both of which 
pass out at the fore and lateral parts of the Thorax, the 
one under the Second, and the other under the Third Bib. 

The First Nerve is joined by a small Branch with the 
Cutaneous Nerve, or with i he CutanOU htierms of YVris- 
berg, and is afterwards dispersed by numerous Filaments 
upon the Axillary Glands, and upon the Integuments of 
the Axilla and of the inner part of the Arm. 

The Second Nerve is connected by one or more Branch- 
es with the First, and sends some Twigs to the Axillary 
Glands; but is chiefly distributed upon the Integuments 
of the back part of the Arm, which it supplies « ith man) 
Branches— some of them extending as far as the Elbow. 



'fir Mi i 



Tab/92. 







( "9 ) 



TABLE CXC1I. 

A View of the Nerves- of the Neck ; and of the Great Sympathetic, Eighth Pair, anil 
Diaphragmatic Nerves in the Thorax. 



A, The insertion of the spleuius muscle. 

B, The sterno-inastoideus cut and turned back, 

C, The digastricus. 

D, The stylo-hyoidcus. 

K, The interior maxillary gland. 

E, Tlic parotid gland. 
G, The lower jaw. 

H, H, The cut edge of the integuments. 
I, The constrictor pharyngis superior. 

K, ■ medius. 

- inferior. 



M, The 

N, hyoideus. 

O, The omo-hyoidens. 

P, The hyo-thyroideus. 

Q, The my lo- hyoideus. 

It, The hyo-glossus. 

S, Part of the thyroid gland. 

T, The esophagus. 

V, The trachea. 

V, V, The cervical ^ 

W, The first dorsal \ 

X, The longus colli. 

Y, The rectus capitis major. 






, 6, A, The thn 



"IT 1 ' 1 ' 



ntereostal muscles. 
if, (?, The internal intercostals. 

p, The external surface of the right lung. 

/,/, The internal plane surface of the same. 

£', The figure hot ween the upper and middle lobes. 

A, A, The convex surface of the left lung. 

i, i\ The upper tonvi-x suiface of the diaphragm. 

k, ft, The outer surface of the pericardium. 

/, The under part of the pericardium, where if is con 

netted with the tendinous centre of the diaphragm. 
w, The vena cava superior. 

n, azygos. 

e, cava ink'iior, lei imitating in ihe ri^lit ainu: 



p. The right auricle. 



r, The pulmonary artery. 

s, The right branch of that artery. 

/, t, The arch of the aorta pulled aside by the assistance 

of a hook. 
v, The right subclavian, and, 
v, The left carotid artery. 
ie, The os hyoides. 

x, The superior ganglion of the great sympathetic nerve. 
y, A ramus mollis from this ganglion, sending off two ra- 

muli which creep along the internal carotid artery. 
sb, A branch which forms the beginning of the nervus 

cardiacus suprcmus, vel snperficialis. 
5. A branch from this nerve, which joins the externa] 

branch of the laryngeal nerve. 

I. 2. Branches uniting with, 

3. 4. 6. The continuation of the superficial cardiac nerve. 

7. Branches of the superficial cardiac nerve, at the right 
side of the aorta. 

8. The trt 

9. A branch which g( 
terytothethy.-o.dgI; 

10. The great sympatic 

II. The ganglion cervi. 
12. 13. Branch.- from 



great 



-amji, 



Is. An aril 

and fifth i 

II*. 20. Bn 



Ok of tlie 
1, with ot 



■ed by a br 

and spt.Hi 






100 



TABLE CXCIX. CONTOttJED. 



ing chiefly from the middle cervical ganglion to the 
cardiac plexus. 

'.:''•. The first dorsal ganglion. 

26. The second dorsal ganglion. 

27. The pars vaga of the eighth pair. 

28. The pharyngeal branch of the- eighth pair. 

:.'.'. Tile superior laryngeal nerve of the eighth pair. 
:<i). The external branch of the superior laiyngeal uervc. 
SI. The recurrent nerve of the eighth pair. 
St. 53. 31, Branches from the recuiTent nerve to the 

3~>. 3'''- Branches of the recurrent, anastomosing, and 

afterwards passing to the larynx. 
37. Connections between the recurrent and pars vaga. 
'W. The pars vaga passing behind the lun< 



and arch of the aorta, and divides into branches which 
go on each side of the aorta to the heart. 

40. A branch of the former, which turns to the left side 
of the aorta in its way to the heart. 

41- The accessory nerve of the eighth pair, perforating 

:s way to the 






:■<!,•. 



4t. The sub- 
great sympathetic Bad nisi cervical nerve. 
•If.. The first, and, 

46. The second cervical nerve. 

47. A branch formed by one from the first, and another 
from the second cervical nerves, forming an arch with 
the descendens noni. 

48. The principal part of the second cervical uerve, 
which, after being increased by branches from the first, 
forms the great posterior auricular nerve. 



4;1. Branches of the second and third pair, uniting anil 

sending off, 
5C The small posterior auricular nerve. 
51. A branch from No. 4!>. which accompanies the ner- 



5 J — 58, The branches of that nerve upon the diaphragm. 

59. A branch of the third pair to the trunk of the syni- 

60. 61. The principal branches of the third pair, which be- 
long to the muscles and integuments a! the under pan of 

the neck, ami upper put of ilie thorax and shoulder. 

62. 62. The fourth cervical nerve. 

63. The scapulary nerve, which, in this figure, arises 
entirely from the fourth cervical. 

64. A plexus formed by branches from the second, third, 
and fourth pairs, and a branch from the fourth pair to 



6?. A branch to the pectoral muscle, turned back. 

68. The sixth cervical nerve. 

60. Connection between the fifth and sixth cervical nerves. 

70. A branch from the sixth cervical nerve to the small 
pectoral and serratus magnus muscles. 

71. The last cervical, and, 

72. The first dorsal nerve. 

74. A branch ascending from the trunk 73. to join the 
fourth cervical nerve. 

75. Branches from the trunk 73. to the pectorales and 
serratus magnus. 

76. A hook pulling the pars vaga outwards. 



( 1«1 ) 



TABLE CXCIII. 



Represents the Primary Order of Muscles, with the Subcu 
Left Superior Extremity. 



Vessels and Nerves of the 



Muscles, 

A, The pectoralis major. 

B, The deltoides. 

C, The latissunus dorsi. 

D, The biceps flexor cubiti. 

rf, d, The round tendon of the biceps, with its aponeuro- 
sis extended to the inside of the fore-arm. 

E, The triceps extensor cubiti. 

F, The pronator teres. 

G, The supinator radii longus. 

Artery and Veins. 

a, The brachial artery appearing near the inner edge o 
the tendon of the biceps, where it may always be felt. 



FIG. 2. 

Muscles. 

A T The tendon of the flexor pollicis longus, passing 

through the flexor pollicis brcvis. 
B, The adductor pollicis. 
t , The abductor indicis. 

D, D, D, D, The muscuii lumbricales, lying in the in- 
terstices of the flexor tendons. 

E, E, E, E, The tendons of the flexor digitoriun subli- 
mis, vel perforatus. 

F, F, F, The tendons of the extensor digitorum profun- 
dus, vel peiforans, appearing through the slits of the 
perforatus. 

G, G, G, The mucous singulis, containing the above- 
ied tendons io the grooves of the finger- bones. 



i, The basil i 

c, The cephal 

d, The mediat 

e, The mediai: 

/, The median 
g. The deep-seated 
closely attached 



nal condyle. 
ein, near the external condyle. 
sin, near the middle of the arm. 
Lsilic vein. Here there is a second me- 
n immediately above e. 

teia accompanying the artery, and 
it. 



1. The axillary branch from the brachial plexus. 



1. The ulnar nei" 
■rnlar ligament 
to the little an< 

S. The radial nei 



separating in the palm into bianchea 



i go to the third, second, and first fingers, and I 




( 153 ) 

TABLE CXCIV. 

Represents the Blood- Vessels and Nerves in a deeper Dissection than in the former Table. 



Muscles. 

A, The peetoralis minor. 

A a, The subclavian muscle. 
A by The serratus magnus. 
A r, The latissimus dorsi. 
A (/, The ball of the os humeri. 

B, The coraco-brachialis. 

C, Tlife biceps muscle. 
C e, The long, 

C/, The short head, and, 

C g, The tendon of the biceps. 

D, The brachialis internus. 

E, The triceps extensor cubiti. 
1", The supinator longus. 

G, The pronator teres. 
H, The flexor carpi radiate. 
I, Tlie palroaris longus. 
K, The flexor carpi ulnaris. 

Arteries. 

o, a, The maxillary artery. 

b, b, b, The humeral artery sending off the ra 

«, The division of the humeral artery. 

tf, The radial, and, 

e. The ulnar artery. 

/, The trunk, of the axillary vein. 

g y g, The cnt trunks of the superficial veins. 

A, A, deep humeral vein 

«", ij Arteries and veins of the axillary glands. 



3. The articutaris. 

4. The musculo-cutancus. 

5. The spiralis. 



FIG. 2. 

Muscles. 

A, The flexor carpi ulnaris. 

B, The palmaris longus. 

C, The flexor carpi radialis. 

D, The supinator longus. 

E, The palmaris brevis. 

F, The opponeus pollicis. 

G, The flexor poU'cis brevis. 

H, The ligamentum carpi annulare. 

Arteries. 

», a, The ulnar artery, 
i, 6, The radial artery. 
c, c, c, The superficial palmar arch, formed by theiilnar 

if", rf, &c. The digital arteries, with their forkings, and 
the branches sent along the sides of the Sogers. 

Nerves. 



' 



A 



7ZLB. 1&5. 




( ws ) 



TABLE CXCV. 

A View of the Axillary Plexus, and Nerves of the Superior Extremity of the Left Side; 



A . A, The scalenus 

B,B, 

C, 






K, K, K, The intercostales. 
L, L, The longus colli. 

D, D, The subscapulars. 

E, The teres major. 

F, The latissimus dorsi. 
A, The supra-spinatus. 

G, The tendon of the long head of the triceps. 
H, The short head of the biceps. 

I, The coraco-bracbialis. 
/, The second, and, 
£, The first head of the triceps. 



Nerves. 



I'ith connections 



tea, xa, a, The great sympathetic 

to the cervical and intercostal nerves, 
em, The middle cervical ganglion of the great sympathe- 

jfi, The inferior cervical and first dorsal ganglia, conjoin- 

ed in this figure. 
a, The third dorsal ganglion. 
y, The fifth intercostal nerve. 
j, The fourth cervical nerve. 
/-, The fifth cervical. 
/, The sixth cervical. 
hi, The seventh cervical. 
a, The fir.it dorsal nerve. 
A, b. Sec The axillary plexus. 
c, The nervus scapulaiis. 
v, The art Lcu]aris. 
u, The cutaneus. 



rf, o,/>, j, The mllBCulo-cu I aliens, — o, the trunk perforat- 
ing the coraco-brachialis muscle,—/*, a branch to the 
short head of the biceps, — 5, the continuation of the 

c, The spiralis, from which a branch is seen passing to 
the latissimus dorsi ; — /, the trunk of the nerve going 
between the first and second heads of the triceps, after 
transmitting branches to these. 

«, The radialis cut. 

Between 1- and e, The ulnaris cut. 

FIG. 2. 

Nerves of the Back of the Fore Arm and Hand. 

Muscles. 

A, The tendons of the extensor digit oram passing under, 

B, The posterior annular ligament of the wrist, 

C, The extensor sccuudi internodii pollicis. 

D, priini internodii pollicis. 

& ossis metacaipi pollicis. 



G, G, The . 

H, The abtl 
I, The addu 
K, K, The 



carpi ulnar 



■pi i.idink-. 



r pollic 



<7, The trunk of the spiral nerve dividing into volar and 
dorsal branches, the latter of which is seen subdividing 
into smaller branches, to bt- dispersed upon the carpus, 
back of the hand, thumb, and fingers, as far as the ra- 
dial side of the ring-linger. 

b. The dorsal branch of the ulnar nerve supplying the 
" * md of the back of the 



( 154 ) 



NER\ ES WITHIN THE THORAX. 

The Nerves, in each side of tlic Thorax, consist of Behind the Thyroid Claud, it sends olT minute Fibres 

ilifi Phrenic^ the Varx I <t»a of the Eighth Pair, the to the beginning of 1 1 1 < - Esophagus and bottom of tho 

Ureal Sympathetic, and the Intercostal* ; all of which Pharynx, and small Twigs lo the Claud itself, 

am concealed bv the Pleura, till they are exposed by Upon the inner side of the Thyroid Cartilage, it fur- 

Diasectioo. niaM) a Branch which constitutes a remarkable Anasto- 

The Bhrevu, or Diaphragmatic Nerve, Tab. mosis with another from the Internal Laryngeal Nerve. 

CXCII. No. ."».!. In.- a small Filament from the second At the back part of the Larynx, His divided into 

Critical; bat is chiefly formed by a Branch from the many Fibrillar, which are distributed to the different 

Third, and b\ one, and sometimes by two, from the Muscles fixed to the Arytenoid Cartilage of the corre- 

1 Vmi th Cervical Nine. sponding side. 

It (kscrinU in the Neck, along the outer and fore part It has also : 
of the Scalenus Amicus, and ente.s the Thorax behind the 



i the Subcla- geal Nerve, and sends 

viau Artery aud corresponding Vein. Membrane of the Larynx 

In the Thorax, it pa.-*es lir^t over the root of the Lungs, Becurrent Nerves are considered as the principal Instm. 

and then proceeds along the Pericardium, to which it ments of the Organ of Voice, 

adheres closely in its way to the Diaphragm. The Pars Vaga, having transmitted the Recurrent 

The Bight Phrenic has nearly a straight direction op- Nerve, gives off Filaments which form connections with 

posite to the Superior Cava and Bight Auricle ; while the Branches arising from the Boot of the Recurrent of the 

left makes a considerable Curve near its under end, cor- same and of the opposite side. 

responding with thai part of the Pericardium which covers They anastomose also by small Fibvillsc with the Car- 

thc Point of the Heart. diac Branch of the Sympathetic, aud then pass to the fore 

Upon the Surface of the Diaphragm, the Trunk is di- part of the Bronchi, where they constitute what is termed 

vided into several Branches, which are distributed in a the Anterior Pulmonary Plexus of Nerves. 

radiated manner upon the Fleshy sides of that Muscle. _. The Anterior Pulmonary Plezits, Tab. CXCVI. thus 

Pars Vaga.— The Para Vaga, Tab. CXCII. No. tS/ formed by Branches from the Trunk of the Eighth Pair, 

upon approachingthe Thorax, sends a. Filament, and some- with the assistance of others from the Becurrent and 

times two, termed Cardiac Serves, which join the Car- Sympathetic Nerves, extends across the Great Branches 

diac Branch of the Great Sympathetic, as already of the Pulmonary Artery, and after transmitting small 

observed. Filaments to the Pericardium and to the Great Cardiac 

It enters the Thorax between the Subclavian Vein and Nerve, furnishes many minute Fibrilla:, which accompany 

Artery, aud, after giving off the Recurrent Nerve, passes the Ramifications of the Bronchi and Pulmonary Elood- 

heliiud the root of the Lungs. vessels in the Substance of the Lungs. 

Recubrent Neiive, Tab. CXCII. No. 31. 3fi From the Pars Vaga, a little below the origin of the 

The Recurrent is reflected upward.,, behind the Subcla- Becurrent, and likewise from the Root of the Becurrent 
vian Artery in the right, and behind the Arch of the itself, Nerves are sent off, which form a Plexus, that is 
Aorta in the left side of the Thorax ; — inconsequence of dispersed, partly upon the Fleshy-glandular Substance 
which the left Nerve is the longer of the two. It after- of the Trachea, and partly embraces the Esophagus, form- 
wards ascends in the Neck, adhering to the posterior ing upon it the small Esophageal Plexus. 
and lateral parts of the Trachea in its way to the Larynx. Behind the Root of the Lungs, about six or seven 

It is connected, near its Origin, by one or two Branch- Nerves of different sizes are sent off in a transverse di- 
es of considerable size, with the adjacent Ganglia of the rection, which are termed Posterior Pulmonary PlexUSy 
Great Sympathetic Nerve ; and from the opposite side of although they have few connections with each other. 
its Boot it sends other considerable Branches to join those Tab. CXCvill. 

of the Eighth Pair, iu the formation of the Pulmonary The Posterior Pulmonary Nerves, like (he Anterior, 

Plexus of Nerves. follow I lie Branches of the Bronchi and Blood-vessels in 

Near the Subclavian Artery, it is connected by different the Substance of the Lungs, and, becoming gradually 

Filaments to the Superficial and Deep Cardiac Branches smaller, send off minute Twigs, which penetrate the Air- 

of the Sympathetic Nerve. vessels, and are ultimately dispersed upon their Internal 

.In its ascent in the Neck, ii imusmiis Pencils of Fila- Membrane. 

vienfs, which penetrate the Trachea, and are dispersed After g 

upon its Internal Membrane. is split it 



Part TO] OF THE NERAES \VI IHIN THE THORAX. 

which surrounds the Esophagus, sends Filaments into its The Cardiacus Magni 

Substance, and is joined by Funiculi of the Pars Vaga CXCVII. the upper port io 

of the opposite side — It goes afterwards through the of the right side, arises by numerous ronis from the 

Diaphragm, to lit disUibuiod upon the Viscera of the middle, and from the lowest Can-lion of llit- S\imia:h( I ic 

Abdomen. Nerve. 

From the Ganglia of the Great Sympathetic Nerve, It passes across the Arch of the Aorta, and, after re- 
st the bottom of tin- Neck, and to[> of the Thorax, the cciving the Cardiac lii.nnli of the Eighth I'.nr, joins tho 
principal Cardiac No'coaie prodtn ed, which are dispcr- Great Cardiac of the light -side, to assist in formin" the 
scd upon the Heart, while the continuation of (he Trunk Cardiac Plexus. 

of the Sympathetic descends in the Thorax at the side of From the Cardiac Plexus, a Reticulum of Nerves ex~ 

the Vertebra. tends upon the left side of the Ascending Ao 

The Cardiac Nerves of the Right Side consist of receive ' 

the Cardiacus Magnus Profundus, and ( 'ardiacus Minor : the Car 

the latter of which is termed by Scarpa Cardiacus Aor- Aorta. 

t,c Sx/arjicialis. From this Reticulum, 

The Cardiacus Magnus Profundus, Tab. CXCII. nary Plexus is produced, 

CXCVI, is principally formed by Branches from the Se- monary Artery and Aorta, and afterwards follow 

cond Cervical Ganglion of the Sympathetic, and after- course of the Trunk and Branches of the Might Coronary 

wards receives one or two Filaments from the Cardiacus Artery, along with which it is dispersed upon the corrc- 

Suprcmus, together with the Superficial Cardiac and other sponding bide of the Heart. 

Branches of I he Figlilli Pair, as formerly desei ibed. The Great Cardiac Plexus, after sending a Filament 

The Trunk, a rising' in this manner from dill even I sources, or two to the Lungs, gives olf Nerves which unite aud 

passes between the Superior Cava and ascending Aorta, form the Trunk of the Great Deep Cardiac Nerve of the 

to the posterior Surface of the latter, and joins the Car- left side, Tab. CXCVII. which has a soft Gaiigliibna 

diac Branches of the left side. appearance, and passes along the corresponding side of the 

By the addition of the Left Cardiac. Nerves, a Plexus Pulmonary Artery, 

is formed, termed Plans Cardiacus Magnus o/ IIaller, Upon the Surface of this .Artery, the Trunk soon di- 

froni which is sent out a long Ganglion of a soft consis- vides into Branches, \i hii.li, alter sending Filaments across 

tenee, described by Wiusberg under the name of Gan. it to the Right Coronary Plexus, give origin to the Co. 

glion Cardiacum. ronary Plexus of the left side. Tab. CXCVII. which 

From the Cardiac Ganglion, the following Branches attends the Trunk and Branches of the Left Coronary 

are given off, viz. Artery. 

A Branch which, after transmitting Filaments to the In the Left or Posterior Coronary Plexus, the Nerves 

Anterior Pulmonary Plexus of the Eight!) Pair, passes are larger than in the Right, corresponding with the 

behind the Right Division of the Pulmonary Artery to parts they have to supply ; : U id the Plexuses have rep eat - 

the Left Coronary Plexus of the Heart: ed connections with each other on the Surface of the 

One or two Filaments, which unite with others sent Heart, 

from the Anterior Pulmonary Plexus of the Eighth Pair-, In general, the Nerves run close to the Arteries ; some 

aud go before the Bight Branch of the Pulmonary Artery of them being continued as far as the Apex, while others 

to the Ease of the Heart : penetrate the Substance of the Heart. 

Branches of considerable size, passing partly over the The Great Sympathetic, having produced the princi- 

right side of the Aorta, and partly between it and the pal Cardiac Nerves, consists of an anterior and posterior 

Pulmonary Anew, to the Anterior Coronary Plexus ; part, — the former going over, and the latter under the 

Small Branches which unite with others' coming from Subclavian Artery. 

the Trunk of the Great Cardiac Nerve, and pass over the Behind this Artery, the t 

Aorta to the Anterior Coronary Plexus. which descends in the Thaw 

The Nervus Cardiacus Minor, Tab. CXCVL arises Tab. CXC1X. 

from the undermost Cervical Gamdion, creeps over the At the head of each Tub, it forms a small Ganglion nf 

Arteria Innominata and Aorta, and terminates in a Plexus an irregular shape, which mules behind with each of the 

formed by the Cardiac Nerves on the left side of the Intercostal Nerv.s, generally by two, and sometimes by 

Aorta Ascendens. three short Branches. 

The Left Cardiac Nerves arc, the Cardiacus Su- From several of the Dorsal Ganglia of tins rierre, 

perficiutis, aud the Cardiacus ■ Maanus Profundus. Filaments are detached oblimrcly oyer the \ ertebrse to 

The Cardiacus Super ficialis, Tab. CXC\ II. arises the Coats of the Aorta. 

from the upper part of the Sympathetic Nerve, 'as for- From the Sixth, Seventh, and I ighlh Dorsal Ganglia, 

merly noticed, and passes behind the Arch of the Aorta to — and iYcpicmh from a Gai gl.on above or below these, 

the Plexus Cardiacus Magnus. —Brandies arise, winch descend oblimiely upon the sides 



J5G OF THE NERVES WITHIN THE THORAX. [Part TH. 

Sf the Vertebra, and uuite into a Tfnnk, termed Kenus Tlie six upper Intercostals send Branches to the nu- 
Splanehnictts, Tab. CCII. which perform ft. iliu Appi-n- merous Miijik*, and to the Integuments covering the back. 
dixof the Diaphragm, aud goes to theVisceraof the Abdo- part of the Thorax, to the Serratus Magnus, and to the 
men; from which ciH umstancfl the Nerve obtains its name, upper part of the Abdominal Muscles ; while the remains 
Besides the Nervua Splanchnicus, another, termed of ihem, passing out between the Bibs at the edge of the 
Splanchnievs Seciaulariux, vtl Acctwon'tt.*, is generally Stuiiiiiu, arc iclk'ctcd along with Branches of the Inter- 
observed, which arises from one or two of the Dorsal nal Mammary Blood-vessels, to be dispersed by small 
Ganglia, below the origin of the Splanchnicus, — near ita Filaments upon the Mamma, and likewise upon the Mua- 
t erminatioo, — or runs separate from it into the Abdomen, cles and Integuments next the edge of the Sternum. 

The Intercostal, or Costal, or Dorsal Nerves, The Trunk of the First Intercostal enters into the com- 
Tab. CXCIX. CCII. after escaping from the Vertebra, position of the Axillary Plexus ; a Branch of it, however, 
run in the Furrows at the lower edges of the Ribs, in com- runs along the edge of the Fust Rib, in the manner the 
pany with the Intercostal Blood-vessels, and proceed to other Intercostals run along their respective Ribs. 
the anterior part of the Thorax, between the two Layers Two Principal Branches, one from the Second, and 
of the Intercostal Muscles. the other from the Third Intercostal, are occupied in form- 
Immediately after getting out from between the Ver- ing the Intercosto-Huineral Nerves, already described ; 
tebra, each is connected, as already taken notice of, by while a considerable Branch from the Fourth is reflected 
short Branches to the Sympathetic Nerve. Tab. CCII. over the edge of the Latissimus Dorsi to the Integuments 

Opposite to this connection, they give principal Branch- of the back part of the Thorax, 
es backwards to the Muscles lying near the Spine, and The Six Lower Intercostals, after supplying the ad- 
serving for the erection of the Trunk of the Body. jacent Musck-s and Integuments of the Thorax, contiuue 
Through the rest of their course, they send off Branches their course obliquely forwards, wid are dispersed upon 
to the Intercostal es, to the other Muscles, and to the In- the different Muscles and Integuments of the Abdomen, 
teguments of the Thorax, and also to those of the Abdo- — The Twelfth, running from the last Rib along the under 
men, and, becoming gradually smaller, they at last vanish end of the Abdomen, sends Filaments, which extend as 
in the fore part of the Body. far as the Skin of the Pelvis and Thigh. 



... It 




TABL E CXCVI. 



Exhibits the Cardiac Nerves of the Right Side 



C, A ! 
luge. 



of the light portion of the thyroid ■ 






D, The 

E, The right ennui of the n.- hyoides. 

F, The body of the fourth cervical vertebra. 

G, first dorsal vertebra. 

H, The pharynx raised from its insertion, and turned 

I, The trachea, with the pharynx pulled towards the 

left side. 
K, L, The right and left bronchi. 
M, The stylo-glossus. 
N, The stylo-pharyngeus. 
O, The genio-glossus. 
P, The genio-hyoideus. 
Q, R, The insertions of the masscter and pterygoideus 



p, The right sinus venosus, and, 

y. Tin: right ujipi mlix, or proper auricle nf the heait. 

r, The right, and part of the left ventricle. 

U The vena cava inferior, 
if, u, The pulmonary veins of the right side. 
», The trunk of the pulmonary artery. 
ti p , The right branch of that artery. 
a 1 , The aorta drawn to the left side. 
' y, The right coronary artery, ramifying ou the con 
sponding side of the heart. 
z, The left coronary a 



The 
Tie 


digastricus, ami, 
stylo-hyc-ideus cu 
cucullaiis. 


t and turned b: 


, The levator sea 
, Thecoiaeo-brai 
Tlie short head 


pul«. 

of the biceps. 



',, I lie tt-retes major ct minor. 
, Part of the sub-scapularis. 
, The head of the os humeri. 
, The coracoid process of the scapula. 
', d, The clavicles, the left cut across, and the 
joined to the end of the right. 

; proper anterior ligament of the scapula. 



;■ right side turned down. 
1 of the ribs and intercostal muscles. 



, The trunk c 



the right subclavian and right 



the 



rtebiu 



4. The tho 

5. The common carotid. 

6. The internal carotid. 

7. The external carotid. 

8. The thvroidea superior. 

9. The occipitalis. 

10. The auncularis posterior. 

11. The transverealis faciei. 

12. The external carotid, sending imwiul-. the musilhui 
interna, and before the ear the superficial temporal. 

13. The facial, from which branches are sent off to thi 
submaxillary gland. 

14. The lingualis, with its sublingual branches. 

15. The left carotid. 

1G. ■ subclavian. 

17. The thyroidea inferior. 



.IUII, 



of the 






18. The 
puis. 

19. The maramaria iuterna divided. 

20. The nervus durus, vel communicans faciei. 

21. The auricularis, formed by a branch of the third of 
the fifth, united to one from the nervus durus. From 
the nervus durus, filaments are seen descending to 
the digastricus, to the stylo-hyoideits, and along the 
external carotid artery. 

22. The 



158 




TABLE CXCVI 


CONTIXIIED. 


22. The temporal a.iJ 
'."A Tut pars ™-„ nf 
Wilis. 

24. The fimu-phinm. 

25. A plexus of nervoi 

cal aanjh » ' a' 

'I'll, liranches from llic 
2?. The /«rv»5a»i ,» 

from bchiuil lli. hue 
28. A bunch from tl 

pulpy nerves of the 


racial br: 
llie eight 

J.., aial 
otig the 


aiclics of this uerve. 

1] pair dratvn a little out- 

nts from the glosso.pliu- 
iitcrnal carotid artery. 


of the sympathetic, and go behind the pain: 

■XI. A conspicuous anastomosis bcluocu the lift 

aial the small anterior puluionary plexus. 
43. 'I'he gaiigliun m ™ tile .mi/iit,iu of tire gre 

to join the principal biun.l.c. of the eighth p: 
41. A plexus „fp„lp;„ertes from the sympat 
ttrspcrscd will little ganglia embracing ,1a 
carotid, ami sending up branches with son 
ganglia along the principal branches of the c: 
45. The m-rru, caiJimm .■.«]*, J" <»'"> vol 


llha.any' 

aial carol 
lis, whic 
superior 


:-us to the pharynx. 

1 the pa,, .aga, poising 

It, with others from the 



tlie laiyngei 

29. Branches of the Lmyngens c-xtenms to the pharynx, 
and to (he inner parts of the larynx ; and, a little bil- 
low this, branches to tlie under part of the pharynx, 
and to the larynx and llmoid gland. 

30. The Jaryngeus intermix terminating by numerous 
branches upon ilu cpiglui 1 1 -, ;ind other parts about the 
upper and inner side of the larynx. 



and turned back. 

33. The superficial cardiac branch of the pars vaga, and, 

a little below this, another superficial cardiac branch, 

31. Nerves from the middle and inferior cervical ganglion 
to the trunk of the pars vaga. 

•rent branch of tlie pars vaga. Nei 



■16. 'i'he trunk of ilu- . ■ 

47. The ganglion eti liculc medium, into which three 
nerves, descending from tlie second, third, and fourth 
cervicala, enter. 

48. The ganglion a-rrkalf infiriu$,\\'\ih branches, some 
before, other., behind the subclavian artery, connect, 
iug this ganglion with the former oue, and with the 



origin, it is connected by two branches with the middle 


First thoracic ganglion, one of which, larger thau tlie 


and inferior cervical ganglia, and by others with the 




adjacent nerves. 


49. Is considered as the continuation of the trunk of the 


30. The trunk of the recurrent nerve ascending by the 


sympathetic nerve, into the upper part of the gan- 


side of the ti-achen, and giving branches along the in- 


glion cervicalc inferius, three nerves arc seen passing 


ferior thyroid artery to the gland of that name ; nu- 


from an ecjnal number of inferior ecrvicals. 


merous brajidii-i which terminate upon the inner mem. 


50. The beginning of the ftnt, or what some reckon the 


brane of the trachea, and branches to the esophagus, 


second thoracic gang/ion. 


to the bottom of the pharynx, and to the thyroid 


51. Two conspicuous nerves from tlie middle cervical 


gland. 




37. A remarkable anastomosis between this nerve and 


cardiac branch of (lie pais vaga, and afterwards passi- 


the laryngeus interims. I"iom this union filaments are 


behind the subclavian artery, to connect itself to the 


sent to the arytenoid gland, to the oblique and trans- 


recurrent nerve ; the other goes over this artery, and 


verse arytenoid muscles, and to the inner membrane of 




the larynx. 


52. The cariiiftcu,* magna* ji'i ojunutti of the great sym- 


38. Numerous filaments to the cricoid and arytenoid 




muscles, to the inner membrane of the fornix, and va- 


;i.i. Tlie tai diat us iiii'/iiii;\(] cardiacus aoiLe -npi ilieialis. 


rious connections with the laivngeus interims. 


51. '.I he gtw&li<M mutlc, \d lurdhicun:, of the great car- 


39. Nervous funiculi from tlie recurrent and pars vaga, 




along the fore pail of the trachea and bronchi to the 


".;.. AnaHumoscs between the cardiac nerves of the right 


small anterior pulmonary plexus. 


and left sides, funning the meat caidiac plexus of 


40. The trunk of tlie pars vaga near the right bronchus, 


llAUIK. 


sending filaments to the esophagus, ;nid numerous 


5ti. The right or anterior coronary jlerus, formed of 


branches to the superficial pnhmuiLiiv plexus situated 


brandies from the cauliac nerves „| each side, passing 


over the blood-vessels of that side. 


between the aorta and puhuonarv artery, and after- 


41. A small anterior pulmonary plexus, formed by 


wards following thi courei al thi right coii 


branches from the pars vaga and recurrent. From 


and its branches in the e»i ic-pomling sides of the 


this, filaments go to the right lung ; some join branches 


heart. Over the trunk of the pulmonary artery, lib- 



TABLE CXCVI. CONTINUED. 159 

61. The third cervical, with its connections to the ac- 
o the fourth cervical. 

,it vc ;iriiing by three origins. 

ior cervical nerves, and first dorsal, 
i by short threads between the superior C5. A nerve to the supra-spinatus. 
cervical ganglion, tenth of the head, and first of the 06. The musculo-) uianeus, and a branch from it above, 
neck. A little lower, a jj, aii;;litdnn eoimet ■tinn appears to the coraco-biachialiH, and others below, to the bi- 

between the under riul of ilie superior cervical ganglion ceps and brachialis internua. 

.ud the second cervical nerve. Near (he same piacc, 07. Jlrauclics from the brachial plexus to the pectoralis 
tus capitis major. major et minor, and to the serratus magnus. 

ive arising from the second OS. 'J'he radinl and ulnar nerves. 

69. The phrenic nerve witluii the thorax. 
, and a connection between 70. The pars vaga, and, 

71. The phrenic of the left side. 









( 160 ) 

TABLE CXCVII. 

The Cardiac Nerves of the Left Side. 



A, The left portion of the £ 

B, The trachea. 

C, Part of the pharynx. 
I), The left portion of the s 



E, 






F, The left omo- _ 

G, The scalenus amicus. 

H, Part of the scalenus posticus. 
I, A section of the left clavicle. 
K, L, The right and left lungs. 
M, The heart drawn strongly over to 
N, Part of the plain surface of the li 



the right side. 



O, The left auricle suspended, that the coronary artery 

and nerves of that side may appear. 
I', The pulmonary sinus. 
<J, The pulmonary artery so twisted as to shew the left 

cardiac nerves. 
Tt, The beginning of the right branch of the pulmonary 

artery. 
S, The left branch of the pulmonary artery. 
T, The ductus arteriosus changed into ligament. 
U, The aorta. 

V, The common trunk of the right carotid and subcla- 
vian arteries. 
W, The left carotid. 

X, subclavian. 

V, The descending aorta. 

/., The esophagus. 

a. The inferior, and, 

h. The superior thyroid uneric-, \wili iln.ii- branches to 

the thyroid gland. 
r, The vertebral artery. 
</, The anterior cervical artery, arising from the thyroidea 

inferior. 
e, The posterior cervical artery. 
y, The internal mammary. 
£, The right axillary. 
A, The profunda scapula:. 
2", The pars vaga of ihe left side. 
X, The superjii -/«/ enrditu -brum -h of this nerve, and its 

anastomosis with the small deep cardiacs uf the great 

sympathetic, 
/, Another cardiac branch of this nerve, going parti) to 

the sympathetic nerve near the tennimnioii of the 



^former branch, and partly by two filaments to the left 
auricle. 
11, The left recurrent nerve, which at its beginning sends 
filaments thai mute with others from the para vaga, 
and follow the pulmonary vessels of that side. A little 
furl her on, two filaments are sent off to the great pul- 

1, The distribution of the recurrent nerve at tire left side 
of the trachea and thyroid gland. 

', A nerve from the pars vaga going behind the left 
branch of the pulmonary artery to the auricles. 

1, A nerve from one of those sent oft" at m, passing be- 
tween the two left pulmonary veins, to the anterior 
surface of the lungs. 

', The trunk of the pars vaga turning behind the left 
bronchus to the esophagus. 

•, The trunk of the left sympathetic nerve. 

, The continuation of the trunk, after receiving two 
branches from the second cervical nerve. 

, The ganglion ccrvicak medius. 

r, The third cervical nerve, sending branches to the 
middle cervical ganglion. 

-, Small nerves from the third and fourth cervicals to 
this ganglion. 

!', The ganglion ccrvicah ntf.nits, with nerves passing 
into it from the middle ganglion. 

, Branches of considerable size from several of the in- 
terior ceri icals and first dor-al, to the inferior cervical 

, Nervous fibrilte from the superior cervical ganglion, 
ith other., form, 



The left s 



nig v 



■rfina! l 



and the great cardiac 



:. A plexus of nerves from the midd 

to the inferior one and to the lirst 
embracing the subclavian artery. 
. The nervm cardiucus profundus n 



nor, arising by nu- 

,id lowest cervical 

ganglia, 



I 




TABLE CXCVII. CONTINUED. 



161 



ganglia, with a gangliform appearance at its inferior 
extremity, where it runs into the great deep cardiac 
plexus. 

5. The plexus cardiacus magnus profundus, arising from 
the concourse of the nrnw ol the opposite side. 

6. The gang/ion cardiacum. 

7. A plexus of nerves from the cardiacus profundus and 
cardiac ganglion, running between the aorta and pul- 
monary artery, to form tin- right coronary plexus. 

8. Nerves from the cardiacus minor of the right side, 
and farther down other nerves from the cardiacus pro- 
fundus of that side, passing over the aorta to join the 
plexus No. 7. 

9. A gangliform nerve from the great deep cardiac plexus, 
dividing into filaments which assist in funning both eo- 
rouary plexus. 

10. A fasciculus of nerves from the great deep cardiac 
plexus, running under the shrivelled ductus arteriosus, 
and forming, 

11. The nervu-s cardiacus magnus profundus of the left 



12. The division of the great cardiac nerve, at the back 
part of the pulmonary artery, into branches, which, 
meeting with others from the cardiac ganglion, form 
the left coronary plexus. 

13- Branches from the great cardiac nerve, running over 
the pulmonary artery to the right coronary plexus. 

11. Branches- running over the pulmonary artery, and 
going partly to the left coronary plexus, and partly 
with the pulmonary artery to the left lung. 

15. The left, or posterior coronary plexus, formed of 
branches fio: i the deep caidiac nerves of each ridcj 
which follow the branches of the left coronary to the 
anterior and posterior regions of the heart. 

16. The origin of nerves which follow a branch of tin- 
left coronary artery, seen in Tab. CXCVT. to tl;- 
fore-sidc of the heart. 

17. Minute brandies which form the gn at caidiac plexus-, 
which are sent off behind the pulmonary artery, and 
take a long cuuist im<m the pulmonary Him*. 

18. 19. The right and left phrenic nerves. 






C 162 ) 



TABLE CXCVIII. 



The Posterior Pulmonary Ple 



rs of the Pars Vaga of the Eighth Pair of Nerves, and the 
s of the Plain Surface of the Heart. 



C, The substance of the riglit lung di 

buck, to shew the bronchial vessels and nerves. 
TJ, The posterior surface of the trachea beset with many 

mucous glands. 
E, F, The right and left bronchi, the former dividing 

into branches. 
G, The plain surface of the heart. 
H, The trunk of the great coronary vein, with its 

branches. 
I, The vena cava inferior cut across. 
K, A membrane occupying the place of the foramen 

L, The valvals Eustacjjii, cribriform in the subject of 

M, The pulmonary sinus, 

jV, N, Two principal pulmonary veins of the right side. 

0, The pulmonary artery. 
P, The thoracic aorta. 

Q, The left subclavian artery. 

R, The trunk common to the right carotid and subcla- 

S, The esophagus. 

T, The first dorsal vertebra. 

U, The superior esophageal artery. 

V, The bronchialis dextra, with its branches upon the 

bronchi or that side. 
W, The coronaria dextra with its branches. 
X, A bianch of the coronaxia sinistra. 

1, Thenars vaga or ncrvus vagus of the riglit side. 



Z, The right recurrent nerve of the pars vaga. 

o, The rami ailtcaukntts el descendrntes from the pan 

vaga and the recurrent near the trachea, 
i, The plexus esophageus minor posterior of the pars vaga. 

From the Trunk of the Nerve other Branches are 
seen, going partly to the Trachea and partly to the 
Esophagus. 
r, f, Branches from the pars vaga and recurrent, which 
belong to the anterior pulmonary plexus. 

d, A fasciculus of nerves from the pars vaga, inserted 
into the beginning of the right bronchus. 

e, e, The plexus pulmonalis posterior of the pars vaga, 
formed of branches of various sizes, which go some 
before, others behind the bronchi, to be inserted into 
them. In their course they form some anastomoses 
with each other, and terminate with the aerial tubes. 

ftf,fi The pars vaga dividing into branches, which sur- 
round the esophagus. 

g, h, /, The plexus esonh^ciis m;, this of the pars vaga, 
composed of funiculi of the pars vaga of each side. 



this plexus likum ill 
of the esophagus. 
A, Two filaments of the 
the right coronary a 

/, A connection betweei 

c:irdiuc nk'\u% betvu 



3 the substance 



tery to the plain surface of the 

n between these and nerves from the great 

us, between the vena cava inferior and the 

From the nerves k and /, filaments are 

ich accompany branches of the right coro- 

upon the plain surface of the heart. 



Tab.i (j (j. 




C 163 ) 



TABLE CXCIX. 

A View of the Great Sympathetic and Eighth Fair of Nerves, in the Left Side of tin 
Body; the Luncs, Part of the Stomach, the Si-leek, and Pancreas, being turned over I. 
the Right Side. 



A, The seventh rib. 

B, The eleventh rib. 

C, The ninth dorsal vertebra. 

D, The twelfth dorsal vertebra. 

E, The second lumbar vertebra. 

F, The fifth lumbar vertebra. 

G, The first vertebra of the os sacrum. 
H, H, The left lung. 

I, The pericardium inclosing the heart. 

K, K, The esophagus. 

I.. The c rrdta 

M, M, The stomach. 

N, The pancreas. 

O, The spleen. 

P, The left kidney. 

Q, The ureter. 

K, The left bronchus. 

p, The lumbar part of the diaphragm. 

T, II, The left eras of the diaphragm. 

V, V, The psoas magnus split and separatee 



v of the lumbar pi. 
W, The psoas minor. 
X, The aorta. 
T, The left subclavian artery 

Z, carotid artery. 

a. The ligamentum arteriosus 
I fflie left superior bronchial 
c, The arteria esophagea, fron 



i,f tin; csopliagt.il arte, v, 



S-, s, s, The pancreatic branches from the -pi nic ami e 

1. I, I, The arteria: breves of the stomach. 
7/, The superior mesenteric alter). 

r, The left renal artery. 

a-, The inferior mesenteric artery, 
t/, The right iliac artery, 
z, The left iliac artery. 
1.1. The intercostal arteries. 

2. 2. 2. The third, fourth, and hull lumbar allelic,. 

3. The trunk of the eighth pair of nerves. 

4. The left recurrent nerve pawing round tilt ligamentum 
arteriosum and curvature of the aorta. 

5. The cardiac branches from the eighth pair. 

C. 6. &c. The esophageal nerves of the eighth pair. 
7. 7. The pulmonary branch.:, of the ci„hth pair. 

6. &c. S. A plexus of nerves of the eighth pair upon llir 

0. Blanches of the light , onion of th',' , i-hth pair. 

10. A trunk formed chiclly by the right portion of the 
eighth pair, passing to the posterior surface „t I he mo- 
inach, and giving branches to the celiac ganglion and 
liver. 

11. A trunk, formed hv llic branches of the eighth pair, 
running to the anterior part of the stomach, and to the 



12. The anterior or left trunk, pa, 

ID. The po "t, moo, right unnk, pa 

the diaphragm. 
14. 1 1. Branches of the right trunk dispersed up 



HlTS 

10. Tl 

17. A 

18. Apo 



c of tilt 



.ranch 



ih the csnpl n- 
evcise through 



stal 



ich to the muscles of the back. 

11". I!'. The trunk and ganglia of the great sympathetic 

between the intercostal and sympa- 

21. Brandies 



1G1 TABLE CXCIX. CONTINUED. 

21. Branches from the great sympathetic nerve to the 33.34. The, lumbar ganglia of the sympathetic crave. 
coafs af the ports. 35. Anastomoses o£ the last lumbar and Erst sacral gar- 

22. %%. 22. Branches from the ganglia of the great syra- glion of the sympathetic nerve, or the trunk of iU 
pathetic nerve, forming, sympathetic nerve divided.- 

23. The ramus splanehnicus. 3G. &C-40. The five lumbar nerves, with their diffc- 

24. Branches from the great sympathetic nerve to the rent joinings to each oilier in the formation of the torn* 
aorta and caliae ganglia. bar plexus of spinal nerves. 

c :t>. The neiviis spLuichnicus secundaria, arising from 41. &c. Ana>ioinos(s of the sympathetic with the lumbar 

the tenth thoracic ganglion. nerves. 

2G. A branch from the eleventh thoracic ganglion to the 42. A branch of the first lumbar nerve, which belong'? to 

cceliac ganglion. the upper and outer part of the thigh. 

2/. Branches from the ramus splanehnicus to the dia- 43- The nervus spermatic ns tAli-rim*, which goes partly 

phragm. with the ligamentum rotuudum to the uterus, and part- 

28. Branches of the rainu.H ^vlanchriicus passing through Iv through the abdominal ring to the mons veneris. 

the diaphragm. 44. Two branches from the second lumbar nerve, the 

20. tic. The ca-liac ganglia, from which plexuses of upper belonging to the qnadratus iumboruiu, the other 

nerves are sent oil", which accompany the branches of to the skin of the groin. 

the cceliac and superior mesenteric arteries to the plate 45. A branch from the second lumbar to the outside of 

of their destination. the thigh and kuee. 

30. Joinings of the eighth pair with the cceliac ganglia. 46. A branch of the crural nerve to the internal iliac 

31. Branches from the splenic plexus to the pancreas, muscle. 

32. Aortic plexus of nciu'j :uui pndia, proceeding from 47. The obturator nerve. 

the cccUac ganglia. 48. The anterior crural nerve. 



( 16.1 ) 



NERVES OE THE CHi'LOrOIETIC AND ASSISTANT CIIYLOPOIETIC VISCERA 



The Nerves of the Chylopoietic and Assistant Chy- 
lopoietic Viscera are formed by I'rttnrhv of the Par 
I aguni, and by the Jfami \ji/iui<!;/iic/' of the Gnat Sym- 
pathetic Pair; all which, like (he Blood-vessels, are 
covered by the Peritoneum, in their course towards the 
Viscera. 

The Pars Vaga of the Left Side, Tab. CXCIX. 
Tab. CXCV1II. descending from the Great Esophageal 
Plexus of the Eighth Pair, ci-c-i [is along die fore part of 
the tardia, detaches Filaments to the Left Hepatic 
Plexus, and divides into many Ei-aiiclics, which are dis- 
tributed to the upper and Left Portion of the Stomach. 

The Right Pars Vaga passes upon the posterior 
part of the Canlia, ami splits into two Fasciculi ; one of 
which goes to the root of the Hepatic Plexus, and to the 
Ca-liac Ganglion, while the other, which is the principal 
one, is dispersed by numerous Branches upon the under 
and Left Portion of the Stomach. 

The Nerves of the two Fasciculi have- several connec- 
tions with each other, about the Cardia, and along the 
small Curvature of the Stomach, and form a Plexus, by 
some Authors termed Coronary, from which Branches 
extend along the small Curvature, as far as the Pylorus. 

The Ramus Sflanchnicus, and Splanchnicus Se- 
cundaria, Tab. CXCIX. Tab. CCII. have their ori- 
gins from the Sympathetic, and perforate the upper and 
lateral part of the inferior Muscle of the Diaphragm, — 
as already mentioned in the Description of the Nerves of 
the Thorax. 

After entering the Abdomen, they expand their Fibres, 
and incorporate with the lateral part of the Great Semi- 
lunar Ganglion. 

The Semilunar Ganglion, Tab. CC. </, d> d, is 
formed by the Rami Splanchnici of the Right and Left 
Svm pathetic*, i\ itii the addition of the Branches of the 
Eighth Pair. 

It is of a long curved shape, with the convex edge 
undermost, and is composed of many smaller Ganglia, 
termed Cceliac, which are of different sizes and of irre- 

* The Celiac Ganglia are placed over the Aorta, 
about the roots of the Catiac and Superior Mesenteric 
Arteries, and extend some yay upon the Fleshy Pillars 
■j l ilic Diaphragm. * 

From tlie Cosliac Ganglia innumerable Nerves issue 
on all sides, forming a Plexus, termed bj some Authors 



Solar, which extends along the Trunks and Braaclies ol 
the Cadiac and Superior Mtscntciic Arteries. 

The Nerves upon these Arteries are so intermixed with 
each other, and with Cellular Substance, as to form con- 
fused Webs ; the name of Plextu, however, is still retain- 
ed, and the particular name of each Plexus is derived 
from the Artery which it surround:-), or the Viscus to 
which it belongs. 

The Hepatic Plexus, Tab. CCI. after giving Twigs 
to the Renal Clauds, -ends Filaments to tlie Diaphragm, 
which accompany the Diaplii -agm-.n ic Arteries, and anas- 
tomose with Brandies of the Phrenic Nerves. 

It afterwards divides into Right and Left Plexuses, 
corresponding with tlie Right and Left Branches of the 
Hepatic Artery, or with the Right and Left Trunks, 
when such are present. 

The Left Hepatic Plexus iurrmlics -veral Branches 
to the Stomach, which intermix with those of tlie Eighth 
Pair, upon the small Curvature. 

The Right Hepatic Plexus imparts Branches to the 
corresponding parts of the Pancit-as, to the small end of 
the Stomach and beginning of the Duodenum, and gives 
origin to the Right Gaslro- Epiploic Plexus, which aitemf.- 
the Artery of the same name, distributing its Filaments 
to the Great Curvature of the Stomach, and to the Omen- 
tum Majus. 

The Hepatic Plexuses surround the Hepatic Arten 
and Vena Portae, and, after sending several Filaments 
to the Biliary Ducts and Gall- Bladder, follow the Branch- 
es of the Blood-vessels through the Substance of the Lit cr. 

The Splenic Plexus, Tab. CXCIX. composed of 
several small Filaments, surrounds the Splenic Artery, 
gives Twigs lo the Pancreas, and then accompanies the 
Vessels into the Splet 






The Superior Mesenteric Plexus, Tab. CC. for 
a Vagina, which surrounds, and in a great part 
tin Trunk of the corresponding Artery. 

From this Plexus, numberless Eilamuits, many oi il.ua 
extremely minute, are produced, which urn ihioiigh tlm 
Mesentcrv, partly with the Rloed-vessels, and partly at: 
a distance from them; and which, alter supplying li.< ; 
Coats of the Vessels and Me-cnteric Glands, aie distri- 
buted to the small Intestines in general, and to the Right 
Portion of the Colon. 

The Nerves of the Colon are, in pioportion to U.c part 
ihe. have to supply, larger than those of tlie email Intea- 



166 OF THE NERVES OF THE CHYLOPOIETIC, Sec. [Part VII. 

tines, and in several places form Arches, which are situa- Artery, and follows it to the Left Portion of the Colon 

ted at the sides of the Arteries. and to the Rectum ; — the Nervous Filaments forming 

The Cceliac Ganglia send down, along the Aorta, a Arches in several places, as in the Superior Mesenteric 

Vagina similar to that surrounding the Superior Meseu- Plexus. Tab. CXCIX. Tab. CC. 

teric Artery, which is joined by other Nerves from the The Aortic Plexus, receiving fresh supplies from the 

Trunk of the Sympathetic continued along the Lumbar Trunks of the Sympathetics, sends down a Plexus, com- 

Vertebrae. monly termed Hypogastric, which passes over the end of 

From the Aortic Vagina or Plexus, Tab. CC. a Pro- the Aorta, and, upon the last Lumbar Vertebra, spliti 



'HlB. <>P0. 





( 167 ) 



TABLE CC. 

Shews the Principal Nerves which supply the Viscera of the Abdomen ; their Ganglia, 
the frequent Connections which the Nerves, in this place, have with each other. 



A, The inferior surface of the right lobe of the liver 

B, The vena cava inferior. 

C, A vein of the liver terminating in the cava. 

D, Part of the diaphragm. 

Drf, A cut made in the diaphragm, to shew the passage 
of nerves through it. 

E, The right diaphragmatic artery. 

F, The left coronary artery. 

G, A right hepatic artery. 
II, The splenic artery. 
I, The superior mesenteric. 
K, The right renal artery. 
L, The artery of the right renal gland. 
M, M, The abdominal aorta. 
N, A right superior spermatic artery. 

O, — inferior spermatic artery. 

P, A left spermatic artery. 

Q, The inferior mesenteric artery. 

R, The ascending branch of that artery. 

S, S, S, Branches of that artery to the colon. 

T, A branch to the rectum. 

I', U, IT, The lumbar arteries. 

V. l.iii',ircatiou of the aorta. 

W, \V, The first and last lumbar vertebra:, 

X, The first piece of the os sacrum. 

T, T, The common iliac arteries. 

Z, Z, The external iliac arteries. 

a, a, The internal iliac arteries. 



d, d y d y d. The right part of the great semilunar ganglion., 
or cluster of ganglia, formed, chiefly by the branches 
of the great splanchnic nerve, 
of the renal glands. 



Ne 



/,/, Biaphragmati 
G, The hepatic pi 
H, The splenic pi 
J, The superior in 
K, The anterior renal pi 
g. Part of the poster 



i the semilunar ganglio 



arteries. 

js of the right side. 

Upon the fore part of the Aorta, a Plexus is formed by 

Branches of the right and left parts of the Sympathetic 

iNerves, and numerous Ganglia ait likewise observed 

here. 

N, O, P, The spermatic nerves. 

Q, T, The inferior me-enteric plexus parsing along the 
blood-vessels and meso-colon to the left part of the co- 
lon and to the rectum. 

h, A, h, The hypogastric ple.\us passing down to the pelvic. 

i, The trunk, of the great sympathetic nerve. 

At, Branches passing between (lie great sympathetic nerve 
and last dorsal one. 

t, I, The trunk of the great sympathetic nerve continued 
along (he side of the lumbar vertebra*. 

»(, The second, and, 

n, The fifth lumbar ganglia of the great sympathetic nerve. 

From the inner side of the Great Sympathetic Nerve, 






or J I ck 

a.— 1 ht 



b. The trunk of the 



( 168 ) 



TABLE CCI. 

Represents the Nerves of the Liver, and part of the Nerves of the Stomach, Spleen, Pa; 
creas, and Omentum. 



A, B, The right, and, 

C, C, The left lobe of the liver, turned up. 

B r D, The lobulus quadratus. 

1*1, The lobulus Spigelii, vel posterior. 

F, The gall-bladder. 

G, The cystic duct. 
H, The hepatic duct. 

I, The common biliary duet. 

K, The round, and, 

L, L, The broad ligament of the liver. 

M, The pancreas. 

N, N, The upper surface of the stomach turned down. 

O, The cardia. 

P, The pylorus. 

Q, Q, The duodenum. 

B, B, The omentum majus. 

i* y A portion of the omentum minus. 

T, T, Part of the diaphragm. 

U, The esophageal sphincter of the diaphragm. 

V, The inferior cava. 

W, The vena port*. 

X, The right hepatic artery. 

Y, Y, The right gastro-epiploic artery. 

Z, The left gastro-epiploic artery. 

ff, The pyloric artery. 

i, The cystic artery. 

c, The trunk, common to a left hepatic, and the superior 
coronary artery of the stomach. 

d, The left hepatic artery, 

t, The cardiac !.r..in ii,:imi bduw that a stomachic branch 
from the left hepatic artery. 



g. The splenic artery. 

A, A pancreatic branch from the splcnj 

«, », The coeliac ganglia. 



From the Cosli 
Nerves representet] 
neral following the 
letters of reference 



mad 



iglia the numerous Plesus of 
Table issue, and these in ge- 

the Blood-vessels, the same 

tu -.i.TYi- for both. 

the 



V, W, X, The right hepatic plexus giving 

right lobe of the liver, the biliary ducts, aud gall- 
bladder. 

Y, Y, The gastro-epiploic plexus, furnishing branches tc 
the great curvature of the stomach, and to the omen. 



, supplying the left lobe of the 
plexus, furnishing nerves to 



d, The left hepatic pie: 



which is proper 
I The splenic pie: 



/. I.Jf;nK:ltcs of the gastri 
of the stomach. 

utiles from (lie right hepatic plcxi 



,ch, and to the beginning of the 



TLiB. 201 . 




( 169 ) 



NERVES OF THE ORGANS OF URINE AND GENERATION. 



Spermatic and Piuiic Branches. Nerve, which running near the Spermatic Vessels, de- 

The Renal Plexus, Tab. CCJI. No. 42 — 44. is taches a Filament, which, in the Male, goes in the Sper- 

composed of Nerves sent from the Ccxliac Ganglia, joined matic Cord towards the Testicle, but is more particularly 

by some others derived from one or two of the Ganglia dispersed upon the Cremastcr. In the Female, Filaments 

of the Sympathetic Nerve in the bottom of the Thorax. are reflected from it along the Ligaincntum Rotundum to 

It is interspersed, at its beginning, with small Ganglia, the Uterus, 

termed Renal, and is afterwards divided into Anterior Nervi Pudici, Tab. CCII. No. 23. Tab. CCIII. 

and Posterior Plexuses, which extend along the corre- No. 3. Tab. CCIV. Fig. 1. No. 14. Fig. 3. G.— The 

sponding Surfaces of the Renal Artery, accompanying the Nervi Pudici arise in two Fasciculi, — a Superior and 

Branches of that Vessel in the Substance of the Kidney. Inferior, — which are formed by Fibrillar from all the 

From the Renal Plexus, Small Nervous Twigs ascend Cords entering into the composition of the Sciatic Nerve, 

to the Renal Gland, which is furnished with others from The Superior Fasciculus consists, more particularly, 

the Cceh'ac Ganglia and root of the Hepatic Plexus. of Threads from the two under Lumbar and two upper 

The Renal Plexus also sends down Filaments to sup- Sacral Nerves ; — the Inferior is composed of a small 

ply the upper portion of the Ureter, — the under receiving Cord from the Second, and a large one from the Third 

Nerves from the Hypogastric Plexus. Sacral. 

The Hypogastric Plexus, Tab. CC. A, A, A. Tab. The Fasciculi pass through the under part of the Notch 

CCH. No, 22. the origin and course of which have been of the Os Ilium, and afterwards go between the Sacro-Scia- 

already mentioned, is connected by different Nerves to tic Ligaments, and follow the Fudic Blood-vessels, anas- 

the adjacent Trunks of the Great Sympathetic and Sa- tomosing in some places with each other by oblique Fi- 

cral Nerves, and sends many Branches to the Rectum, laments. 

Bladder, and Spermatic Vessels in the Male ; and to the They send many Branches to the Muscles and other 

Rectum, Bladder, Uterus, and Vagina in the Female. — parts about the Anus and Perinoeum, and then pass for- 

The Nerves of the Uterus are proportionally small.— wards to supply the different parts of the Penis. 

They pass into its Substance at the Cervix Uteri, and On the Penis, the Nerves follow the course of the 

follow the course of the Blood-vessels. Arteries ; the Superior Fasciculus constituting the Ner- 

Spebmatic Nerves, Tab. CC. N, O, P.— The Sper- vus Dorsalis, and the Inferior giving Branches to the 

matic Nerves are very minute ; they consist of a Supe- under part of the Organ. 

rior or Internal, and of an Inferior or External Set of The Nervtis Dorsalis, which is the most considerable 
Capillary Branches. Nerve of the Penis, runs forwards between the corre- 
late former, Tab. CCII. No. 45. are derived from the sponding Artery and the Vena Magna, expanding into many 
Renal and Aortic Plexuses, and accompany the Spermatic Branches, which, after supplying the Corpus Caverno- 
Blood-vessels in their course through the Abdomen, and sum and Teguments of the corresponding side, terminate 
afterwards in their descent to the Testicle. in the Substance of the Glans. 



( 170 ) 

TABLE CC1I. 

Exhibits the Great Sympathetic Nerve of the Right Side, from the Sixth Rib to the Third 
Vertebra of the Os Sacrum, and likewise the Six Inferior Intercostals, with the Lumbar 
and Sacral Nerves. — The Right Os Innominatum is removed, that the Viscera of the Pel* 
vis and their Nerves may be more distinctly seen. 



A, A, The seven inferior ribs. 

E, B, The seven interior dorsal vertebra. 

C, C, The lumbar vertebra. 

D, D, The transverse processes or the lumbar vertebrae, 

E, The upper part of thi 



F, The side which was joined by the < 

G, The upper part of the os coccygis. 
H, The internal sacro-sciatic ligament. 
I, The cartilage of the left os pubis. 
K, The inferior lobe of the right lung. 






wr, *«, The intercostal arteries. 

w, «, The lumbar arteries. 

c, The renal artery. 

p, p, The superior and inferior spermatic 

g t The common iliac artery of the right side. 



, The c 



s, The internal iliac artery. 

/, The trunk, common to the ileo-1 urn baits and glutea. 
«, The trunk common to, 
L, Part of the posterior mediastinum. 'M •■ ■ ■< ■ ., ..,.■:, 

M, M, The thoracic duct drawn a little out of its natural u>, The pudenda communis. 

, The trunk of the phrenic nerve. 
, i/ t Branches of the phrenic nerve dispersed upon the 
diaphragm. 



N, The pericardium, including the heart. 

O, The vena cava inferior, passing through the diapliragm 
into the thorax. 

P, P, The diaphragm separated from the ribs, and turn- 
ed to the left side. 

Q, The external cms of the diaphragm. 

K, The middle cms. 

S, The inner cms. 

T, The right kidney turned to the left side. 

U, The ureter. 

V, Its termination in, 

W, The bladder of urine. 

X, X, The intestinum rectum. 

Y, Part of the sigmoid flexure of the colon. 

Z, Z, The levator ani. 



intercostal 
1,1. Branches from the iutercosta 

2. 2. Branches connecting the intercostal 



the muscles of the 



, The l 






4, A, The vagina. 

c, The ligamentum rotuudum. 

rf, The Fallopian tube. 



/, The corpu 
g,g, Theint 
A, *, The va 



and erector ilitmiilis 
turned back. 
ai:>cd and turned toward 



t lumbar and last dorsal 

. 5. Posterior branches to the muscles of the loins. 

'■. The lirst lumbar nerve connected to the second by the 
intervention of a ganglion. 



9. A subcutaneous branch < f the groin. 

\V. The external spermatic nerve, going partly with the 

liganieutum rotundum to the uterus, and prily with 

the same ligament to the pubis 



(he left 12. B« 



13. The nervna t 

1 1. A gluteal D ei 

the deep muscl 



t the fust and second him- 
1'the loins and abdomen. 
uulis muscle. 



T^LB. 




TABLE CCII. CONTINUED. 



ll>. The cutaneous branch of the crural nerve. 
]?. 18. 19. The three uppermost sacral nerves. 
'.'II. The fourth sacral nerve. 

21. The fifth sacral nerve sending branches to the coccy- 
geus muscle, and to the sacro-scialic ligament, &c. 

22. 22. 22. The hypogastric plexus of sacral nerves dis- 
persed upou the contents of the pelvis in general. 

23. A plexus from the sacral nerves to the anus, peri- 
neum, and e\lrni;il juris of generation. 

24. A d 



to the rotator muscles of the thigh. 

lo the large gluteus muscle and integuments. 
trunk, or plexus, as it is called, of the 



25. A 

2C. A branch 

27. Branches 

28. 29. The 



30. The larger portion of the sciatic nerve. 

31. The smaller portion of the sciatic nerve. 

32. &c. The trunk and ganglia of the great sympathel 



Each of the Intercostal, Lumbar, and Sacral Nerves, 
is connected with the Ganglia of' the Great Sympathetic 
Nerve, by one, two, or more Branches. 



tcbra and 

34. 35. 36. The beginnings of the ramua splaochnicus 
from the great sympathetic nerve. 

37. The continuation of the ramus splanclmicus. 

38. The passage of the branches of the nimns splancli- 
nicus, between the external and middle crura of the 
diaphragm, into the abdomen. 

39. Branches from the great sympathetic nerve into the 
abdomen. 

40. 40. 40. Branches to the aorta. 

41. The ramus sphu 



12. The t 
43. 



nk of iIil- - 



i p,„, 









re, and the renal, spermatic, and infe- 
coimecting them togethe 



( 172 ) 

TABLE CCIII. 

Views of the Nerves, &c. of the Inner and Lateral Part of the Pelvis, and of the Penis, 



A Lateral View of the Muscles* Blood-Vessels, and 
Nerves of the Inner and Left Side of the Pelvis ; 
— the Might Side being removed. 



£, The spermatic vessels, w 

/, The internal circumflex vein of the ob ilium. 



end of the vas de- 



The trunk commt 
lie sacra lateralis. 

tically, the latter r, The vena pudica, communicating with other branches 



B, The cartilago-ligamentous substance, which forms the 
symphysis of the ossa pubis. 

C, C, The right corpus cavernosum penis and bulb of the 
urethra, the former of which is cut transversely. 

D, The gluteus maximus. 

E, The coccygeus muscle covering part of the sacro- 

F, F, The pyriformis. 

G; H, The obturator intcruus. 
h, The left common iliac artery. 
/', The external iliac artery. 

c, The epigastric artery, with its associate vein. 

d, The internal iliac artery. 

da, The root of the umbilical artery. 
«, The obturator artery. 
/, The gluteal artery. 
gig* Thepudic artery. 

ei, gc, Cut branches which belong to the bladder, rec- 
tum, and adjacent parts. 

gd, The continuation of the pudic- artery, in its way to 
the penis. 

ge, The division of the pudic artery, nesx the root of 

gf, The arteria doisalis penis. 
gh, perinei. 

gi, A blanch of tlic pudic aiia_\ entering the bulb of the 

urethra, 
h, A section of the common iliac vein. 
i. The external iliac vein. 



iKhlM 



i pu- 



ie brandies to the 
joined above by the 



dica and obturatoria, which last is also joined 
branch to the epigastriea. 

1. The obturator nerve, 
muscle of that name. 

2. 2. The four upper sacral 
last lumbar nerves. 

3. 3. The pudic nerve sending branches to the obturator 
muscle, and muscles of the anus, and afterwards ex- 
tending along the upper and under sides of the penis. 

FIG. 2. 



A, The anus. 

E, B, The under side of the penis. 

C, C, The large glutei muscle. 

D, D, The sphincter ani. 

E, E, The levatores ani. 

F, F, The erectors penis covering its crura. 
(i, G, Tlic transversales perinei. 

II, H, The accelerators minx, covering the bulb of the 



u'i tliva 
The i>. 



i„-p 



niic artery. 



( 173 ) 

TABLE CCIV. 

Gives a View of the Situation of the Viscera, and of some of the Vessels and Neuves of the 
Pelvis. 



Represents the Inner Side of the Left Portion of the 
Pelvis ;— the Bight Os Innominatum, and part of 
the Os Sacrum, being removed. 

A, A, A section of the os sacrum. 

B, A section of the symphysis of the pubes. 

C, C, The ligamentum obturatorium. 

D, The internal, and, 

E, The external sacro-sciatic ligament. 

F, The pyriform muscle. 

G, The psoas magnus. 
H, The erector penis. 

, The inferior part of the great sympathetic n 
' a the sacral nei 



3. A trunk formed by the two inferior lumbar nerves. 

4. The first sacral nerve. 

5. The second sacral nerve. 

6. A branch from the second sacra!, which joins the pu- 
dicuerve. J * 

?. The third sacral. 

8. A branch from the lumbar nerves to the glutei muscles. 

9. c, The coutinuaiion of the trunk of the sciatic nerve. 

10. The fourth sacral nerve. 

11. The fifth sacral nerve. 

12. The under end of the great sympathetic nerve. 

13. The inguinal nerve. 

14. The pudic nerve passing out between the sacro-scia- 



i the parts about the 



15. Branches of the pud 

16. The nervus dorsalis penis. 

17. A branch of the pudic nerve undivided into two 
others, the- inferior of w\\l< It is tin- perineal nerve, and 
the superior the nervus puditus inferior. 

FIG. 2. 
The Viscera of the Pelvis, seen from the Fight Side, 

the greater pari 'of the High! Os Ilium lici/ig removed. 
A, A, A section of the os ilium, near the articulation 
with the os sacrum. 



B, A section of the symphysis of the pubes. 

C, C, The sigmoid flexure of the colon. 

D, The anus. 

E, The sphincter ani. 

F, The bladder of urine, empty and collapsed. 

G, The right ureter. V 



L, The membranous part of the urethr: 

M, The bulb of the urethra. 

N, A section of the right corpus c 

O, P,/», A section of the penis.— O, P, Th< 

cavernosa, with their elastic ligamentous covering* s 
partition ;—p t The urethra inclosed in its corpus spi 



; , The pyrifoi 
X, The gluteus maximna. 
U, The point of the os coccygis. 
V, The muscnlus coccygeus, with the rec 
W, The gluteus maximus of the left side 

b, The left musculus pvrainidalis. 

c, The ligamentum suspensorium penis, 
rf, The peritoneum continued from the 1 

to the inner side of the ;ibdominal must 



ntl Part* ubuuttlu Pli, 



C, Fib 



; of the 



aud with the ,p!,inci. 
B, The bulb of the tin 

E, E, The erector peni 
each aide, the forme 

F, The hemorrhoid;.! ; 

G, A branch of thenc 
the sphincter vesica 



Tendinous dri 


ira of the Diaphragm 


and the 


[•-, 


It afterwar 


is descends into the . 


1'elvi,, i, 


earl 




the superior parts of 


the Bod 




over the anted 


or Surface of the Os 






side of the Great Sacral Foramina. 






Towards tin 


; lower part of the Pi 


Jvis, it I 





( H4 ) 



NERVES OF THE LOINS, PELVIS, AND INFERIOR EXTREMITY. 

TifE Nerves of the Loins, Pelvis, and Inferior Ex- The Second Lumbar perforates the Psoas, to which 

(remit/, consist of the continuation or iulinor portion of it gives Branches, and afterwards runs into the Third, 

the Sympathetic, and of the Trunks and Branches of the From the Second Lumbar, and partly also from the 

Lumbar and Sacral Nerves. First, the Spermatic us Externus is sent off, which pert'o- 

The Sympathetic Nerve, Tab. CXCIX. No. 19. rates the upper end of the Psoas, and descends near the 

Tab. CCII. No. 32. after reaching the Abdomen, makes Spermatic Vessels to the under part of the Abdomen, 

a sweep forwards first upon the lateral, and then upon Near Poupart's Ligament, and sometimes much higher, 

the anterior part of the Lumbar Vertebrae, between the it splits into two Branches. In the Male, one of these 

'soas. Branches goes through the Abdominal Ring?, to be dis- 

»rly of the perscd upon the Pubes, Spermatic Cord, Scrotum, and 

md passes Testis. In the Female, this Branch sends Filaments 

the inner along the Round Ligament to the Uterus ; the remaining 
part going through the Abdominal Rings to the Mons 

»mes con- Veneris and Labia Externa, 

siderably smaller, and at last finishes its course upon the The other Branch passes out with the Femoral Vessels, 

Surface of the Os Coccygis, where it uuites into an Arch and sends Branches to the Inguinal Glands, and to the 

with its Fellow on the opposite side. Integuments of the fore part of the Thigh. 

In the Loins, it forms Ganglia similar to those in the Another Branch is sent from the Second, or from the 
Thorax, each of which is connected behind by two or Second and Third Lumbars, termed Cutaneus Externus, 
three long slender Branches to the roots of the Lumbar which passes behind the Psoas, and across the Diacus In- 
Nerves, and before, by other slender Nerves, to the Aortic ternus, to the S ti peri or-anterior Spinous Process of the 
Plexus. Os Ilium. It afterwards bends over the outer end of 
In the Pelvis also it forms Ganglia, whichare connect- Poupart's Ligament, and descends in the Anterior and 
ed to the Sacral Nerves on one side, and to its fellow External Part of the Thigh ; dividing into Branches, 
on the other, by cross Branches. which are chiefly dispersed upon the Integuments cover- 
Filaments are sent off, in the Pelvis, from the Sym- ing the Vastus Externus ; some Twigs extending as far as 
pathetic, to the Muscles aud Membranes about the Os the Joint of the Knee. 

Coccygis, and to the Intestinum Rectum. Branches of the Second, Third, and Fourth Lum- 
bars, form a Nerve of considerable size, called Obturator 

Lumbar Nerves. or Sub-pubifil, which passes between the External and In- 

The Five Lumbar Nerves, Tab. CXCIX. No. 36. ternal Iliac Blood-vessels, and .ilongtbe side of the Pelvis. 

—40. Tab. CCII. Lmmediat. ly after emerging from be- The Obturator Nerve, Tab. CXCLX. No. 47. 

Uveen the Bones, communicate with each other. The v are Tab. CCII. No. 13. accompanies the Blood-vessels of 

also connected with the Sympathetic Nerve by Branches the same name through the upper part of the Obturator 

which run over the sides of the Yertebrx, and send large Muscles and Ligament, and having furnished Branches to 

Branches backwards to the Muntcs aud Integuments on the Obturators aud Pcctineus, it divides into an Anterior 

the posterior part of the Loins. and a Posterior Fasciculus; the former dispersed upon 

By their connections with each other, they compose the two small Adductors and Gracilis, the latter upon the 

•a Plexus termed Lumbar, which is situated behind the Adductor Magnus Femoris. 

Psoas. This Plexus sends Brandies outwards to the The principal parts of the Trunks of the four upper 

Quadratus Lumborum, nnd to the Flexors of the Tliigh. Lumbar Nerves, especially of the Third and Fourth, 

The First LuMflAit Nlkve is connected by a small unite and form a Nerve of great size, termed Crural or 

Branch to the Twelfth Dorsal, and by its Trunk lo the Anterior Femoral. 

Second Lumbar. The Crural Nerve, Tab. CXCIX. No. 48. after 

After giving Twigs to the Muscles of the Loins, it de- bestowing Branches upon the Iliacus Intern us and Psoas, 

laches a principal Branch, which passes over the Quadra- passes behind, then at the outside of the Psoas, to get to 

Uis Lumborum toward the Spine of the Os Ilium, where the Thigh. 

it sends Branches to the Integuments of the Pelvis, to the In its course from the Abdomen, and at the upper part 

upper and outer part of the Thigh, to the under end of of the Thigh, it is situated at the outside of the Femoral 



Part VII.] NERVES OF THE LOINS, PELVIS, AND INFERIOR EXTREMITY. 



Branches, which are distributed to the Muscles and In- 
teguments on the lore and lateral parts of the Thigh,— 
one Branch in particular, termed Saphtcnus, descending 
upon the Leg. 

The Branches are as follow : 

The Cutanea Medina, Tab. CCV. Fig. 1. m. which 
descends in the fore part of the Thigh, opposite to the 
-'_ edge of the Rectus, and supplies the Integuments 
one Branch of it connecting 



s far as the Knee,— 
Isclf » illi another of the Cul 
The Cutaneus Anterior, Tab. CCVI. Fig. 1. 



the 

adjacent Integuments, terminates in the Skin, and Cellu- 
lar Substance, at the fore and inner part of the Knee : 

The Cutaneus Internum Tab. CCVI. o. Tab. CCV. 
p, q, r, still more internal than the former, which passes 
between the Sartorius and Triceps, and after giving Fi- 
laments to the Integuments at the inside of the Thigh, 
terminates in the Skin, at the under and fore part of the 
Knee. 

The Deep Branches of the Crural Nerve, which are 
considerably larger than the Superficial, go to the Pec- 
tineus and Triceps, to the Sartorius and Gracilis, and to 
the four Extensors of the Leg, and also furnish Twigs to 
the Femoral Blood-vessels. 

The Nervus Saphtenus, Tab. CCVI. Fig. I. r, Tab. 
CCV1I. descends between the Sartorius and Triceps, and 
afterwards behind the Tendon of the former, to the inner 
side of the Tibia, 

Under the Knee it gives off a Branch, named by Fis- 
cher Saphtenus Minor, Tab. CCVI. Fig. 1. y, which 
goes down a little behind the Saphamus, and, furnishing 
Filaments to the Integuments of the inner and back part 
nf the Leg, terminates behind the Malleolus Internes, on 
the Integuments of the Foot. 

The Trunk of the Saphamus attends the Vena Sa- 
phana Major, sending many Nervous Threads oblique- 
ly forwards to the Internments on the inner and fore part 
of the Leg, and is at length consumed upon the Skin 
and Cellular Substance of the upper and inner part of the 
Foot. 



Sacral Nerves. 

The Sacral Nerves consist of small Posterior, and 
large Anterior Trunks. 'Jab. CCII. CCI1I. CCIV. 

The Posterior Sacral Nerves pass out by the Holes 
in the back part of the Os Sacrum, and arc at first con- 
cealed by the Ligamentous and Tendinous Expansion 
winch covers that Bone. 

After their exit from the Sacral Foramina, they anas- 
tomose with each other, and with some of the Branches of 
ihc Gluteal Nerves. 



They send out a few tender Fibrilke, which are dis- 
persed upon the Muscles cou-ring the back part of the 
Os Sacrum, and upon the Glutei ,md their Integuments. 

Anterior Sacral Nerves, Tab. CCII. CCUJ* 
CCIV. Of the Anterior Sa< iaK, the two uppermost are 
the largest; the rest suddenly diminish in size, the last 
being the smallest oi the Spinal Nerves. 

They go through the Holes in the fore part of the 
Os Sacrum, and, soon after their exit, arc united with 
each other, and with Branches of the Sympathetic Nerve. 

The First, Second, and Third Sacrals, join into 
a Trunk, which receives the common one sent down 
from the Fourth and Fifth Lumbars, and forms a Plexus 
which sends out the Sciatic, the largest Nerve of the 
Body. 

The roots of the Sciatic Nerve give origin to the Fas- 
ciculi which compose the Pudic Nerve, formerly descri- 
bed, and also the Gluteal Nerves which are dispersed up- 
on the Muscles of the Hips. 

The Gluteal Nerves, Tab. CCH. run in two Fas- 
ciculi, a Superior, arising immediately from the Trunk 
formed by the two last Lumbars, and an Inferior, coming 
off from the two last Lumbars and first Sacral. 

The Superior Fasciculus goes through the upper part 
of the Notch of the Os Ilium, to be dispersed upon the 
two smaller Glutei Muscles. 

The Inferior Ftixeicu/ns parses through the under part 
of the same Notch, and below the Piriformis, tobedistii- 
buted upon the Gluteus Maxim us and Integuments. 

The Fourth Sacral scuds Filaments to the Hypogas- 
tric Plexus, others to the Muscles aod Ligaments of the 
Os Coccygis ; the rest pas, outwards to the- Muscles and 
Integuments about the Anus. 

The Fifth, which is scarcely above the size of a Fi- 
lament, passes forwards between the extremity of the 
Os Sacrum and the beginning of the Oo Coc< ygis. After 
giving Twigs to the Coccvgeus, it peif'oiatc:. the Sacro- 
Sciatic Ligaments, and terminates in the Muscles and 
lutcguments of the Anus. 

Sciatic Nerve, Tab. CCVII. Fig. 2. 4.— The Scia- 
tic or Ischiatic Nerve passes obliquely through the Notch 
of the Ilium, under the Pyriformis. It goes afterward* 
over the other short Rotator Muscles, and is placed be- 
tween the Tuber Ischii and Trochanter Major, where it 
is covered by the Gluteus Maximus. 

After leaving the Pelvis, it descends in the back part 
of the Thigh, first between the long Flexors and Ad- 
ductor Magnus, and then between the latter and Os Fe- 
moris, to the Ham, where it obtains the name of Pop/i- 
teus. 

In this course, it gives out the following Blanche*, 
which supply the Muscles and Integuments on the back 
part of the Thigh, viz. 

Twigs to the Rotators of the Thigh, which come off 
from it alter its passage through the Sciatic Notch : 

The Cutaneus Superior Posterior, Tab. CCVI. 
Fig. 2. 4. which arises within the Pelvis, and, passing 



NERVES OF THE LOINS, PELVIS, AND INFERIOR EXTREMITY. [Part VII. 



ITS 

out (villi the Sciatic, is divided into Brunches, some of 
which are reflected to the Scrotum in the Male, and to 
the posterior parts of the Labia in the Female ; and in 
both, to the Skin about the Anus and Perinceum. — The 
principal Branched of this Nerve pass downwards, supply- 
ing the Integuments of the back part of the Thigh, as far 



Thigh, and vanishes in the Skin, a little farther do* 
the other, termed Cutaneus Internus Inferior, which 
arises near the former, goes down the posterior part of 
the Thigh, and then, descending upon the inner Head of 
the Gastrocnemius Externus, terminates in the Integu- 
ments of the Calf of the Leg : 

A Large Common Trunk, and sometimes, instead of 
it, separate Branches, which arise near the middle of the 
Thigh, and are distributed to the Adductor Magnus, Semi- 
membranosus, Biceps, and Semi-tendinosus. 

Nervus Popliteus, Tab. CCVII. Fig. 2.— The Po- 
pliteal Nerve is situated between the Ham-strings, and 
between the Skin and Popliteal Blood-vessels. 

A little above the bending of the Knee, it is divided 
into a Small External, and a Large Internal Branch ; the 
former named Popliteus Externus, or Fibular, and the 
latter Popliteus Internus, or Tibial Nerve. 

The Tibial and Fibular Nerves adhere, for some way, 
by Cellular Substance ; and even the Trunk of the Scia- 
tic may be split into these two Nerves for a considerable 
way up the Thigh. 

The Fibular, Tab. CCVII. Fig. 2. n, termed also 
Peroneal Nerve, sends off, at its beginning, the Cu- 
taneus Externus, winch is a small Branch giving Twigs 
inder end of the Biceps, and which, after running 
\, disappears 



tnd after anastomosing with a Branch of 
the Tibialis, goes along the outer part of the Leg, and 
terminates in the Integuments of that side of the Foot. 

The Fibular Nerve afterwards passes over the Head 
of the Fibula, and divides into Superficial and Deep 
Branches, which supply the Muscles aud Integuments of 
the outer and fore part of the Leg. 

The Superficial Fibular crosses over the Fibula, im- 
mediately under its articulation, aud, perforating the Pe- 
roneus Longus, and going over the Brcvis, it gives Branch- 
es to both, and afterwards becomes Subcutaneous, about 
the middle of the outer part of the Leg. 

It sends Branches to the Metatarsus, and to the Ex- 
tensor Digitorum Brevis j and others, which, after anas- 
tomosing upon the upper part of the Foot, furnish Dorsal 
Branches to the larger Toes. 



The Deep Fibular Nerve crosses over the Fibula, im- 
mediately above the former, and divides into several 

A Reflected Branch to the soft parts of the Joint : 

A Branch to the Peroneus Longus : 

A Branch to the Tibialis Anticus ; 

Branches to the Extensor Pollicis, and Extensor Di- 
gitorum Longus : 

Filaments which creep along the Periosteum of the 
Tibia, and others which adhere to the Coals of the Tibial 

The longest Branch of the Nerve accompanies tlie An- 
terior Tibial Artery, and divides upon the Foot into 
Branches, which have some connections with each other, 
and supply the Extensor Digitorum Brevis Some Fi- 
laments continued from these Branches run to the In- 
terossei, while others of more considerable size go to some 
of the innermost Toes ; one Twig sinking with a Branch 
of the Anterior Tibial Artery, to the Deep Muscles of 
the Sole. 

The Tibial Nerve, Tab. CCVII. Fig. 2. passes be- 
tween the Heads of the Gastrocnemius, and, perforating 
the origin of the Soleus, descends between it and the Flex- 
or Digitorum Longus, upon the Posterior Tibial Artery, 
to the under part of the Leg ; in which course, it sends 
off the following Nerves, viz. 

The Communicant Tibia, Tab. CCVI. Fig. 2. r, 
which accompanies the Vena Saphana Minor in the back 
part of the Leg, and to the outer part of the Foot. 

Behind the Belly of the Gastrocnemius, the Commn- 
nicans sends a Branch to be consumed in the Fat ; and a 
little lower, it anastomoses with the communicating Branch 
of the Fibular Nerve. 

The under part of this Nerve is dispersed upon the 
Integuments of the outer Ankle and adjacent side of the 
Foot, some Branches passing as far as the Dorsal side of 
two or three of the smaller Toes : 

Branches to both Heads of the Gastrocnemius, to tie 
Plant aris, and to the Soleus. 

Near the middle of the Leg, it sends Branches to the 
Tibialis Posticus, to the Flexor Digitorum, and Flexor 
Pollicis. 

One or two Cutaneous Branches, dispersed upon the 
Skin at the under and inner part of the Leg : 

Near the Ankle, a Branch which passes behind the 
Tendo Achillis, principally to the Integuments of the 
outer and back part of the Foot. 

The Tibial Nerve passes afterwards between the Ar- 
teries aud Os Calcis iuto the Sole. 

In the hollow of the Os Calcis, after detaching Branch- 
es to the parts adjacent, it divides into Internal and Ex- 
ternal Plantar Naves, which are nearly of equal size. 
Tab. CCVII. Fig. 3. 

The Internal Plantar Nerve runs near the inner 
side of the Sole, sends Filaments to the Abductor Pollicis, 



-«* 



Part VII.] NERVES OF THE LOINS, PELVIS, AND INFERIOR EXTREMITY. 177 

Flexor Digitoruni Brevis, and Flexor Digitoruni Accesso- and Fifth Toes, and outer side of tlic Little Toe ; the 

rius, and Twigs to the Luinbricales. inner one often anastomosing with a corresponding Branch 

It afterwards gives out four large Branches, splitting of the Internal Plantar, 

into others, which run with the Arteries along the Plan- The third forms an Arch corresponding with that ol 

tar sides of the three first Toes, and inner side of the the External Plantar Artery, furnishes Branches to the 

Fourth Toe, — in the manner the Radial Nerve runs along short Muscles of the Little Toe, to the luterossei, Lum- 

the corresponding Fingers. bricales, and Traosversalis mid terminates in the short. 

The External Plantar Nebve sends Branches to Muscles of the Great Toe. 
the Heel, and passes with the Artery of the same name The Plantar Digital Nerves send Filaments to the In- 
to near the outer edge of the Sole, where it splits into teguments, and upon the Tots unasinimise with each other 
three principal Branches. and with the Dorsal-Digital Nerve, — as the Palmar-Di- 

The two first run to the adjacent sides of the Fourth gitnl Nerves do in the Hand. 



C us ) 

TABLE CCV. 

Represents the Cutaneous and Subcutaneous Nerves of the Left Inferior Extremity 



FIG. 3. 

tit. '/dcs .Mime Nerves and Muscles situated in the Pel- 
vis, this Figure represents the .interior Cutaneous 
and Subcutaneous Nerves, and some Elood-Ves- 
sels of the Inferior Extremity, as they are seen 
itjum the Fascia ! ; ta, after the Skin is turned aside, 
and the Fat carefully removed. 

A, The iljacus interims. 

B, The psoas magnus. 

D, The quadrat us lumborom, 

P., The Fallopian ligament. 

P, F, F, F, The skin turned back. 

G, The patella. 

H, The symphysis of the ossa pubis. 

I, The crest of the os ilium. 

(7, A branch of the first lumbar nerve. 

A, second lumbar nerve. 

c. Anastomosis with a twig of the first lumbar nerve. 

(7, A twig of the second lumbar nerve to the groin. 

e, The external cutaneous nerve, which is a branch of 

the lumbar. 
/, Tlit posterior branch of the external cutaneous nerve, 

going to the posterior part of the thigh. 
g, g. The anterior branch of the (-xicnial cutaneous nerve, 

to the anterior and external part of the thigh. 

'sing from the fourth 



i', The largest branch of the nervus saphamus, vel nervus 
saphanus minor. — Immediately below i>, it forms a gan- 
glion, from which various small branches are sent off. 



Thigh and Leg. 
A, The gluteus magnus. 






C, C, The gastrocuemii, covered by the fascia lata. 

D, D, D, D, The skin turned aside. 

E, The os pubis and its synchondrosis. 

rt, Small branches of the first lumbar nerve. 
A, A small branch of the second lumbar nerve. 

c, The posterior branch of the external c 

d, A branch of the second posterior sacral t 
gluteus magnus. 

e, A branch of the third posterior sacral nerv 

f, fourth posterior sacral ner 

g, fifth posterior sacral nervt 

fcrior anil hurt pai I of I lit gluteus nmimn 



iu An a. 

din, ai 

<,, The t 



s betw 



i branch of the < 



of the ii inal ni 

p, The second branch of tlie internal . 

<;, A small branch of the third branch of the internal 

cutaneous nerve, dividing into twigs which terminate 

in the fat, fijamci^, tuul skin, iu the inner part of the 

thigh. 
r, The fifth bi ami) of ilie internal cuUmtous nerve, the 

twigs of which pass over the li 



?, The third lateral branch of tfir superior p 

taneous nerve, perforating the fascia lata. 
A, The second lateral branch of the super! 



/, The superior internal Cmun 

vi, The first lateral branch of the superior posterior late- 



-l.u 



i the fat around the knee. 



), The external c 

i, The inferior internal i 
the back of the gastroc 

sending off various twigs. 



y:\ji <.":7. ii 





. ?. TAk uos. 






TABLE CCVI. 



and some of the Muscular Nerves of the Inferior Extremity 



FIG. 1. 

Represents the Nerves on the Anterior Part of the Left 
Inferior Extremity, with some Blood-Vessels 
and First Layer of Muscles situated behind the In- 
teguments and Tendinous Sheaths; and particu- 
larly the Descent and Distribution of the Branches 
of the Crural or Large Femoral Nerve. The 
Auterious Branches which go to the Muscles are 
left in situ, but the Cutaneous Branches are remov- 
ed) to obtain a more accurate View of the other Parts. 



A, The iliacus extern 


us muscle. 






B, 


The psoas magnus 








c. 


parvus. 








D, 


The margin or cr< 


st of the c 


■ ilium 




F, 


The musculus sari 








F, 


The tensor of the 


fascia lata 


or vagina femoris. 


G, 


The vastus extern 








H, The rectus cruris 


muscle. 






I, 


A ligament arising 


from the patella. 


and insert! 



tin: tibia 



3 muscle. 



K, The 

L, The pectineus. 

M, The gracilis. 

N, The sartorius. 

O, The biceps cruris. 

P, The peroneus longus: 

Q, The soleus. 

R, The gemelli, or musculus 

S, The extensor longus digit! 

third perooeus muscle. 
T, The tibialis anticus. 
a, A branch of the first lumbar nerve, 
i, ... second lumbar nerve, 

c, Anastomosis of a twig of (lie second with a twig of the 



, The root of the crural nen 


<; arising from the second 


and third lumbar nerve. 




, The root of the crural uei 


ve arisiug from the fourth 


lumbar nerve. 




, The trunk of the crural ner 




■, The division of the crural r 


ierve into branches. 


, The middle cutaneous nerve, 




I, The anterior cutaneous ner 


ve ; — its branches are seen 


as far down as the inner side 


of the patella. 


, The long nerve of the sarto 


liua muscle, descending on 


the inner side of the muscle, 


mh\ pn if ceding somewhat 



anteriorly, 
o, The internal c 
p, The fifth branch of the internal c 

fo rating the saitoriiiM inn-ele mar the tendon. 
q, The division of the nervus sanhamus into saphainus 

r, The nervus Baphenma. 

s, The continuation of the saphamus minor. 

FIG. 2. 

Shews some of the Nerves, Blood-Vessels, and First 
Layer of Muscles, of the Back Part of the same 
Inferior Extremity, the Skin being removed, and 
the Tendinous Vagina- turned aside. 



first lumbar n 

d, A twig of the second lumbar n 
uniting sii as to form no insula. 

rf2. The external cutaneous nerve 

e, The posterior branch of the ext 
f The anterior branch of that nei 



separating and re- K, The 



■riy called Tendo 



TABLE CCVI. CONTINUED. 



, The posterior branch of the external 

rf2. Fig. I. 
r , A branch of the second posterior sacr: 
_ third posterior sacral 

' t ■ i. ■ -— - fourth posterior sacra 

, ^— -^— — ——- fifth posterior sacral 

the under and inner part of the gluteus 



l the fourth la- 
teral branch of the same nerve. 
-, A continuation of the small branch i, of the second 
lumbar nerve, perforating the fascia lata.— Between i 
and k is seen the second lateral branch of the posterior- 



m, The first lateral branch of the posterior-superi 

h, «, The external cutaneous nerve. 

o, The fifth branch of the internal c 

p, Branches of the inferior internal c 

minatiog in the skin and back of the internal gastroc- 
nemius muscle. 

q, The nervus tibialis. 

■s, ' supra-malleolaris. 

t, peroneus. 

v. The deep truncated branch of the peroneal nerve. 
v, The communicating branch of the peroneue, and pos- 



ZLljB '-'v 




( ]S1 ) 

TABLE CCVII. 

The Muscular Nf.rves of the Imfehioh F,xtiu:i* 



An Anterior View of the Second and Third Series 

Nerves, f'em-k, and Masck-s of the Left Infer 
Kvtnmih/, with the principal Branches of the Nen 
Obturatorius, eel Femoralis Minor. 



L» parvus. 

D, The quadratus lumbonmi cut off. 

E, The anterior and lateral part of the gluteus roedius 

F, The greater part of the gluteus minor. 

G, The inusculus ciuralis. 
H, The vastus externus. 
J, , internus. 

K, The tendon of the rectus cruris inserted into the i 
tella. ' 

Xi, The pectinens. 

M, The adductor loDgus femoris dissected, to obtain 
more distinct view of the nervus obturatorius. 

N, The gracilis, 

O, O, The add- 

P, The biceps < 

Q, The tendon 

R, The peroneus longus. 

S, brevis. 

T, Part of the fibula. 

tF, The tibialis posticus. 

V, The tibia. 

W, The soleus. 

X, The anterior tibial artery. 

a, A branch of the first lumbar nerve. 

i, ■ - second lumbar nerve. 

c, An anastomosis with a twig of the first lui 



ctor magnus femoris. 
of the gracilis musck j 



in till 


: infer! 


oi re-ion of il,< ki„i. 


p , Small brnncliCH of a laine Luin ni' llic 


ihe n, 


srvusi 


aphainu,. 


i, A co 




ion of tip ncm» sapku,,,,. 


', Tin- 


nervus 


saphaauissi-cundus, veluiin 


1, A CO 


,,„„„:, 


ion of the nervus saphienus 



d. 


Thf i.-Mi rnal cutaneous uen 


7e. 




The posterior branch of the external cu 


t> 


The root ot the cniral uerv 
and third lumbal* nerves. 


e ansmg fro 


& 


The root of the crural ner 


ve arising fi 


A, 


The crural, or large anterk 


ir femoral nc: 




The division of the trunk ii 


ito branches. 


*, 


Branches to the vastus exte 





The Posterior 


S„,1,H 


e of the sawe In'.ro 


«■ ;:,,'■.,,. 


— The Firs, 


• /.„<„■ 


r of Muscles, lac At 




Ligamentous 


1 Pari! 


; with the Cutaneous 


and Silcutu- 


mom Keren 




Insectcd or turned hu 


ci;— and the 


Second and 


''Thud 


Order of Muscles, 


J'essels, and 


Series, with 


Me da 


cento/ IlieCnatJ,, 


HaticorJPds- 


teriof Fenioi 


■a! Ne: 


re along the Thigh, i 


ire shewn. 


A, B, The gluteus rj 


axiinus vcl esternus, 


cut off from 


the upper p 




ils adhesion, and tor 


ncd aside, in 


order that tl, 


e desec 


nt of the ischiatic norve from the 


pelvis, and 


the ori 


gin and distribution 


of the nervi 


glutei, may 1 


>e more 


distinctly seen. 




C, The glutens 








D, The vastus 








E, The obtuiat 








F, The biceps . 








G, H, The sem 


,- In 


iosus : G, its head ct 


it off; H, its 


tendon cut off. — Contiguous to G is the 


long head of 



bird I, The nitisculus semi-membranoaus. 
K, The adductor magnus femoris. 
L, The gracibs. 

M, M, The external and internal heads of the gemelli. 
IS. Their tendon, railed Tendo AcHILLIS. 

O, Tb* 






182 

O, The musculua popliteus 
P, The flexor longus digit< 

B, The musculus peroiieus longus. 

T, The tibialis posticus. 
P, The arteria cruralis. 
V, The arteria tibialis postica. 

a. The posterior-sui 
of the cavity of the pelvis. 

b, The iscbiatic, or posterior femoral nerve 
of the cavity of the pelvis. 

t , The lateral branches of the poslcrior-s: 

of the posterior-supcri 



TABLE. CCVII. CONTINUED. 



/, A nervous branch, arising from the ischiatic nerve, 
which descends to the short head of the biceps muscle, 



a, The u 



5 pL-roneus. 



- profundus. 
//, The nervus tibialis. 

q, The smalt branch of the nerve common t- 
oopUteus, and gastrocnemius muscles, 
ammunicans tibialis. 
a of the arteria tibialis postic 
/, The end of the trunk of the tibial nerve. 



,'iv 



«, A branch of the ischi 

small branches and twij 

A, The superior internal 



s branch of the iscliia- 



-, A trunk for the nerve of the adductor magnus muscle 
of the thigh, for the nerve of the semi-mem brauos us, 
biceps, and semi-tendinosus muscles, which are fre- 
quently found to have a separate origin, but which here 
go off and are distributed from a common nerve. 



between two branches of the plant hi- 



b, The external plantar artery. 

e. The arch of the external plantar artery. 

rf, The internal plantar artery. 



NAMES OF THE AUTHORS FROM WHOM THE TABLES IN THIS WORK 
HAVE BEEN TAKEN. 



VOLUME I. 



Fig. 1. Sue, — 2. 3. from Nature. 

From Nature. 

Fig. 1 . from Nature, — 2. 3. 6. Blumenbaeh, 

— 4. 5. from the collection of Dr Monro 

junior. 
Fig. 1. 2. 4. 5. 6. Blumenbaeh, — 3. from 

the collection of Dr Monro junior. 
Fig. 1.3. Sandifort^—2. from Nature,— 

4. 5. Camper. 
Fig. I.e. from Nature,— 3. 4. from Sue. 

Fig. 1. to 8. Sue,— 9. 10. from Nature. 



Sue. 

Soeinmerring. 

Fig. 1. 2. Allniii'^ — .'-. Xcsbei, — 4. Gag/i- 

ardi, — 5. from Nature,— 6. Havers, — 7. 

8. 10. Cheselden, — it. Ruyseh. 
Cheselden, excepting Fig. It. Mn/prjiu'it--. 



CAcu-ltlm, e\<c]ii.]i].n Fig. 1. 2. 6. from Na- 
ture, — Fig. 1G. from Buysch. 

Fig. 1. Weitbrecht,— 3, 14. 16. Nature,— 
the rest from Cheselden. 

Fig. I. 2. 6. 7. 8. II. 12. Loder,-3. from 
Nature,— 4. 5. Walter,— 9. 10. 13. Al- 

Fig. 2. 3. 4. 9. 10. II. 12. Sue,— 8. 13. 
Cheselden, — 1. 5. 6. 7. from Nature. 



Albinus. 
Albums. 

Fig. 1. Bidloo,~2. to 7. Buyseh,—H. Cow- 
per, — 9. 10. Albinus. 

Fig. I. Albinus, — '.'. ./,. I at, — .'!. Morgag- 
m\ — 4. Ruysch,— 5. to 8. Eustachian,— 
9. Coteper. 

Albinus. 

Albinus. 

A I hi mm. 

Albinus. 

Fig. 1. Albinus,— 1. from Nature,— 3. Eu- 
stachius. 

Alhitiw, excepting Fig. 3. 4. from Coteper. 

Albinus. 

Albinus. 

Fig. 1. principally from Albinus, — 2. Hol- 
ler, — 3. to ti. Albinus, — 9. from Nature. 

Fig. 1. 2. 3. from Nature, — 4. 6. 7. Cow-. 
per,— 5. Coteper, with additions from Na- 
ture, — 8. Eustaehius, — 9. Albinus, — 10. 
from Nature. 
Albinus. 



Weitbrecht, except 
Weitbrecht, except 
Weitbrecht, excepti 



ing 13. 14, Monro. 
iug ?. Monro. 
ng 13. Monro. 



C IS* ) 



VOLUME II. 



Fig. 1. 2. 5. 12. Loder,— 3. 4. 6. 13. Na- 
ture, — 7. to 11. Albums. 

Fig. 1. 3. 6. 8. 13. 14. Loder,— 2. 7. 11. 
12. Nature,— 4. Haaee,—5. A/binus,— 

9. Ludwig,— 10. Lcdermttller,— 15. 16. 

Vic d'Az>/r. 

From Nature. 

From Nature. 

Vic d'Azyr. 

Vic D'Azyr. 

Vic D'Azyr, and Nature. 

Vic D'Azyr. 

Gall. 

Monro. 

Monro. 

Fiora Nature, for Dr Monro. 

The Parisian Artists, with additions. 

Vic D'Azyr, and Nature. 

Fig. I. Nature,— 2. 3. 4. Ruysch,— 5. 6. 7. 

Eustachius,—S. 11. Ridley, — ~ "' 

LieuUurf,— 12. 13. 11. ZiW/rr. 
Fig. 1. Ridley,— %. 3. 5. Drake,- 

10. 11. 13. 17. Ruysch,— 7. Paljin,-S. 

9. 12. 14. 15. 16. 18. to 23. Eustai htta, 

24. Nature. 
Fig. 1. to 6. Zinn, — 7. Monro,— 8. Mor- 

gagni, — 9. Lieutaud. 
Fig. 1. to 8. Ha/let,— 9. Meyers,— 10. 11. 

12. Albinus,— 13. to 16. Zinn. 
Fig. 2. 4. 14. from Nature, for Dr Monro, 

—3. 5. 6. Loder,— 7. Zim>,—X. 9. Reil, 

10. 12. WrK6erg,— 11. 13. Walter,— 1. 

15. to 18. Soemmerring. 
Soemmerring. 
Soemmerring. 
Fig. 1. 2. 5. Valsalva,— 3. 4. 9. 10. ^Ai- 

nus,—6. 7. 8. II. 12. Diwerney. 
Fig. 1. to 6. Vuhah-a,—7. 8.9. CottmmUB, 

10. to 14. Scajyn. 

Fig. 2. Loder,— 3. Ruysch,— 1. to 14. £'«.?. 

sebohm,— I. 15. to 23. Albimis,—24:. u 

27. from Nature. 
Fig. 1. to 6. from Nature, for Dr Monro,— 

7. Cotunnius. 
Fig. 1. 2. 34. 35. raWwi,— 3. 4. 7. aut 
"" nd33. Duverney,— 5. £/»Ae. 



79EB. 

79C. 

79D. 



wimtf. Ger/».-8. 27. 
./. Hunter,— Blake,— Fox, 
Blake, — Fax, — and Nature 
Blake,— Fox,— and Nature 



;;■:. (a 



,b.l:-U 



\ .Yum. 



Fig. 1. Cheselden,— 2. Part of a Figure from 
Holier,— 3.4. 6. Nature,_5. 8. 9. Jlfor- 
g<7g»i', — 7. Weitbrecht. 

Fig. 1. to 4. 11. 13. 14. 15. Eustachius,—5. 

to 10. 12. Omper,— 16. to 19. Morgag. 

ni,—20. Loder. 
Senac. 

From Nature. 
From Nature. 
Fig. 1. Eustachius, with some alterations, 

—2. 4. CAtsetafff,— 3. Monro. 
From Nature. 
Sandifort. 
Sandifort. 
From Nature. 
Halkr. 
Aitken. 
Fig. 1. 2. 19. Eustachius,— 3. 6. 7. 8. 14. 

15. Ruysch,— 4. 5. 12. JUem. <fe I'Acad. 

fife, a Partit,— 9. 18. 20. Heister,— 10. 

11.21. Nature,— 13. Cteselden,— 16. 17. 

Fig. 1. Cheselden,— %. Aitken. 

Fig. 1. Bidloo,—3. Nature,— 2. 5. 12. 
Ruysck,— 4. 9. 10. 11. Eustachius,— 6. 
Heister, — 7. -De Groa/;— 8. Cheselden, 
13. ie Dran,— 14. 15. 16. Parsons,— 
17. C'owper. 

Ludwig. 

Ludwig. 

From Nature. 

From Nature. 

Fig. 1. 2. 3. 4. 6. from Nature, — 5. Cooper. 

Fig. 1. Ruysck,— 2. 3. 8. 10. Z)e Graaf,— 
4. 5. 7. EustachiuSi—6. Monro,— 9. 12. 
13. Cheselden, — 11. Morgagni. 

Monro. 

Smellie. 

Fig. 1. 2. Nature,— 3. Cheselden. 

Ruysch. 

Holier. 

From Nature. 

Smellie, with additions from Nature. 

Fig. 1.2. Cheselden,— 3. From the collec- 
tion of Mr Burns of Glasgow. 

Fig. 1.6. Parawf,— 2.7.toH.16.17.18. 
Ruysch,— 3. Morgagni,—\. 5. Be Graaf, 
— 15. Heister. 

Smellie. 

Soemmerring. 



Hunter, 
Hunter. 
Hunter. 
Hunter. 
Hunter. 
■If bin its. 



( IBS ) 



Wrisherg. 

Fig. 1. 2. BUloo,— 3. to 11. Treat,— 12. 

Morgagni, — 13. 14. Ephemerid. Germ. 
From Nature. 
From Nature. 
From Nature. 
Fig. 1. Cheselden,— 2. Haller,— 3. Ckacl- 

dcn, — 4. From Nature, — 5. Camper, — 

6. J. Hunter, 
Fig. 1. 2. J. Hunter,— j. 4. 5. Camper. 



VOLUME III. 



Haller. 

Vic D'Azi/r. 

Holler. 

Haller. 

Haller. 

Halter. 

Haller. 

Haller. 

Walter. 

Haller. 

Haller. 

Haller. 

Haller. 

From Nature. 

Haller. 

Haller. 

Haller. 

Haller. 

Haller. 

Haller. 

Haller. 

Haller. 

Haller. 

Holler. 

Holler. 

Haller. 

Haller. 

Holler. 

Haller. 

Haller. 

Haller. 

Haller. 

Meyers. 

Heusou. 



Presented by Dr Monro, for whom the en. 
graviugs were originally executed, from 
Preparations still it 



Hewsou. 

Cruickshank. 

From Nature. 

Soemmerring. 

Fig. 1 . From Nature, — 2. Monro, — 3. 4. 

J. Hunter. 
Scarpa. 
Haller. 
Meckel. 
Meckel. 

Scarpa. 
Holler, 
yeubauer. 
Camper. 

Scarpa. 

Waller. 
Waller. 
Walter. 
Walter. 
Camper. 

Fischer. 
Fischer. 
Fischer. 



GLOSSARY. 



4 BDOMEN, (abdcre, to hide), the lower v. 
-^*- belly, containing or hidiug the intestines, &i 
ACANTHA, (>«<«>, to sharpen), 



used for 



ihr 



ACETABULUM, (acefum, vinegar), the socket for 
the head of the thigh-bone, resembling an ancient 

\CLNI, (acinus, a grape), the internal structure of se- 
veral glands. 

VCROMION, (« s »(, the extremity, and ay**, the 
shoulder), a process of the scapula. 

YDENOLOGY, (A-, a gland, and Aoy«, a discourse), 
the doctrine of the glands. 

ADNATA, (adnascor, to grow to), the external coat of 



i lie e 



ALLANTOIC, (rtM,, a 
braue which receives 
the fceta! quadruped. 



gut, and iiSoj, shape), 



! from the bladder in 
VLVEOLI, (alveusi a conduit-pipe), the sockets for 



the 

AMNIOS, {*'fwt, blood, ttff'«», a vessel used by the an- 
cients to receive the blond in sacrifices, ««vo;, a lamb's 
skin), the soft nicmbrant: immediately surrounding 
the fetus. 

AMPHY ARTHROSIS, (*f^, both, and » ? Vs arti- 
culation), an articulation admitting of an obscure 



ANASTOMOSIS, («.», through, i 

the communication of vessels w 

ANATOMY, (««, through, : 



. mouth), 



bydis 



that kuowledge of a 



ANCON, the elbow, (from *«r«g»p*i, to embrace), be- 
cause the bones, being there united, are folded one 
into another. Hence also, 

ANCONEUS, a muscle situated there, and, 
UVCONOID, a process of the cubit, from nyjuj., the 
elbow, and n3o;, shape. 

ANGIOLOGT, («yynw, a vessel, and >..y as , a discourse), 
a description of the vessels. 

ANTAGONIST, («.«, against, and *-/*., a struggle), 
an epithet vi :t muscle acting contrary to another. 

■VNTIHELIX, («.ti, against, and t.**, to turn about), 



thumb. 
ANTITRAGUS, (atm, against, and T { *y««r, a goat), a 

prominence of the ear opposite to the tragus. 
ANUS, (a contraction of Attmdw, a little ring), the 

extremity of the rectum, so called from its , irc.uW 

AORTA, («.{«), a vessel), the great artery of the heart. 
APONEUROSIS, («=r., from, and - 1U( «, a nerve), a 

tendinous expansion, supposed by the ancients to be 

that of a nerve. 
APOPHYSIS, (dJTspi™, to spring from), the process of a 

boue, and a part of the same bone. EPIPHYSIS, 

a process attached to a bone, and not a part of the 

ARACHNOIDES, (* e « K ««, a spider, and ufc, likeness), 
. a cobweb-bke membrane, one of the coats of the 

brain and eye. 
ARTERIA, O;, air, and **(•«, to keep), because the 

ancients thought that only air was contained in the 

ARTHRODIA, («?*£«, a joint), that part of articula- 
tion which is shallow. 

ARYTENOIDES, (•*•«!»*, an ewer, and «.3«, shape), 
two cartilages of the larynx. 

ASPERA ARTERIA, (asper, rough, and artei-ia, an 
air-vessel), the trachea or wind-pipe. 

ASTRAGALUS, (*^«y«A«, a die), a bone of the tar- 
sus resembling an ancient die. 

ATLAS, (*>■***■, to sustain), the first of the cervical 
vertebra;, so named from siipporiing the head. 



"!»]"■' 



Horld. 



BASILICA, f> r .A< U{ , a king), an epithet, by 1 

RRACHU'M* (fl(»x«» short), because, in genera 
the shoulder to the hand is shorter than from I 
to the foot. 

BREGMA, (fi W *, to moisten), the opening of th 



GLOSSARY. IS? 

in the course of the sagittal suture, found in the the sella Turcica of the sphenoid bone, so called 

„„™..%f » ew - b '"'" children. from their resemblance to a couch. 

BRONCHIA, (fl !TC .,, the throat), the ramifications of CLITORIS, («»,,», to conceal), a part of the female 

*i le ,* r „ ea ' pudendum concealed hv i In labia maiora. 

BUCCINATOR, (a trumpeter), a muscle of the check, COCCYX, (,.«»S, a c„rk„„), the lower end of the 

much used by trumpeters. spina dorsi, so called bom it. it- blame to the 

BUBSALOGY, (B,,„, a purse, and toys, a discourse), beak of that bird. 

a description of Che bursa, mucosa;. CCELIACA, (».,».., the bellv), the name of an artery 
in die abdomen. 

C COLON, (««»«, hollow), the fat of Ihe large intestines. 
CONDYLE, (»■>»«, a joint, a knuckle, a knot), an 
CAIXANEUM, (calx, the heel), a name of the os eminence in sevsral of tie jointe. 

calcis. CONGLORATI', (n,„-hlmta^ eatlanal together in a 
CA1VARIA, or CALVA, (calirns, bald), the upper circle), a gland subsisting by itself, like those of 

part of the cranium, which linns first bald. the absorbent system. 

CANCELLI, (lettice-work), the reticular substance iu CONGLOMI'llAi'T.,(.e,iie/™r,niii..,heapcd together), 

bones. a gland composed of vai ions glands. 

CAPILLARY VESSELS, (capitlus, a little hair), the CORACO, names compounded with this word belong lo 

small ramifications of die arteries. muscles which are attached to the coracoid process 

CAPUT GALLINAGINIS, (a wood-cock's head), a of the scapula. 

little eminence at the termination of the seminal CORACOID, (..{■?, a crow, and uS.i, resemblance), 

vessels in the penis. like the beak of a crow. 

CARDIA, (««;3«, the heart), the superior opening of CORONARY, (corona, a crown), vessels so called Tram 

the stomach, so called tioin bc-inc, -incited near the surrounding the parts like a crown. 

heart. CORONOID, («.;»»., a crow, and i.S.,, shape), a pro- 
CAROTID, (««(.», to induce sleep), arteries of the cess shaped lik. a e raw's beak. 

head and neck, which if tied, the animal becomes CORPUS CALLOSUM, (corpjis, a body, and callus, 

comatose, or are said to cause the appearance of be- hard), part of the medullary substance of the brain, 

ing asleep. supposed to be firmer than the rest. 

CARPUS, (.«{*.,-), the wrist. CORTICALIK SUBSTANTIA, (colter, hark), the 
CARTILAGE, a matter softer than bone, but harder cortical substance of the brain. 

than ligament. COST^E, (custodio, to guard), the ribs, because they 
CEPHALIC VEIN, (*ip«*i, the head), the ancients guard the heart, &c. 

being accustomed to open this vein in disorders of COTYLOID, (mtiAs, au old measure, and eS.s, shape), 

the head. the cavity for receiving the head of the thigh-bone. 

CJERATOGLOSSUS, (*!(«!, a horn, and yA.rra, a resembling the rotuli. 

tongue), a muscle running from one of the coruua CRANIUM, (*£*»„, the skull, quasi xi;«,i«, from *i 5 «, 

of *t os hyoides to the tongue. the head). 

CEREBELLUM, dim. of CEREBRUM, the brain, CREMASTER, („j-«*», to suspend), a muscle so cat:- 

(■«*, the head.) ed, because it suspends the testicle. 

CERVIX, die hinder part of the neck, the fore part CRIBRIFORM, (cribruai, a sieve), perforated like a 

being called COLLIUI. sieve. 

CHIRUHGERY, (;;»;, die hand, and . w .>, work), the CRICOID, (■-;■•-•■■ ■' ring, and '-•'. -hape), annular. 

profession of a surgeon. CRISTA GALLI, a portion of Ihe ethmoid bone, so 
CHOLEDOCHUS DUCTUS, (/,.»,, bile, and « W «i, called Irani its resemblance to ., cock loinh. 



CHORION, Os«>, domiciliuni), the i 



f LINOID, (*>uwi, a bed, and u3«, shape), pros 



nbia 



t IIOTOI'IIITE, (* e .r«?.s, the temple), die temporal 

muscle. 
CRURA, (. 

CUBITUS, 



CUBOIDES, f»»p.i. a 
thefoot resembling 

CUCULLARIS, (ciKVllus. 
muscle of th 



r), applied lo 


some parts, from 


^AhftpMto 


f the arm from the 


line upnn it. 
cube, and ,.».s. 


shape), a bone of 


; a cube. 
,ula,'so called 1 


>r hood), the first 
CUNEIFORM, 



GLOSSARY. 



( OTIS) the skin. 
CYSTICUS DUCTUS, (**«,, 
duct), the duct leading from 



DIASTOLE, (S.*™aa«, to send through), the dilata- 
tion of lilt- heart, auricles, and arteries, opposed to 
SYSTOLE, (he rmHraciimi of the same parts. 

DIAHTHROSIS, (3,*^*., to articulate), a moveable 
connection of bones. 

DIGASTRIC, (?-;, twice, and y«m e , a belly), having 

DIPLOE, (2iita«i, to double), the spongy substance be- 
tween the two tables of the skull. 

DODECADACTYLON, (3^.*», twelve, and 2**™/*, 
fingers), a name of the 

DUODENUM, [dindi-m*, consisting of twelve, viz 
inches), the first portion of the small intestinea, so 
called from its general length. 

DURA MATER, (rfwnw, hard, and mater, a mother), 
the outermost membrane of the brain ; the ancients 
finding it harder than, ami supposing it to give ori- 
gin to, the other membranes of the body. 



EMBRYO, (W!**, to sprout out), the child in the 
womb before I lit- fourth month, after which it is 
called fatas. 

EMELGENTS, (emvlgo, to milk out), the arteries and 

s of the kidney?, -.<> called because, according 
re, milk- 



EPIDIDYMIS, (<*■<, upon, and fclip*, twins, the tes- 
ticles), the small oblong body which lies above the 

EPIGASTRIC, («,, upon, and ywm e , the belly), the 

superior part of the abdomen. 

EPIGLOTTIS, (m, upon, and yA*™, the tongue), one 
of the live cartilages of the larynx, situated upon 
the glottis. 

EPIPHIPPIUM, 0», upon, and .**.,, a horse), part 
of the os sphenoides, so called from its resemblance 
to a saddle. 

EPIPHYSIS, («n, upon, and q>u», to grow), see APO- 
PHYSIS. 

EPIPLOON, («ri, upon, and «ftw, to sail), the omen- 
tum, or that membranous viseus of the abdomen 
which covers the intestines, and hangs from the 
bottom of the stomach. 

EPISTROPHEUS, (nmrrcifw, to turn about), the 
second cervical vertebra-, — the head is turned upon 



its, th.. 
ed the serum through the kidney: 
EMUNCTORES, (rmungt 



irding to the ancients, received the ex- 
us matter from the noble parts, as the 
parotids from the brain, the axillary gland:, from 
the heart, aud nifumai gland., from the liver. 
EN ARTHROSIS, («, in, and *&», a joint), an arti- 
culation of hones, the same as Arthrosis. 
ENCEPHALON, (tyif.**), the brain. 
ENTERIC, (.m e „, an intestine), belonging to the in- 

IPIDERMIS, («r,, upon, and >*•«, the skin), the 

scarf-skin. 



hat is swallowed into the stomach. 
ETHMOID, (.^.f, a sieve), so called because it ; 



FALCIFORM. (>/r, a scythe), shaped Hke a scythe. 
FASCIA, 0-r4, a bundle), an expansion of a muscle, 

inclosing others like a baud. 
FAECES, (the plural of/awr), the top of the throat. 
FIBULA, (a clasp), the lesser bone of the leg, which 

is thus named from being placed opposite to the part 

where the knec-liuckk- 01 elasp was formerly used. 
FCETUS, the child in the womb past the third month, 

and fully formed. 



GALACTOPHEROUS, ( v «a«, milk, and ?. e «, to car- 
ry), conveying the milk. 

GANGLION, a knot in the course of a nerve. 

GASTROCNEMIUS, (**«»{, the belly, and in^ the 
leg), the muscle forming the thick of the leg. 

GASTRO-EPIPLOIC,( r ««« ( ,the stomach, and «r„A.«, 
the caul), belonging to the stomach and omentum. 

GENIO, ( v »m,, the chin), names compounded with this 
word belong to muscles attached to the chin. 

GINGLYMUS, ( Y ,yy*vft<>t, a hinge), articulation ad- 



ting fie; 
GLENOID, (yAnm, a cavity), a part having a shallow 

cavity. 
GLOMER, a convoluted bundle of glands. 
GLOSSO, (yw™, the tongue), names compounded 

with this word are applied to muscles attached to 

the tongue. 



GLOSSARY. 



•'i 



GLOTTIS, ( v »»rr«, the tongue), tin 

of the larynx at the inoi of tlie to..„ L 

GLUTEUS, (»»»,„, the buttock), mnsctofennioE P«' 



of the buttocks! 

COMPHOSIS, ( w »™, to dri 

ration of bones, like :i nail i 



HARMONIA, («ip..«, to fit together), : 

moveable articulation. 
HELIX, (»«, to turn about), the ontei 

of the external ear. 
HYALOID, (,**«, glass), the capsule 

humour of the eye, so called from 



opening LAMBDOIDAL, r 
LAMINA, a scale c 

the skull. 
LARYNX, the superior part of the trachea. 

formed by the meeting of 



LINEA ALBA, 

tin- tendons of the al: 
LUMBIUCALES, (/„,» 



nf the 



MASSETER, (/u 

of the vitreous sists in chewii 

s glassy appear- MASTOID, (,,«„ 



HYMEN, (the god of marriage), the membrane situated MAXILLA, (, 
ce of the virgin vagina, 
pounded with this word belong 



HYO, 

e attached 
HYOIDES OS, („, and ,i!«, shape). 
Jongueresembling the Greek v (ups 



■ of the 



MED1ANA VENA, thi 
tween the basilic and 
MEDIASTINUM, (. 



.*., to chew), a muscle * 

breast), shaped like a i 

), the ja,v. 
Idle vein of the 
cpha 



of liie 



«L,I 



le), tlie produc- 



tne 



two cavities: MEDIASTINUM CEH i.I'.lll, a 
process of the dura mater, which lies between tin- 
two hemispheres of the brain. 
MENINGES, the dura and pia mater. 
MESENTERY, {>.*.(, the middle, and ,.„{.., the in. 
testine), the membrane in the middle of the intes- 
tines, by which they are attached, 
lied also Rami- MESERAIt, {^m, the middle, and «{«i„, the belly), 
the same as the last article, 
under, and li.«;, the palm of MESOCOLON, (>».,■, the middle, and *.*.., the co- 
the muscles contracting the Ion), that part of the mesentery in the middle of 

the colon. 
METACARPUS, (pi™, after, and ,*,*. 
that part of the hand between the c.i 



HYPOCHONDRIUM, („, 

tilnge), the upper region of the abdomen," next thi 

cartilages of the ribs. 
HYPOGASTRIC, („*■., under, and y«rr, e , the belly). 

the lower region of the fore part of the abdomen. 
HYPOGLOSSIS, („»., under, and yh„,., the tongue). 

parts which lie under the tongue, 



HYPOTHENAR, (., 
the hand), one 
thumb. 



JEJUNUM, (empty), one of 

from beintr generally found empty. 
ILEUM, (ux», to turn), a portion of the small 

tines, so called from t"ui. ImuikI convoluted. 
!M [SORES, (fucidm, to cut), the fore-teeth. 
INCUS, (an anvil), a small bone of the internal ear, 

with which the malleus is articulated. 
INDEX, (indjeo, to point out), the fore-finger. 
IN.NOMINATUM, parts which have no proper name. 
LNTERFEMINEUM, vide PERINEUM. 
IRIS, (the rain-bow), the circle round the pupil of the 

eye, deriving its name from its various colours. 
ISCHIUM, (wpm, to support), that part of the os inno- 



gers. 

called METATARSUS, (,..™, after, and ™ ( 

that part of the foot between the l;u 

intcs- MITRALIS VALVULA, Unt, a ro 

the left ventricle of the heal t, like : 

MYLO, (^.»,, a grinder-tooth), names 

this word belong to muscles that ar 

the grinders. 

MYOIDES PLATYSiMA, a musculai 



wrist), 
and fiu- 

tarsus), 



llpol 






JUGALE OS, the zygoma. 



LACUNA, (little cavities), the excretory ducts of tin 
urethra, vagina, &c. 



NAVICULARS, (HOUiVwm, a little boat), a bone of 

the carpus, and also of the tarsus. 
NEUROLOGY, the doctrine of the nerves. 
NYMPH/E, a semicircular ■■linuliilur membrane in the 

pudendum imilUlirv, so called because it directs the 



.- of the 



O, because the diaphragm was supposed to be the sea- 

of the mind), the name of :i nerve. 
ODONTOIDES, (.3«, a tooth, and ufo, shape), tooth- PHYSIOLOGY, (jpw;, nature), an account of the ac. 

jik e . tione and functions of an animated body. 

OLECRANON, (*%»*, the cubit, and *$*»», the head), PI A MATER, the innermost membrane around the brain. 

the elbow, or head of (he ulna. PLACENTA, (W«.(, a cake), the after-birth. 

OMENTUM, (omau a guess), an abdominal viscus, so PLANTARIS, (ptanta, the sole), parts situated iu the 

called hecause the ancient priest-, prel ended to reveal sole. 

the secrets of heaven by inspecting this viscus. PLATYSMA-MYOIDES, {w\mrvt t broad, {* u „,, a mm. 

OMO, (*y*<n, the shoulder), names compounded of (his cle, and uht, shape), a muscle of the neck. 

-.ioi-d belong to muscles atlachrd to the scapula. PLEURA, (**»(«, the side), the membrane lining the 

OMO-PLATA, (m/Uf, the shoulder, aud rfemf, broad), cavity of the thorax. 

the scapula or shoulder-blade. PLEXUS, (pkcto, to weave together), a kind of net- 

OSTEOLOGY, the doctrine of the bones. work of blood-vessels or nerves. 

POPLITEUS, (jpopltt, the ham), a muscle of the leg. 
p PREPUCE, (praputo, to cut oft' before), the fore-skin 

of the penis, which the eastern nations generalk 
PANC REAS, (ftm, all, and H i* h flesh), a gland of the cnt off. 

abdomen. PROCESSUS, (procetlo, to start out), a protuberance 

PARENCHYMA, pMpnPS to pour through), a sub- f a bone. 

stance connecting the vessels, &c. of the lungs, PROSTATA, ("»■$», before, and in^i, to stand), a gland 

liver, &c. situated^before the vesiciila: seminoli's. 

PAIUETALLA, (paries, a wall), bones of the cranium PSOAS, (+«, the loin), a muscle so named from its si- 
serving as a wall to the encephalon. tuation. 
PAROTID, (ir« e «, near, and «»f, the gen. of «, the PTERYGOID, (*«<*, a wing), a process resembling a 

car), a gland situated near the ear. w ing. 

PATELLA, (dim. of patina, a pan), the knee-pan. PTERYGO-STAPHALINI, (*«(*£, a wing, and ««- 

PATHETICA, (*■»»<*, passion), the fourth pair of ?uAoi the palate), muscles arising from the ptery- 

ncrvee, because, by means of these, the eyes ex- g id pi-ocow of the os sphenoides, and inserted into 

press ceit.iin |>a-?i(iii3 ■ ■', ihe mind. the uvula. 

PELVIS, (m>.i%, a bason), the bason of the kidneys, PUDENDA, (pudor, shame), the parts of generation. 

or the lower part of the abdomen, in which the PUPI.LLA, (a little puppet), the round aperture in the 

bladder (and in women the uterus) and rectum are tunica uvea of the eye. 

contained. PYLORUS, (Vi>a«j«, the keeper of a gate), the lower 

PERICARDIUM, («{*, around, and ** e 3,«, the heart), orifice of the stomach, guarding the entrance of the 

the membrane surrounding the heart. bowels. 

PERICRANIUM, Qnp, around, aud *(*««, the era- PYRAMIDALIS, shaped like a pyramid. 

niuin), the membrane covering the bones of the 

PERINEUM, (&—* to flow round, because that part 

is generally moist), the space between the external RADIUS, (the spoke of a wheel), the small bone of 

parts of generation and the amis. It is sometimes* the fore-avm. 

called INTEK1T.MINEUM, (inter, between, and RANULAR, like a frog or toad. 

/«iww, the inside of the thigh). RAPHE, (jitw, to sew), a suture. 

PERIOSTEUM, («i(<, around, and ara», a bone), the RECTUM, the straight gut, 

membrane surrounding the bones. RENES, (ttu, t) 
PERISTALTIC, t>(.nM#, to contract), the motion of urine flows. 

the intestines. RETINA, (rete, a net), the net-like expansion of, the 
PERITONEUM, (^p.™.*, to extend around), the mem- optic nerve on the inner surface of the eye. ■ 

brane lining the abdomen, and covering its viscera. RHOMBOIDES, a muscle so called from resembling a 
PETROSUM OS, (*« s *, a rock), part of the temporal geometrical figure (ewfef). " llose B ' dcs IU ' L I" - * 

bone. but not right-angled. 

PHALANX, (an army), the bones of the fingers and ROTULA, (dim. of rota, awheel), the knee-pan. 

toes are called phalanges, from their regularity. 
PHARYNX, (ipf(£it, to convey, because it conveys the g. 

food into the stomach), a membranous bag at the 

end of the mouth. SACRUM, (sacred), a bone so called, because it was- 
PHRENIC, (f(tfi{, the diaphragm, ^i. the mind, oft'ercd iu sacrifice. 

SAGli 1 ALLS 



SAGITTALIS, (fagUte>, an arrow), a suture in the 

SALVATELLA, (snfro, to preserve), a vein of the 
foot, the opening of which was said to preserve 
health, and to cure melancholy. 

SANGUIS, (>„,, to preserve), the blood. 

SAPHKrSA, (,„».;, manifest ,, a vein of the I™ 

SARTOHll'.-, (,,„■/,„., a tailor), the muscle by mean, 
ol winch the tailor lays his leg across. 

SCALENI, (.«^»„, a geometrical figure with three 
unequal sides), muscles of the neck. 

SCAPHA, (a little boat), the depression of the outer- 
ear before the antihelix. 

SCAPHOLDES, (resembling a boat), a bone of the 
carpus, and also of the tarsus. 

SCAPULA, the shoulder-blade. 

SCELETUS, (««»., to dry), a skeletou. 

SCLEROTIC, («»,(.,, hard), the outermost or hardest 
membrane of the eye. 

SCUTIFORM, shaped like a shield. 

SELLA TURCICA, SELLA EQUINA, SELLA 
SPHENOIDES, are various names for a part of 
the sphenoid bone resembling a Turkish saddle. 

SEPTUM CORDIS, (sepes, a hedge), the fleshy sub- 
stance which divides the right and left ventricles of 
the heart. 

SESAMOID, (n^pi, an Indian bean), small bones in 
the hands and feet resembling the semen sesami. 

SIGMOID, resembling the Greek I (»igm.). 

SPHENOID, (•?„., a wedge), shaped like a wedge. 

SPHINCTER, («p w », to shut up), the name of seve- 
ral muscles, whose office it is to shut up the aper- 
tures around which they are placed. 

SPLANCHNOLOGY, {.*>..„„, an entrail), the doc- 
trine of the viscera. 

SQUAMOUS, (sqi/a/iwi, a scale), covering as the scales 
of fishes do each other. 

STAPES, (a stirrup), one of the small bones of the in. 
terual ear. 

STOMACHUS, (™p«, a mouth, and #., to pour), the 
stomach, or upper orifice of the ventricle. 

STYLOID, (stylus, a pencil), a process like a pencil 
on the temporal bone. 

SYMPHYSIS, (n&m, to draw together), the connec. 
Hon t>f b-.jijL':- v.-IulIi have nu manifest motion. 

SYNARTHROSIS, (mr, with, and -(It.,, ajoint), ar- 
ticulation without manifest motion. 



GLOSSARY. > m 

SYNTHESIS, (ffu.T.s^i, to put together), the anatorai 



of the bones of the skeleton. 

SYSSAI1COSIS, (™, with, and «& Iksh), the con- 

nection of bones by muscle. 
SYSTOLE, (w*im«, to contract), mte DIASTOLE. 



TENDON, (iww, to extend), the extremity of a muscle. 

TERES, (round), the name of a mu^le. " 

TESTIS, (a witness, quia .•/ quasi tt-xtix ririlitati*}.. 

tfae testicle. 
THECA, (t%, to put), the spinal canal is sometimes 

called Theca Vertebralis. 
THENAR, (the palm of the hand), a muscle extending 

the thumb. 
THORAX, (fc,w, to leap), the chest in which the 

heart leaps or beats. 
THY AIL'S, (thymus, thyme), a gland in the thorax. 
THYRO, uauiLs (.■imipuuiidi-d uidi this word belong to 



uhuh 11 



) the 



THYROID, (l^. ( , a shield), cartilage, shaped like a 

shield. 
TIBIA, (a pipe), the great bone of the leg. 
TONSIL, the round glands placed between the arches 

of the palate. 
TRACHEA, (t^bw, rough), the wind-pipe. 
TRAGUS, (a goat), a small eminence of the external 



i U P° 

i goal. 



which haii' often grows like the beard of 
four-sided figure), like a 



TRAPEZOID, (t C , 

trapezium. 
TROCHANTER, tyx**, to run or to roll), a process 

of the thigh-bone, the muscles inserted into which 

perform the office of running. 
TROCHLEA, (^#>i, a wheel), a kind of cartilaginous 



TROCHLEARS, an mticulatior 
round another like a pulley. 

TUJLE EALLOI'IAN/E, two 
like troinpe-ls, described by I 

TYMPANUM, tlie dram of the < 

U. 



,hrr. 






BYNDESMOLOGY, (wforMf, a ligament), the doc- 

SYNf)l''s:,i-';-Sjs, iht; connection of boues by ligaments. 
SYfeUROSIS, (™, with, and imp*, a nerve), the con- 
nection of bones by tendon, formerly mistaken for 



ULNA, (*aim. the cubit.), the large bone of the arm. 

UMBILICI'S, (tank) ilium, the middle of the loins)., 
the navel. 

URACHUS, (*..., urine, and K w, to pour), a ligament 
of the bladder, occupying the place of the urinary 
passage of the foct-.il .]ti.t<lnip<il. winch goes into Hit- 

URETER, 



iHnur- 



T92 GLOSSARY. 

URETER, (ngir, urine), the canal that carries tlie urine VERTEBRA, (vcrlo, to turn), the bones of the spine. 

off from the kidney into the bladder. VOMER, (a plough-share), a bone of the nose. 

URETHRA, the passage for the urine from the blad. 

UVEA, (ui'fl, a grape), the posterior lamina of the 

iris. XIPHOID, ({*«, a sword), like a sword. 

UVULA, the glandular substance which hangs down 

from the middle of the soft palate. 2 " 

VALVES, (valvts t folding doors), little membranes pre- 

venting the return of the fluids in the blood-vessels ZYGOMA, (£y«, a yoke), the cavity under the zygo- 

and absorbents. matic process of the temporal bone. 



INDEX. 



Abdomen, ofthe, vol. n. - - : 

, muscles on the anterior and lateral 
. vol. I. 
irithin the cavity of the, 



ji;U'h: l: 



., blood-vessels of the containing parts 
of the, vol. III. 

., lymphatics of the under part of the, 
r sixth pair of nerves, 



i ■ — , vel prior indicis pedis, 

» r vel prior medii digiti~l 

J _J___ tertu digiti I 

i minimi digiti f 1 

L pollicia J 

Absorbent System, of the, vol. III. 
Accelerator uriiiae, vol. I. 
Accessory nerve to the eighth pair, vol 
Acervulus cerebri, vol. II. 
Acusticus, nervus, vol. III. 

" vel posterior indi 



Addnctor - 



■ = 





J vel prii 






^ pollicis 






- femons triceps, 






11. 


Adipose 3 


uteries,\ol 


. III. 


Ala: vespertiliouis, v 




Albugme; 


i tunica to 




Almonds 


of the ears 




Alveolar 




m. 


Amnios, 


vol. II. 




All!V|;li .! 


e, 




Anconeu 







i di.Liiii 



::l 



nftdii digiti V pedis, 



Anterior auris, - - 

AntUielix, vol. II. 

Antitragicus, - 

Antitragus, - 

Anus, muscles ofthe, vol. I. 

Aorta, general course of the, vol. III. 

Aponeurosis of the superior extremity, vol. I. 

- inferior extremity, 

palmaris. 






ill... ■< 



Appendages of the skin, vol. II. 
Appendices vermiformes cerebelli, 
Appendix vermiformis mtestiui ewei, 
A(jua labyrinth., 
Aquseductus Fallopii, 

Aqueous humour of the eye, 

Arcli of the aorta, vol. IU. 
Arches of the palate, vol. II. 
Arcus plantaris arteriosus, vol. III. 

arteriosus volaris profundus, 

_^_____^_..^_^_ superlicialia, 
Arteries, ofthe. 
Articular nerve of the shoulder, 
Aryteno-epiglottideus, vol. I. 

., f cartilages, vol. II. 
Arytenoid | g ^ 



IT obliquus, 1 vo , 
^ n.ui-vcrsus, j 



Astragalus, 

Atloido-sub-ocii|ntalis, 



Auditorius, nervus, vol. III. 
Aurem retrahentes, vol. I. 
Auricles of the heart, vol. II. - 

Auriculai-is posterior artena, vol. 111. 
Aaris intcrffusj vol. If. 



Axillary artery, vol. III. 



Bulbo-metliralis, <■ 

Bursje Mucosa, of the, vol, I. 
Bursa mucosa; of the superior extremity, 
. — . , .. inferior extremity, 



Peg- 



Ball of the eye, vol. II. 



r vol. ii.' 

IC - 1 vol. III. 



Basilar nvlery, vol. III. 

Exilic vein, 

Biceps flexor cubiti, vol. I. 



Bifeinoro-calcmtu-, 



cilice inferioris, 

F Urine, vol. II. 

— — —- , blood-vessels 



Cxcum intestinum, vol, II. 
Cscuni, absorbents of the, vol. III. 
Calamus scriptorius, vol. II. 
Calcis os, vol. I. 

Calco-sub-phalangeus minimi digit), 

pollicis, 

1 - — - communis, 
Calco-SUper-pll;ilLmi;rll.; c.iilllllillllli, 
Canals of the cochlea, vol. II. 
Cancelli, 
Can in us, 

Capitatum, vel magnum, os, vol. I. 
Capitis rectus anterior i 
i ' ■ i ■ ti lateralis, 

~ major, 



- posticus 



major, 7 
minor, 5 



Capsule Renales, vol. II. 

— i — , blood-vessels of the, vol. 

. „ . — .., lymphatics of the, 



Blood-Vessels ir 
Bones in general, 
Bones of the crani 



-, lymphatics of the, 
general, of the, 
fthe, vol. I. 



- thorax, 

■ superior extremity, 

Bones, of the formation of, 

■ ■ different kinds of 
Brachial artery, vol. III. 
iii;t< hiaLis intcrnus, vol. I. 
Brain, of the, vol. II. 

, arteries of the, vol. Ill 

, veins of the, 



Breast-bone, 
Bregma, 

Bronchi, vol. II. 
Bronchial arteries and veins, 

■ — .1 glands, vol. II. 

Buccalis arteria, vol. HI. 

Buccinator, vol. I. 

Bucco-labialis, 

Bulb of the urethra, vol. XI. 



s which arise from the, £ ™j; "l. 120 



Carpo-metacarpeus pollicis, 
Carpo-phalangcus pollicis, 
Carpo-si]]itr-p!iLt];iugcus pollicis, 
Carpo-pliaiangeus s 

Carpo-metacarpeus 

Carpus, bones of the, vol. If* 

Cartilages, 

Cartilago ensiformis, 

Caruncula lacrymalis, vol. II. 

Cauda equina, vol. III. 

Cava vena, general course of tl 

superior, 

inferior, 
Cawl, vol. II. 
Cellular substance, 
Centralis retina arteria, vol. II 



Centrum ovale of ViedsbENs, vol. II. 

semicirculare gemiuum, 

Cephalic vein, vol. HI. 

Cerebellum, vol. H. 

Cerebrum, 

Cervical nerves, vol. III. 



Cervical arteries, 

vertebra, vol. I. 

Cervicalis descendeus, 

Cephalo-pharvngeus, 

Cci'vico-raastoidcus, . . 

Cheek, vol. II. w 

Cheek-bones, vol. I. 
Chest, bones of the, 

Chorda tympani, J jj £ 

Chorion, vol. II. - ' _ " . 

Choroid coat, 

Chylopoietic and Assistant Chylopoietic 1 

CERA, of the, 
— ■ — . blood-vessels of the, vol. III. 

■■ lacteals and lymphatics of the, 

nerves of the, 

Cilia, vol. II. 

Ciliaris, 

Ciliary arteries, vol. III. 



£ anterior, ") 



e optic lhalami, 
110 Commuiikaus faciei, ucrvu^, vol III 
120 Complexus, vol. I. . 



34 Compressor i 
60 Connection t 
65 Constric 



bones, different kinds of, 



C inferior, T 

- pharyngis ■] medius, £ 

t superior, j 



Cineritions substance of the brain, 
Circulus Iridis arteriosus, vol. III. 

Circumflex fo™™.*™ S iuterD3 ' J 
' > externa,} 



i arteria. 



^ posterior, 
Circumflexus palati, vol. I. 
Circumvolutions of the brain, vol. II. 
— cerebellum, 

Circus arteriosus Willisii, vol. III. 
Clavicle, vol. I. 
Claviculi of bone*, 
Clitoridis erector, 
Clitoris, vol. II. 
Coats of the eye, 
Coccygeus, vol. I. - 



Colic a 

Collar bone, vol. I. 

Colli interspinales, 
— — intertraosversales, 
i longUE, - 

1 — semi spinal it.', 

i transversalis, 

Colon, vol. II. 

— — , absorbents of the, vol. III. 
Columns caxneic cordis, vol. II. See Heart. 

- , -- valvule VieussENII, 



185 

37 

14 Cora, 

s- Cord, umbilical, vol. II. 

129 Cornea, 

48 Coruua Ammouis, 

86.87 of the ventricles of the brain, 

Coronary arteries of the lips, vol. III. 



l()t 



34 -— — ' — olivaria, 

37 ■ pyramidalia. 

13 Corpus adiposum, 
10 - callosum, 



tery of the stomach, 
vessels of the heart, vol. II. 
albicantia, 

liinbii.iiu, vel taenia Hippocampi, 



ar, J " Corruga 



spongiosum urethra?, 
Corrugator supercilii, vol. I. 
109 Cortical substance of the brain, vol. II. 
13 Costa:, vol. I. 
16 Costal nerves, vol. III. 
11.12 Costo-abdominalis, 

64 f anticus, f 

3 -cervicalis -J medius, > 

116 £ posticus* J 

173 — -. clavicularis, 
35 -coracoidabs, 

116 Cranium, bones of the, vol. I. 
54 -.. ,. , liiiiitlfs of the integuments of the, 

i which pass through the b 



48 



the, 



HI. 



49.50 Cremaster, vol. I. 

50 /-. • -3 f lateralis, 

,. . Crico-arvtciioi<k'ii.i -! 

64 J \_ posticus, 

122 Cricoid cartilage, vol. II. 

123 Crico-thyroideus, vol. I. 
119 Crura cerebri, vol. II. 
122 ■ cerebelli, 

122 Crural artery, vol. III. 



phalangitis communis, 

supcr-pliatougeus primus pollicis, 

, , secuudus pollicii 

Cuboitles, os, vol. I. 

Cncullaris, 

Cuueiforme, os, 

Ouneiformia, ossa, 

Curvator coccygis, - - 

Cutaneous nerve of the superior cxtreniii 

Cutaueus, 

Cuticle, vol. II. 

Cutis vera, 

Cystic artery, vol. III. 



, blood-vessels of the, 



-, processes of the, vol 



f vol. II. 
( vol. III. 



Ear, of the, 

■ ■■ ■, small bones of the, 

— — , external, 



Deltoides, vol. I. 
Dcpm 



■pressor^! 



, blood-vessels of the, vol. III. 

, nerves of the, 

Didymi, vol. II. 
Digastricus, vol. I. 
Dorsal vertebra;, 

nerves, vol. III. 

Dorsalis linguae, arteria, 

Dorsi interspinales, vol. I. 
intertransveraales, 



Dorso-super-acromialis, 
— .scapularis, ~) 
cervicalis, > 

Drum of the ear, vol. II. 
Duct, cystic, 

, pancreatic, 

, parotid, 

*, . C vol. II. 
, thoracic, £ vol m 



, muscles of the, 

f nerves, vol. III. 

, vol. I. 



f olivares, 1 

Eminentia:, i mammillares, > vol. II. 

(_ pyramidales, J 
Emulgent artery and vein, vol. III. 
Epicondilo-cubitalis, 

super-metacarpeus, 

—phalapgeus communis, 



Epidermifl. sal U- 

h,pi(lidymi=i, 

Epigastric artery, vol. Ill 

Epiglottis, vol. U. 

Epiphyses, 

Epitrochlo-metacarpus, 

phalangeus 

palmaris, 

Erector clitoridis, vol. I. 

Ergot, vel hippocampus minor, 
Esophagus, 

:.;-ilis arteria, vol. III. 
Ethmoides, os, vol. I. 
Eustachian tube, 3 ™j| jj 
Extensor brevis digitorom pedis 
carpi radialis £ ^ 



?] 



■ rr 



longus digitorum pedis, 

■ longus pollicis, 
major pollicis, 

^^___ ossis metacarpi pollicis manus, 
^___ — pi'imi intmioilii pnllicis manus, 
proprius pollicis pedis, 



Extensor secundi internodii pollicis manna, 

- — triceps cubiti, 
Extremity, superior, bones of the, 

1 ' ' ' » bursa: mucosae of the. 

■ , muscles of the, 

' t ligaments of the, 

r — i inferior, bones of the, 
— , bursa; mucosa: of the, 

ligaments of the, 



Pag. 

128 Flexor carpi ulnaris, 

« — **—— . 

168 ■■ longus digitorui 

123 pollicis i 

178 



L profundus, ~l 
sublimis, j 



Eye, of the, vol. II. 

, coats of the, 

■ ■ , humours of the, 

■ , vessels of the, £ ™ L J^ 

vol! II. 

vol. III. 



s of the, > 



us minimi digiti manus, 

169 ossis mctacarpi pollicis, 

129 primi internodii pollicis, 

181 secundi internodu poUicis, 

34 - tertii internodii pollicis, 

35 Fostus, peculiarities of the, vol. II. 
38 ■ , position of the, in vtero, 

- - 42 , circulation of blood in the, 

10.13 Follicles, sebaceous, 

42 Foot, bones of the, vol. I. 

121.122 , muscles of the, 

of the, vol. III. 10 , ligaments of the, 



, of the, 



F. 

Pace, bones of the, 

, muscles of the, 
» lymphatics of the, vol. III. 

-, nerves of the, 

Facial artery, 



Femoral or crural artery, vol. III. 

— , large, or crural nerve, 
Femoris, os, vol. I. 

Femoro- calcaneus parvus, 

poplito- 1 i bi al i s, 
Fenestra ovalis, vol. II. 

Fibula, vol. I. 

Fibular artery, vol. III. 



-, absorbents of the, vol. III. 
•*! , blood-vessels of the, 

104 , nerves of the, 

Fontanella, vol. I. 
Formation of bone, 
Fornix, vol. II. 

33 Fossa, vel rima magna, 

105 i navicularis, 
90 Sylvii, 

7.19 Fourth pa ; r f nerves, or pathetic, 
121.123 Frauium lingua, vol. II. 

7 m labioruiii pudendi, 
121.123 ■ preputii, 

11 r , , • C vol, I. 

12 frontal sinuses, £ ^ u 

5 Frontalis, vol. I. 
74 Frontis, os, ;. 

79 Fronto-nasalis, 



133 Gall-bladder, vol. II. 

61 Ganglia, vol. III. 

61 Ganglion semilunare m 

77 Gastric arteries, 






es, or par trigemuium, vol. III. 
es, or olfactory, 
digitorum pedis, vol. I. 



{^ Gastrocnemius i ^^"* ? vo1 - *■ ■ 133 

120 Gemellus, - - - 133 

135 Gemini, - - - 131 

133 Generation and Urine, Organs of, vol. II. 156.170 

jg4 __^_ , blood-vessels of the or- 

135 gans of, vol. III. 55 

127 -, lymphatics of the organs 

135 of, - 85.86 ■ 

136 , muscles of the organs of, 
125 vol.1. - 115.116 

I) d Generation 



Gland 



Generation and urine, nerves i 

vol. III. 
Gcnio-hyo-glossus, vol. I. ^ 
Genio-hyoideus, 
Gland, lacryroal, vol. II. 
, parotid, 

t pituitary, 

, sublingual, 

, submaxillary, 
:, arytenoid, 
., axillary, vol. III. 
., bronchial, vol. II. 
conglobate, vol. III. 

inguinal, 

of Cowper, vol. II. 

of the joints, vol. I. 

mesenteric, vol. III. 

miliary, vol. II. 

popliteal, vol. III. 

renal, vol. II. 

salivary, 

sebaceous, 
, tracheal, 
Glandule ceruminosK, 

concatenate, vol. HI. 

__^_ Meibomiance^ vol. II 

Glaus penis, 

clitoridis, 

Glosso-palatinus, 

, pharyngeus, nervus, vol. 

Glottis, vol. II- 

j ligaments of the, 

, muscles of the, vol. I. 

Gluteal artery, vol. III. 

Gluteus maxiinus, vol. I. 





Pag- 


■ the 


organs of, 








109 




109 




35 




86 




16 




163 




86 



Hsemorrhoidalis vena, 

Hairs, vol. II. 

Ham-muscle, or popliteus, vol. I. 

Hand, bones of the, 

, blood-vessels of the, vol. III. 

, ligaments of the, vol. I. 

( lymphatics of the, vol. III. 

r . muscles of the, vol. I. 

, nerves of the, vol. III. 

Head, bones of the, vol. I. 

, blood-vessels of the, vol. III. 

, ligaments of the, vol. I. 

_ T lymphatics on the, vol. III. 

muscles on the, vol. I. 

, nerves of the, vol. III. 

Heart, of the, vol. II. 
Heli. 



artery, vol. III. 



5 Humeral artery, vol. III. 

15 veins, 

CO Humeri, os, vol. I. 

90 Hmuci-o-cubitalU, 

3 % super-metacarpens, 

64 —.^i-iiioj 

64 Humours of the eye, vol. II. 

.73 Hymen, 

10 Hyo-glossus, vol. I. 

25 Hyoidcs, os, 

.01 Hyo-pharyngeus, 

101 thyroideus, 

ill Hypogastric artery, vol. HI. 



- lymphatic 



Gravid Uterus, of th 
Great hippocampus, 
Great sympathetic nerv< 
Gub, or gullet, vol. II. 

Gustatorius nervus, vol. HI, 

. T superior. 

Gutturahs artena£ ^^ 

Gyri of the cochlea, vol. II 
Hsmorrhoidalis arteria -] m< 



rd. II- 
ol. Ill- 



Jaw-bone, lower, vol. I. 
- ligaments of the, 

, muscles of the, 

. , muscles between the, and c 

des, 
Jejunum, vol. II. 
i T lacteals of the, vol. in. 

Ileo-lumbalis arteria, 
i Iliac arteries and veins, 
i Iliacus internus, vol. I. 
I Ilio-abdoniiualis, 

! costalis, 

I trochantineus, - 



72 et sen. 
117 



llio-trocliai 



— ^apoueuroso-femoris, 

i pretibialis, _ » 

rotuleus, . _ 

Ilium, iutestinuin, vol. II. 

., os, vol. I. 

Impregnation, changes produced in the i 

system by, vol. II. 
Incus, - - 

Indicator, vol. I. 

Inferior Extremity, aponeurosis of the, 
, bones of the, 



131 Ischio-femoro-perouealii, 

131 Ischium, os, 

. 131 Isthmus hepatis, vol. II. 

132 ■- faucium, 
132 — - ■ ViEuasENii, 

132.134 Iter a palato ad aurem, 



-, blood-vessels of the, vol. HI. 72 
-, ligaments of the, vol. I. 181 

- t lymphatics of the, vol. III. 85 
-, muscles of the, vol. I. 129 

-, nerves of the, vol. III. 



Kidneys, vol. II. 
■ ■ ■■— ■■■-, blood-vessels of the, ) 



Infra-spinatus, vol. I. 
Infundibulum of the brain, vol. II. 

■ of the cochlea, 

. of the kidneys, 

Inguinal glands, vol. III. 
Innominatum, os, vol. I. 
Integuments, common, of the, vol. II. 
Intercostal arteries and veins, vol. III. 

Intercedes £ f*'™^' | vol. I. 



Interosseus auricularis, 
Interspinals colli, 

, et intei'-transversales dorsi, 

lumborum, 

Inter-transversalis colli, 
lumborum, 



— , absorbents of the, vol. III. 



9 Knee-joint, ligaments of the, vol, I 



Labia pudendi, vol. II. 

Labial arteries, vol. III. 

Labialis, 

Labyrinth of the ear, vol. II. 

Lacrymal artery, vol. III. 

— — eland, vol. II. 

„prv^ vol. UI. 

Lacryinalia, vel unguis, ossa, vol. I. 
Lacteals, vol. III. 
Lactiferous ducts, vol. II. 
Lamella: of bones, vol. I. 
Lamina spiralis, vol. II. 
Lary ngo-ph ary ii ge u s, 

Laryngea, vel thvroidea, arl 
Laryngeus, nervus, 
Latissimus dorsi, vol. I. 
Laxator tynipani, vol. II. 
Leg, bones of the, vol. I. 
Levator anguli oris, 



: vol. u. 


- 1S6 


1 vol. III. 


- 55 




88 




169 


I. 


181 




173 




8 




106 




62 




10 




35 


I. 


33 

86 



Ischio-cavemosus, vol. I. 

sub-pineal is, 

p erinealis, 



^— fern o ml in, 
- — trochanteric, 
— — sub-trochantcrius, 
i^—femoro-peronealis, 



popUto-tibialis, 



oculi, vol. II. 

palpebra; superioris, 

proprius, 

Ligamenta £ ^ ia3 J «** 
Ligaments, of the, vol. I. 



; 


iii 


roi. u. 


171 




174 



s of the lower jaw, 

- connecting the head with the first and se- 

cond vertebra of the neck, and these 
vertebra with each other, 

- of the other vertebrae, 

- of the ribs, 

. of the bones of the pelvis, 

- of the superior extremity, 



Lobes of the liver, 
■ of the lungs, 

Locus niger crururo cerebri, 
Longus colli, vol. I. 



of the joint of the shoulder, 

of the joint of the elbow, 

between the bodies, and between 

der ends of the radius and ulna, 

between the fore-arm and wrist, 

. of the carpus, 

... -i. between the carpal and metacarpal bones, 
between the extremities of the metacarpal 

bones, 
- at the base of the metacarpal bone of the 

thumb, and at the first joint of the 

fingers, - - ] 

' of the first and second joints of the thumb, 

and second and third joiuts of the fin- 

' retaining the tendons of the muscles of 
the hand and fingers in situ, ] 

h'C-iiiili'. - J 

' ntE the o 3 in- 



178 . — — plexus of nerves, 
178 vertebrae,. vol. I. 

178 Lumbo-abdomiualis, 

1 79 —fa umeralis, 

i c ost a] is, 

179 Lumbricales mantis, 



ji. _■ of the joint of (he knee, 

■ ,. i- ■ conuecttng the fibula to the tibia, 

— .- — connecting the bones of the tarsus with 
those of the leg, 

■ — ■ ■ between the bones of the tarsus and those 

of the metatarsus, 
- - connecting the metatarsal bones to each 
other, 

■ ■■ . of the phalanges of the toes, 

- and sheaths retaining the tendons of the 

muscles of the foot in situ, 
-■ ■ of the liver, vol. II. - i 

Ligamentum suspeosorium penis, - 3 

Lingualis, vol. I. 3 

Lingual artery, vol. III. 



., blood-vessels of the, 
— - — , lymphatics of the, 

, nerves of the, 

Lymphatics, 

Lyra, fornicis, vol. II. 





l Maa a* pollicis artena, vol. IIL 

Magnum, vel capitatum, os, vol, I. 
1 Malaruro, ossa, 

Malleolus i .^^ * 




i, vol. III. 



Massa c 
Masseter, 

Masseteric arteries, vol. III. 
Mastoideus lateralis, - 

Masto id o-auxic ulari s, 
men talis, 

Mater rta.«i.n. _ - 

Matrix, 

Maxilla inferior, vol. I. 
Maxillaria superiora, OBsa, 
Maxillary artery, external, vol. III. 
, interna], 




Pag. 



Mediastinum, vol. II. 

spiualis, vol. III. 

Medullary substance of the brain, vol. II. 
Meibomian glands, 
Membrana Cellularis, 

medullars, vol. I. 

vol. II. 



— — p ji: 



- >3'"H" 



Meningeal arterv, vol. I] 

Meiito-labialis, " 
Mesenteric blood-vessel % 



Mesentery, vol. II. 
Meso-colon, 

Metacarpal bones, vol. I. 



Me. a. 






25 Nates cerebri, vol. II. 

60 Naviculare, os, vol. I. 7 

26 Neck, blood-vessels of the, vol. III. . 7£ 

61 , lymphatics of the, J) 

the fore and lateral part of the, 

107.11 



n; 



vol. I. 

10? , nerves of the, vol. Ill 

16 , vertebra; of the, vol. I, 

141 Nerves, of the, vol. III. 



5 Ninth 1 



rof 1 



ol. III. 



Nipple, vol. II. 

36.18? Noni descendens, nervu 

82 Nose, of the, vol. II. 
60 r vol. I. 

63 , lone S ofthe,| vol n 

8 , blood-vessels of the, vol. II. 

106 . , lymphatics of the, vol. III. 

49 , muscles of the, vol. I. 

8? , nerves of the, vol. II. 

165 Nyinpha-, 

133 

134 



O. 



Metacarpo-phaiangeuM pullicis, 

_ phalaugci later ales, 

Metatarsal bones, 

artery, vol. III. 

Metatarso-phalangei laterales, 

■ ■■— -- — sub-phalaiigei!' pollicis, 

- transversalis pollicis, 

Miliary glands, vol. II. 

Modiolus, - 

Motion of bones, different kinds of, vol. I. 

Motores oculorum, or third pair of nerves, vol. III. 

Mouth, of the, vol. II. 

, muscles of the, vol. I. 
Uiilnftdus spina?, 
Muscles in general, of the, 
Musculo, cutaneous nerve of the 

vol. III. 
Mylo-hyoideus, vol. I. 



69 Obliquus ascendens ii 
128 ... C i 

128 Ca P lt19 i* 

MP - r1»«-e.ndens 

136 ,. f inf. 

80 ° Cuh { sup 

7? Obturator artery, vol 



]21 Occipitis, os, vol. I. 

84 Occipito-frontalis, 
105 Oesophageal arteries a 



superior extremity, 



103 Oesophagus, vol. II. 
Olfactory, or first pair 
146 Omentum, vol. II. 



N. 



Nails, vol. II. 
Nans compressor, vol. I. 
Nasalis labii superioris, 
Nasi alae depressor, 
■ levator, 

Naso-palpebralis, 



103 Opponens pollicis, vol. I. 

106 rt a- • j • c C vol. II. 

105 °P tlC1 * or second P air of Bems ' I vol. 111. 

105 Orbiculare, os, vol. II. 

33 Orbicularis oculi, vol. I. 

lOt oris, 



Orbicularis palpebrarum, 

Orbit o-palpebraruiu, 
Orbits, vol. II. 
Organs of the senses, 

Organs of" urine ami generation in the male, 
- - in the female, 
_ , lymphatics of the, 



Oris angnli, depresi 

, levator 

Os tinea, vol. II. 
Ova, 
Ovaiia, 
Oxoido-atloidens, • 



Pedes hippocampi, vol. II. 
Pedis, interossei, vol. 1. 

Pelvis, blood-vessels of the, vol. III. 

, bones of the, vol. I. 

, ligaments of the bones of the, 

, lymphatics of the, vol. IIL 
, muscles of the, vol. I. 

, nerves of the, vol. III. 

Penis, vol. II. 

■" vol. II. 
_ voL III. 
muscles of the, vol. 1. 
, ligamentum suapensorium of the, vol. II. 157 
' vol. II. 



, blood-vessels of the, < 

, muscles of the, vol. 1. 
, ligamentum suspensoriun 

i lymphatics of the, £ ™j' ^ 



s of the, 



Palate, 

„ , . f circumflex us, 
lalatl } levator, 



Palatina inferior arteria, vol. 111. 
Palate-maxillary nerve, 
Palato-pbaryngeus, vol. I. 



H 



vol. II. 

_ vol. m. 

Perforans, vol. I. 
Perforatus, 

Pericardium, vol. II. 
Perichondrium, - i 

Perinei transversus, vol. I. 
Perineo-clitorideus, * - 

Periosteum, vol. I. 
Peritoneum, sol u - 
*»«wiiea1 artery, vol. IIL "■ 



- muscului 



C lougus, -> . 

£ brevis, J 
Palniaro-cutaneus, 
Pal m o-ph ary n gen s , 
Palpe.bra, vol. II. 

superioris levator, vo 

Palpebrarum orbicularis, 

Pancreas, vol. II. 

Panniculus caraosus, 

Pap of the throat, 

Papilla, or nipple, 

Papilla; of the tongue, 

Par trigeminum, or fifth pair of 

Parietalia ossa, vol. I. 

Pa ™ id {gSJ. V0, - IL 

Pars vaga of the eighth pair of 



sub-phalangens pollicis, 

— — sub-tarseus, 

super-phalangeus communis 

pollicis, 



f brevis, ~l 
■J longus, > ■ 



C major, ? 



Petro-palatinus, 
Phalanges of the lingers, 

Pharyngeal artery, vol. III. 

Ph ary ngo- pal atinu s, 
Pharynx, vol. II. 
— — — , muscles on the bt 
Phrenic arteries and veins, v 

Pia mater, vol. II. 

Pigmentum nigrum, 

Pineal gland, 

Pinguedo, 

Pisiforme, os, vol. I. 

Placenta, vol. II. 

Plantar artery mid arch, vol. 



Plautaris, vol. I. 
Planto-sub-phalangcus, 
Plates of bones, B 

Platysma myoides, 
Pleura, vo!. II. 
Pomum Adami, 
■p C Tariki, 2 
roas I Varolii, 5 
Popliteal artery, vol. III. 

PopHteus, vol. I. 

Porta;, vena, vol. III. 

Portio mollis of the seventh pair of 

■ dura of the seventh pair of n 

f indicis 
Posterior, vel adductor } 



■ :;.■■ .. 






Predorso-atloideui 

Prelumbo-pubialis, 

trochantii 

Prepuce of the pen 

■ of the cli 

Prior { ?Xu ri ° 

i vel abdui 



ligiti > pedis, 
igiti $ 

C indicis ~J 

I roedii digLti j man " s ' 



Pulmonary artery and veins, 

Puncta lacryraalia, vol. II. 

Pupil of the eye, 

Pylorus, 

1*\ i\uin<ialis, vol. I. 

Pyriformis, 



Quadratus femoris, 
gente, 

— — ^— lumborum, 



Radial artery, vol. III. 



3 - 



f abductor niedii diglti ~l 

, vel ) tertii dipti { 

(_ adductor minimi digiti 3 



Prostate gland, vol. II. 
Psalterium fornicis, 
Psoas magnus, 



Pterygo-maxillaris major, 

Pubio-sternalia, 

--sub-umbilicali:.. 



Radio-phalangeus pollicis, 

Radius, 

Ranina arteria, vol. III. 



Receptaculum chyli, < 



vol. If. 
vol.111. 

Rectum, vol.11. 

, lymphatics of the. 



cap,,, 


s'«; c ;S 


■»>. 




- latiTiili; 


I'orajor, " 





■ femoris, 

internus femoris, 

Recurrent nerve of the eighth r 
radial artery, 



. uln: 






Renal artery, a 

glands, vol. II. 

nerves, vol. III. 

Retina, vol. II. 

Retractor anguli oris, vol. I. 

Retrahentes aureni, 

Rhomboideus, 

Ribs, 

Rotula, 



Sacro-costali^, 

femoralis, 

troehantcrius, 

■■ i spinal is, 

Sacrum, os, 

^aliviiry glands, vol. J I. 

f-'.ilpiim-o.pharyngcus, vol. 

Saphena, vena, vol. III. 

Saphen 




.Sec undines, vol, II. 
Scmicirculai' canals of the ear, 
N.'iiiihnmi -iiiiLTion, vol. HI. 
Scmi-mcmbranosus, vol. I. 
Simula] vessel-, vol. II. 
Seininh ejaculator, vol. I. 
IScmU:-piiialis colli, 

Seiiii-u:ndin09U3, 

Senses, Organs of tlic, vol. II. 

Septum cerebri, vel fall, 



■■■— ■ - ccrebclli, 










■ lucidum, 










, peoia, 










Serratus maguus, 


vol. I. 








- . . . i . posticus 


ni'iiid!', 


















Sesamoidca, ossa, 










Seventh pair of m 


3TTCB, vol. III. 






shoulder-blade, v 


ol.I. 








Sinus venosus of the heart 


, vol. II 






venosi of thi 


i spinal i 




vol. 


m! 


Sinuses of the dui 


abater, 


f vol'. 
1 vol. 


a. 

in. 





Sixth pair of nerves, or abducentes, 

Skarf-skin, vol. II. 

Skeleton, different kinds, and division of ; 

, principal differences between th 

and female, 
Skin, vol. II. 
Skull, vol. I. 

Soleus, - - 
Spermatic artery and vein, vol. III. 
i— cord, -vol. II. 

Sphenoid .bnu.es, [™; ; [i . " 

aidal cornua, vol. I. 



— labiorum, 

vesica:,' vol. II. 

Spinal Marrow, of the, vol. III. 

nerves, origin of the, 

Spinalis dorsi, vol. I. 

Spine, 

Spiral nerve, voL III. 

Splanchnic us, nervus, 

Spleen, vol. II. 

, lymphatics of the, vol. III. 

Splenic ari""j'. 



Splenius, vol. I. - 

Spongiosa, ossa, 

Spongiosum corpus urethra, vol. II. 

Stapedius, 

Sterno-cleido-mastoideus, vol. I. 
co stalis, 
humeral is, 
— — — hyoideua, 

pubialis, 

■ thyroideus, 

Sternum, 
Stomach, vol. II. 

, absorbents of the, vol. III. 

, blood-vessels of the, vol. II. 






— ph ary ngeus, 
Subclavian artery, vol. III. 
Siibclaviu:i, vol. 1. 
Sublingual gland, vol. II. 

artery, vol. III. 

Submaxillary gland, vol. II, 
Submental artery, vol. III. 



Sub-occipital nerves, 
^- pub i o-c o c cy geu s, 

■ ■ — — - f emoralis, 

■ pretibialis, 

■ ■ — trochanteriu 



s externus, _ 130 

- " — intemus, . 131 

Subscapulars, vol. I. J24 

Sub-scapulo-trochineus, - . 124 

Superciha, vol. II. . . 34, 

Supercilii cormgator, vol. I. 104, 

Superio r aims, - . . i 05 

1 '■ cava, vol. 111. g 

Superior Extremity, aponeurosis of the, vol. I. 124 

, blood-vessels of the, vol. III. 

28.31 
-^—- ^.— — , bones of the, vol. I. 64 

, ligaments of the, - 178 

, lymphatics of the, vol. III. 89 

— 1 9 muscles of the, vol. I. 123 

s of the, vol. in. 145 



Tentorium cerebelli, vol. II. 
Teres J ™?J£ l vol. I. 
Testes, vol, II. 

, blood-vessels of the, vol. III. 

, lymphatics of the, 

, nerves of the, 

cerebri, vol. II. 

Testis ra us cuius, 

Tlialami nervorum opticoruin, 

Thigh-bone, vol. I. 






3 oculorum, vol. III. 121 






Super-maxillo-labialis 






T major, } 

J medius, [■ 

rius magi 



vol. I. 



Supinator radii £ J^ _ 

Supra-orbitar artery, vol. III. 

Supra-spinatus, vol. I. 

Sutures, 

Sympathetic nerve, vol. III. 

Synovial organs, vol. I. 



Taenia hippocampi, vol. II. 

'I semicircularis of Holler, 

Tarsea, arteria, vol. III. 

Tarso-sub-phalaugeus minimi digiti, vol. I. 

- pollicis, 

Tarsus, bones of the, 

— -.- of the eye-lids, vol. II. 

**» -{l!i. ■ . ' - 

Tela choroidea, 
Temporal artery, vol. III. 

Temporalis, vol. I. 

Temporo-roaxillaris, - ■ 

Temporum, ossa, 
Tensor tympani, vol. II, 
— ■ vagina: femoris, vol. I. 

Vol. III. ' 



105 



vol. II. 
vol. III. 
Thoraco-facialis, vol. I. - - 

Thorax, of the, vol. II. 

, blood-vessels within the, vol. III. 

, bones of the, vol. I. 

, muscles situated upon the anterior f 

the, 
-, nerves within the, vol. III. 
Throat, of the, vol. II. 
Thyro-arytenoideus, vol. I. 

U5 epiglottideus, - - 

30 hyoideus, 

23 Thyroid cartilage, vol. II. 

23 gland, 

ep Thyroidea, arteria, superior, vol. III. 



Tibialis anticus, vol. I. 
Tibio-calcaneus, 



Tomcntum cerebri, vol. II. 
Tongue, of the, 

, artery of the, vol. III. 

, lymphatics of the, 



Trachelo-mastoideus, vol. 1. 
sub-occipi talis } m jn i-* \ 

Tractus optici, vol. II. 




Pag. 



59 Valves of the heart and arteries, vol. II.- 

59 Heart. 

113 ValvulacoK, 

122 semilunaris oculi, 

136 Vasa. brevia, vol. III. 

115 efferentia testis, vol. II. 

of the absorbents, vol. III. 



121 



L==ti 



Fthe, vol. ILL 
119 Velum Vieussenii, vol. II. 
68 Vena Cava, general cours< 



Triceps adductor femoris, 

■ extensor cubiti, 
Tricuspid valve, vol. II. 
Trifemoro-rotuleus, 
Trochlearis, 

Trunk, boueB of the, vol. I. 

■ - , muscles situated on 



119 



Vcr 



i magna ipsius penis, < 
. porta, 



. vel' 

■ ■ ■ choroides, 

■ sclerotica, 

■ . ■ — — vaginalis, 

Turbinata inferiors, ossa, vol. I. 
Tyinpani chorda, vol. II. 

laxator, 

■ — membrana, 
Tympanum, 



Vagina, 

Vagina sphincter, vol. I. 
Vaginal artery, vol. III. 
Valves of the absorbents, 
— of the veins, 



125 Ventricles of the brain, vol. II. 

110 of the heart, 

132 of the larynx, 

41 Vermiform appendix of the caecum, 

45 - — . appendages of the cerebellum, 

f Vertebra;, true, vol. I. 

119 , false, 

17 Vertebral «*«««», ™' UI. — 

lo" Vesica urinaria, vol. II. 

109 Vesicalis una, arteria, vol. III. 

61 Vesicul* fellia, vol. II. 

171 Vesiculse seminales, 

35 Vestible of the labyrinth, 

37 ■ ■ - ~ of the pudendum, 

160 Viscera, of the, 

12 Vitreous humour, 

39 Ulna, vol. I. 

37 Ulnar artery, vol. III. 



36 



o- Ulnaris . 
65 Umbilical t 



vol. I. 



1 cord, vol. II. 
- artery, vol- III. 
60 Ujiciforme, os, vol. I. 
CO Unguis, ossa, 
Voice, vol, II. 
Volar arches, vol. III. 
Vomer, vol. I. 
^Vorticose veins, vol. III. 
171 Ureters, vol. II. 
116 Urethra, 
56 Urethra trans versalis, vol. I. 
83 Urinae accelerator, 
5 Urine and generation, organs 



e and unimpregnated parts of geueratio 

female, 
RDS, of the, vol. II. 
— , appendages of the, 
, gravid, of the. 



INDEX. 

Pag. 
the Z. 

170 

170 Zonula ciliaris, vol. II. 

jg> Zygomatic, j ™|j£ } vol. I. 

Si Zygomato-auricularis, 

110 Zygomato-labialis I ma J° r ' 1 
Ja (_ minor, J